Browsing by Subject "Bovine"

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  • Trevisan, Chiara; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Laranjo-Gonzalez, Minerva; Dermauw, Veronique; Wang, Ziqi; Kaerssin, Age; Cvetkovikj, Aleksandar; Winkler, Andrea S.; Abraham, Annette; Bobic, Branko; Lassen, Brian; Cretu, Carmen Michaela; Vasile, Cozma; Arvanitis, Dimitris; Deksne, Gunita; Boro, Ilievski; Kucsera, Istvan; Karamon, Jacek; Stefanovska, Jovana; Koudela, Bretislav; Pavlova, Maja Jurhar; Varady, Marian; Pavlak, Marina; Sarkunas, Mindaugas; Kaminski, Miriam; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica; Jokelainen, Pikka; Jan, Dagny Stojcevic; Schmidt, Veronika; Dakic, Zorica; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht (2018)
    Background: Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are food-borne parasites of global importance. In eastern Europe only fragmented information is available on the epidemiology of these zoonotic parasites in humans and animal populations. In particular for T. solium, on-going transmission is suspected. The aim of this systematic review was to collect the available data and describe the current knowledge on the epidemiology of T. solium and T. saginata in eastern Europe. Methods: Literature published in international databases from 1990 to 2017 was systematically reviewed. Furthermore, local sources and unpublished data from national databases were retrieved from local eastern European experts. The study area included 22 countries. Results: Researchers from 18 out of the 22 countries provided data from local and unpublished sources, while no contacts could be established with researchers from Belarus, Kosovo, Malta and Ukraine. Taeniosis and human cysticercosis cases were reported in 14 and 15 out of the 22 countries, respectively. Estonia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia, and Slovakia reported cases of porcine cysticercosis. Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, and Ukraine reported bovine cysticercosis. Conclusions: There is indication that taeniosis and cysticercosis are present across eastern Europe but information on the occurrence of T. solium and T. saginata across the region remains incomplete. Available data are scarce and species identification is in most cases absent. Given the public health impact of T. solium and the potential economic and trade implications due to T. saginata, notification of taeniosis and human cysticercosis should be implemented and surveillance and notification systems in animals should be improved.
  • Trevisan, Chiara; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Laranjo-González, Minerva; Dermauw, Veronique; Wang, Ziqi; Kärssin, Age; Cvetkovikj, Aleksandar; Winkler, Andrea S; Abraham, Annette; Bobić, Branko; Lassen, Brian; Cretu, Carmen M; Vasile, Cozma; Arvanitis, Dimitris; Deksne, Gunita; Boro, Ilievski; Kucsera, István; Karamon, Jacek; Stefanovska, Jovana; Koudela, Břetislav; Pavlova, Maja J; Varady, Marian; Pavlak, Marina; Šarkūnas, Mindaugas; Kaminski, Miriam; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica; Jokelainen, Pikka; Jan, Dagny S; Schmidt, Veronika; Dakić, Zorica; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are food-borne parasites of global importance. In eastern Europe only fragmented information is available on the epidemiology of these zoonotic parasites in humans and animal populations. In particular for T. solium, on-going transmission is suspected. The aim of this systematic review was to collect the available data and describe the current knowledge on the epidemiology of T. solium and T. saginata in eastern Europe. Methods Literature published in international databases from 1990 to 2017 was systematically reviewed. Furthermore, local sources and unpublished data from national databases were retrieved from local eastern European experts. The study area included 22 countries. Results Researchers from 18 out of the 22 countries provided data from local and unpublished sources, while no contacts could be established with researchers from Belarus, Kosovo, Malta and Ukraine. Taeniosis and human cysticercosis cases were reported in 14 and 15 out of the 22 countries, respectively. Estonia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia, and Slovakia reported cases of porcine cysticercosis. Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, and Ukraine reported bovine cysticercosis. Conclusions There is indication that taeniosis and cysticercosis are present across eastern Europe but information on the occurrence of T. solium and T. saginata across the region remains incomplete. Available data are scarce and species identification is in most cases absent. Given the public health impact of T. solium and the potential economic and trade implications due to T. saginata, notification of taeniosis and human cysticercosis should be implemented and surveillance and notification systems in animals should be improved.
  • Venhoranta, Heli; Pausch, Hubert; Flisikowski, Krzysztof; Wurmser, Christine; Taponen, Juhani; Rautala, Helena; Kind, Alexander; Schnieke, Angelika; Fries, Ruedi; Lohi, Hannes; Andersson, Magnus (2014)
  • Dissanayake, Keerthie; Nõmm, Monika; Lättekivi, Freddy; Ressaissi, Yosra; Godakumara, Kasun; Lavrits, Arina; Midekessa, Getnet; Viil, Janeli; Bæk, Rikke; Jørgensen, Malene Møller; Bhattacharjee, Sourav; Andronowska, Aneta; Salumets, Andres; Jaakma, Ülle; Fazeli, Alireza (2020)
    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound biological nanoparticles (NPs) and have gained wide attention as potential biomarkers. We aimed to isolate and characterize EVs from media conditioned by individually cultured preimplantation bovine embryos and to assess their relationship with embryo quality. Presumptive zygotes were cultured individually in 60 μl droplets of culture media, and 50 μl of media were collected from the droplets either on day 2, 5 or 8 post-fertilization. After sampling, the embryo cultures were continued in the remaining media until day 8, and the embryo development was evaluated at day 2 (cleavage), day 5 (morula stage) and day 8 (blastocyst stage). EVs were isolated using qEVsingle® columns and characterized. Based on EV Array, EVs isolated from embryo conditioned media were strongly positive for EV-markers CD9 and CD81 and weakly positive for CD63 and Alix among others. They had a cup-like shape typical to EVs as analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and spherical shape in scanning electron microscopy, and hence regarded as EVs. However, the NPs isolated from control media were negative for EV markers. Based on nanoparticle tracking analysis, at day 2, the mean concentration of EVs isolated from media conditioned by embryos that degenerated after cleaving (8.25 × 108/ml) was higher compared to that of embryos that prospectively developed to blastocysts (5.86 × 108/ml, p 
  • Gindonis, Gindonis.; Taponen, S.; Myllyniemi, A.-L.; Pyörälä, S.; Nykäsenoja, S.; Salmenlinna, S.; Lindholm, L.; Rantala, M. (2013)
    Background: Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are increasingly being isolated in bovine mastitis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the occurrence of MRS in Finnish mastitis milk samples and characterize the MRS isolates using molecular methods. Results: Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was a rare finding in bovine mastitis in Finland. Only two out of 135 (1.5%) S. aureus isolates were positive for mec genes. One of these carried mecA and was of spa type t172, SCCmec type IV and ST375, and the other harboured mecC, being spa type t3256, and ST130. MRSA ST375 is common among human MRSA isolates in Finland, but this is the first report in the country of bovine mecC MRSA. In coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) originating from bovine mastitis, methicillin resistance was more common. In the two CoNS collections studied, 5.2% (17/324) and 1.8% (2/110) of the isolates were mecA positive. Eighteen of these were methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE), which were divided into 6 separate PFGE clusters. One pulsotype was detected in different parts of the country, indicating clonal spread. Most MRSE (13/18) were of SCCmec type IV, one was of type V and four were non-typeable. Comparison with a human staphylococcal database indicated that bovine MRSE strains were not closely related to human MRSE isolates. Conclusions: The occurrence of MRS, especially MRSA, in bovine mastitis in Finland was low. Most methicillinresistant bovine CoNS are MRSE, and we found evidence of a bovine MRSE strain that may spread clonally. This is the first report of a Finnish bovine isolate of MRSAmecC ST130. The study provides a baseline for further MRS monitoring.
  • Hiitiö, Heidi; Vakkamäki, Johanna; Simojoki, Heli; Autio, Tiina; Junnila, Jouni; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Pyörälä, Satu (2017)
    Background: The dairy industry has undergone substantial structural changes as intensive farming has developed during recent decades. Mastitis continues to be the most common production disease of dairy cows. Nationwide surveys of mastitis prevalence are useful in monitoring udder health of dairy herds and to study the impact of structural changes on the dairy industry. This survey on bovine subclinical mastitis was the first based on cow composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) data from the Finnish national health monitoring and milk recording database. A cow with composite milk SCC = 200,000 cells/ml in at least one of the four test milkings during the year was considered to have subclinical mastitis and a cow with composite milk SCC = 200,000 cells/ml in three or in all four test milkings during the year to have chronic subclinical mastitis. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and chronic subclinical mastitis in Finland in 1991, 2001 and 2010 and to investigate cow and herd factors associated with elevated SCC. Results: Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades from 22.3% (1991) and 20.1% (2001) to 19.0% (2010). Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis was 20.4% in 1991, 15.5% in 2001 and 16.1% in 2010. The most significant cow and herd factors associated with subclinical mastitis or high milk SCC were increasing parity, Holstein breed, free- stalls with an automatic milking system and organic production. Milk SCC were highest from July to September. Main factors associated with chronic mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed. Conclusions: Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades, the greatest change taking place during the first decade of the study. Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis significantly decreased from 1991. The most significant factors associated with both types of mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed, and for subclinical mastitis also free-stalls with automatic milking. National surveys on mastitis prevalence should be carried out at regular intervals to monitor udder health of dairy cows and to study the impact of the ongoing structural changes in the dairy industry to enable interventions related to udder health to be made when needed.
  • Hiitiö, Heidi; Vakkamäki, Johanna; Simojoki, Heli; Autio, Tiina; Junnila, Jouni; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Pyörälä, Satu (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background The dairy industry has undergone substantial structural changes as intensive farming has developed during recent decades. Mastitis continues to be the most common production disease of dairy cows. Nationwide surveys of mastitis prevalence are useful in monitoring udder health of dairy herds and to study the impact of structural changes on the dairy industry. This survey on bovine subclinical mastitis was the first based on cow composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) data from the Finnish national health monitoring and milk recording database. A cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in at least one of the four test milkings during the year was considered to have subclinical mastitis and a cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in three or in all four test milkings during the year to have chronic subclinical mastitis. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and chronic subclinical mastitis in Finland in 1991, 2001 and 2010 and to investigate cow and herd factors associated with elevated SCC. Results Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades from 22.3% (1991) and 20.1% (2001) to 19.0% (2010). Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis was 20.4% in 1991, 15.5% in 2001 and 16.1% in 2010. The most significant cow and herd factors associated with subclinical mastitis or high milk SCC were increasing parity, Holstein breed, free-stalls with an automatic milking system and organic production. Milk SCC were highest from July to September. Main factors associated with chronic mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed. Conclusions Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades, the greatest change taking place during the first decade of the study. Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis significantly decreased from 1991. The most significant factors associated with both types of mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed, and for subclinical mastitis also free-stalls with automatic milking. National surveys on mastitis prevalence should be carried out at regular intervals to monitor udder health of dairy cows and to study the impact of the ongoing structural changes in the dairy industry to enable interventions related to udder health to be made when needed.
  • Ramsay, Eva; Hagström, Marja; Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Boman, Susanna; Toropainen, Elisa; del Amo, Eva M.; Kidron, Heidi; Urtti, Arto; Ruponen, Marika (2019)
    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a major part of blood-retinal barrier that affects drug elimination from the vitreous to the blood and drug distribution from blood circulation into the eye. Even though drug clearance from the vitreous has been well studied, the role of RPE in the process has not been quantified. The aim of this work was to study the role of RPE clearance (CLRpE) as part of drug elimination from the vitreous and ocular drug distribution from the systemic blood circulation. We determined the bidirectional permeability of eight small molecular weight drugs and bevacizumab antibody across isolated bovine RPE-choroid. Permeability of small molecules was 10(-6) -10(-5)cm/s showing 13-15 fold range of outward and inward permeation, while permeability of bevacizumab was lower by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Most small molecular weight drugs showed comparable outward (vitreous-to-choroid) and inward (choroid-to-vitreous) permeability across the RPEchoroid, except ciprofloxacin and ketorolac that had an over 6 and 14-fold higher outward than inward permeability, respectively, possibly indicating active transport, Six of seven tested small molecular weight drugs had outward CLRPE values that were comparable with their intravitreal clearance (CLIvr) values (0.84-2.6 fold difference). On the contrary, bevacizumab had an outward CLRPE that was only 3.5% of the CLIvt, proving that its main route of elimination (after intravitreal injection) is not RPE permeation. Experimental values were used in pharmacokinetic simulations to assess the role of the RPE in drug transfer from the systemic blood circulation to the vitreous (CLBv). We conclude that for small molecular weight drugs the RPE is an important route in drug transfer between the vitreal cavity and blood, whereas it effectively hinders the movement of bevacizumab from the vitreous to the systemic circulation.
  • Taponen, Suvi; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Pohjanvirta, Tarja; Pitkälä, Anna; Pyörälä, Satu (2016)
    Background: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most common bovine mastitis causing bacteria in many countries. It is known that resistance for antimicrobials is in general more common in CoNS than in Staphylococcus aureus but little is known about the antimicrobial resistance of specific CoNS species. In this study, 400 CoNS isolates from bovine mastitic milk samples were identified to species level using ribotyping and MALDI-TOF MS, and their antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using a commercially available microdilution system. The results were interpreted according to the epidemiological cut-off values by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing. Results: The most common CoNS species were S. simulans, S. epidermidis, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. Penicillin resistance was the most common type of antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most resistant among the four major species. Almost one-third of our S. epidermidis isolates were resistant to >2 antimicrobials and close to 7 % were multidrug resistant. The majority of S. epidermidis isolates were resistant to benzylpenicillin. On the contrary, only few S. simulans isolates were penicillin-resistant. Phenotypic oxacillin resistance was found in all four main species, and 34 % of the isolates were oxacillin resistant. However, only 21 isolates (5 %) were positive for the mecA gene. Of these, 20 were S. epidermidis and one S. sciuri. mecC positive isolates were not found. Conclusion: Staphylococcus epidermidis differed from the three other major CoNS species as resistance to the tested antimicrobials was common, several isolates were multidrug resistant, and 19 % of the isolates carried the mecA gene encoding methicillin resistance.
  • Taponen, Suvi; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Pohjanvirta, Tarja; Pitkälä, Anna; Pyörälä, Satu (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Background: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most common bovine mastitis causing bacteria in many countries. It is known that resistance for antimicrobials is in general more common in CoNS than in Staphylococcus aureus but little is known about the antimicrobial resistance of specific CoNS species. In this study, 400 CoNS isolates from bovine mastitic milk samples were identified to species level using ribotyping and MALDI-TOF MS, and their antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using a commercially available microdilution system. The results were interpreted according to the epidemiological cut-off values by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing. Results: The most common CoNS species were S. simulans, S. epidermidis, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. Penicillin resistance was the most common type of antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most resistant among the four major species. Almost one-third of our S. epidermidis isolates were resistant to >2 antimicrobials and close to 7 % were multidrug resistant. The majority of S. epidermidis isolates were resistant to benzylpenicillin. On the contrary, only few S. simulans isolates were penicillin-resistant. Phenotypic oxacillin resistance was found in all four main species, and 34 % of the isolates were oxacillin resistant. However, only 21 isolates (5 %) were positive for the mecA gene. Of these, 20 were S. epidermidis and one S. sciuri. mecC positive isolates were not found. Conclusion: Staphylococcus epidermidis differed from the three other major CoNS species as resistance to the tested antimicrobials was common, several isolates were multidrug resistant, and 19 % of the isolates carried the mecA gene encoding methicillin resistance.