Browsing by Subject "Bradykinin"

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  • Siltari, Aino; Korpela, R.; Vapaatalo, H. (2016)
    Bradykinin exerts its vascular actions via two types of receptors, the non-constitutively expressed bradykinin receptor type 1 (BR1) and the constitutive type 2 receptor (BR2). Bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation is age-dependent, a phenomenon related to the varying amounts of BR1 and BR2 in the vasculature. Isoleucine-proline-proline (Ile-Pro-Pro), a bioactive tripeptide, lowers elevated blood pressure and improves impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in hypertensive rats. It inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme 1 (ACE1). Other mechanisms of action have also been postulated. The aims of the study were to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the age-dependency of bradykinin-induced vasodilatation such as the roles of the two bradykinin receptors, themas-receptor and synergism with Ile-Pro-Pro. The vascular response studies were conducted using mesenteric artery and aorta rings from normotensive 6 wk. (young) and 22 wk. (old) Wistar rats. Cumulative dosing of acetylcholine, bradykinin and angiotensin(1-7) (Ang(1-7))were tested in phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction with or without 10 min pre-incubation with antagonists against BR1-, BR2- or mas-receptors,Ang(1-7) or ACE1-inhibitors captopril and Ile-Pro-Pro. The bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation in vitro was age-dependent and it was improved by pre incubation with Ile-Pro-Pro, especially in old rats with endothelial dysfunction. The mas-receptor antagonist, D-Pro7-Ang(1-7) abolished bradykinin-induced relaxation totally. Interestingly, BR1 and BR2 antagonists only slightly reduced bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation, as an evidence for the involvement of other mechanisms in addition to receptor activation. In conclusion, bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation was age -dependent and He-Pro-Pro improved it. Mas receptor antagonist abolished relaxation while bradykinin receptor antagonist only slightly reduced it, suggesting that bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation is regulated also by other mechanisms than the classical BR1/BR2 pathway. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc: All rights reserved.
  • Lindström, Mikael; Valkonen, Miia; Tohmola, Niina; Renkonen, Risto; Strandin, Tomas; Vaheri, Antti; Itkonen, Outi (2019)
    Background: Bradykinin is an important mediator of inflammation and vascular permeability and could have an important role in the development of septic shock. Measurement of bradykinin by immunological methods may suffer from interference and lack of specificity. We developed and validated a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry assay (LC-MS/MS) for plasma bradykinin. Methods: We used plasma samples from healthy volunteers (n = 19) and patients with septic shock (n = 47). Stable isotope bradykinin internal standard was added to samples before solid-phase extraction and quantification by LC-MS/MS. Stability of bradykinin was studied for 12 months. Results: Our assay has good sensitivity (0.1 nmol/l) and a wide linear range (0.1-1000 nmol/1). Bradykinin added to plasma was stable for 12 months at -20 degrees C when a mixture of protease inhibitors was added at sampling but degraded during repeated freezing and thawing. Bradykinin concentration in plasma from septic shock patients (<0.1-0.6 nmol/l) did not change significantly during shock and recovery but differed slightly from that in healthy individuals (0.5-1.1 nmol/1). Conclusions: Our bradykinin assay was successfully used to determine bradykinin concentrations in plasma samples. Intensive care unit patients with septic shock had low concentrations of plasma bradykinin during both shock and recovery phases.