Browsing by Subject "Brain structure"

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  • Zhang, Christine R.; Kurniawan, Nyoman D.; Yamada, Lisa; Fleming, Whitney; Kaminen-Ahola, Nina; Ahola, Arttu; Galloway, Graham; Chong, Suyinn (2019)
    We examined whether an early-life event ethanol exposure in the initial stages of pregnancy affected offspring brain structure, energy metabolism, and body composition in later life. Consumption of 10% (v/v) ethanol by inbred C57BL/6J female mice from 0.5 to 8.5 days post coitum was used to model alcohol exposure during the first 3-4 weeks of gestation in humans, when pregnancy is not typically recognized. At adolescence (postnatal day [P] 28) and adulthood (P64), the brains of male offspring were scanned ex vivo using ultra-high field (16.4 T) magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Energy metabolism and body composition were measured in adulthood by indirect calorimetry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively. Ethanol exposure had no substantial impact on white matter organization in the anterior commissure, corpus callosum, hippocampal commissure, internal capsule, optic tract, or thalamus. Whole brain volume and the volumes of the neocortex, cerebellum, and caudate putamen were also unaffected. Subtle, but non-significant, effects were observed on the hippocampus and the hypothalamus in adult ethanol-exposed male offspring. Ethanol exposure was additionally associated with a trend toward decreased oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and reduced daily energy expenditure, as well as significantly increased adiposity, albeit with normal body weight and food intake, in adult male offspring. In summary, ethanol exposure restricted to early gestation had subtle long-term effects on the structure of specific brain regions in male offspring. The sensitivity of the hippocampus to ethanol-induced damage is reminiscent of that reported by other studies despite differences in the level, timing, and duration of exposure and likely contributes to the cognitive impairment that characteristically results from prenatal ethanol exposure. The hypothalamus plays an important role in regulating metabolism and energy homeostasis. Our finding of altered daily energy expenditure and adiposity in adult ethanol-exposed males is consistent with the idea that central nervous system abnormalities also underpin some of the metabolic phenotypes associated with ethanol exposure in pregnancy. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Hautasaari, Pekka; Savic, Andrej M.; Loberg, Otto; Niskanen, Eini; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M.; Tarkka, Ina M. (2017)
    Associations between long-term physical activity and cortical function and brain structure are poorly known. Our aim was to assess whether brain functional and/or structural modulation associated with long-term physical activity is detectable using a discordant monozygotic male twin pair design. Nine monozygotic male twin pairs were carefully selected for an intrapair difference in their leisure-time physical activity of at least three years duration (mean age 34 +/- 1 years). We registered somatosensory mismatch response (SMMR) in EEG to electrical stimulation of fingers and whole brain MR images. We obtained exercise history and measured physical fitness and body composition. Equivalent electrical dipole sources of SMMR as well as gray matter (GM) voxel counts in regions of interest indicated by source analysis were evaluated. SMMR dipolar source strengths differed between active and inactive twins within twin pairs in postcentral gyrus, medial frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus and in anterior cingulate (AC) GM voxel counts differed similarly. Compared to active twins, their inactive twin brothers showed greater dipole strengths in short periods of the deviant-elicited SMMR and larger AC GM voxel counts. Stronger activation in early unattended cortical processing of the deviant sensory signals in inactive co-twins may imply less effective gating of somatosensory information in inactive twins compared to their active brothers. Present findings indicate that already in 30's long-term physical activity pattern is linked with specific brain indices, both in functional and structural domains.
  • Saarinen, Aino I. L.; Huhtaniska, Sanna; Pudas, Juho; Björnholm, Lassi; Jukuri, Tuomas; Tohka, Jussi; Granö, Niklas; Barnett, Jennifer H.; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Veijola, Juha; Hintsanen, Mirka; Lieslehto, Johannes (2020)
    Objective: We conducted a multimodal coordinate-based meta-analysis (CBMA) to investigate structural and functional brain alterations in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (FRs). Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search from electronic databases to find studies that examined differences between FRs and healthy controls using whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A CBMA of 30 fMRI (754 FRs; 959 controls) and 11 VBM (885 FRs; 775 controls) datasets were conducted using the anisotropic effect-size version of signed differential mapping. Further, we conducted separate meta-analyses about functional alterations in different cognitive tasks: social cognition, executive functioning, working memory, and inhibitory control. Results: FRs showed higher fMRI activation in the right frontal gyrus during cognitive tasks than healthy controls. In VBM studies, there were no differences in gray matter density between FRs and healthy controls. Furthermore, multi-modal meta-analysis obtained no differences between FRs and healthy controls. By utilizing the BrainMap database, we showed that the brain region which showed functional alterations in FRs (i) overlapped only slightly with the brain regions that were affected in the meta-analysis of schizophrenia patients and (ii) correlated positively with the brain regions that exhibited increased activity during cognitive tasks in healthy individuals. Conclusions: Based on this meta-analysis, FRs may exhibit only minor functional alterations in the brain during cognitive tasks, and the alterations are much more restricted and only slightly overlapping with the regions that are affected in schizophrenia patients. The familial risk did not relate to structural alterations in the gray matter. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.