Browsing by Subject "Brazil"

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  • Hartikainen, Elina Inkeri (2019)
    ABSTRACT Latin American state efforts to recognize ethnically and racially marked populations have focused on knowledge and expertise. This article argues that this form of state recognition does not only call on subaltern groups to present themselves in a frame of expertise. It also pushes such groups to position themselves and their social and political struggles in a matrix based on expertise and knowledge. In the context of early 2000s Brazil, the drive to recognition led activists from the Afro-Brazilian religion Candomblé to reimagine the religion's practitioners? long-term engagements with scholars and scholarly depictions of the religion as a form of epistemological exploitation that had resulted in public misrecognition of the true source of knowledge on the religion: Candomblé practitioners. To remedy this situation, the activists called on Candomblé practitioners to appropriate the ?academic's tools,? the modes of representation by which scholarly expertise and knowledge were performed and recognized by the general public and state officials. This strategy transformed religious structures of expertise and knowledge in ways that established a new, politically efficacious epistemological grounding for Candomblé practitioners? calls for recognition. But it also further marginalized temples with limited connections or access to scholars and higher education. [politics of recognition, politics of expertise, state recognition, Candomblé religion, Brazil]
  • Delgado, Tatiana (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    This study explores image formation, country branding and public diplomacy. It constructs theoretical connections between images, stereotypes and country images and proposes the combined concept of stereotyped images. The aim of this study is to explore what images of Finland are present in Brazil, how these images have been formed and the purposes behind these. Using qualitative content analysis it was investigated the first images of Finland formed in Brazil through the formation of a Finnish colony in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study proceeds to analyze the community transformation to a themed tourist town and the importance of the village to the self-identity of the immigrants and descendants. Through the study of the community it is possible to identify the origins of the earlier Finnish stereotypes in the country and it serves as a point of departure for branding activities. In the content analysis the material present in the websites from the agencies Team Finland and This is Finland which had as its main topic Latin America and/or Brazil where analyzed. Through the material it was possible to establish the country branding activities implemented in Brazil, the purpose of the actions and target groups. Meetings with members of the Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs which had been or still were stationed in Brazil were conducted. These meetings served as background information and complemented the material found on both agencies websites. This showed that all together Finland is presented to the Brazilian elite and the topics highlighted are the ones which are already admired by the target group – education, technology and good governance. The study explores the counter images of Finland existent in Brazil and how these reach different social groups and have different intentions behind them. On one hand there is the stereotype of the cold and backward country, on the other there is the super model which presents solutions to the Brazilian society. The analysis of country branding allows one to explore the increasingly role of image as a tool of public diplomacy.
  • Hinke Dobrochinski Candido, Helena (2020)
    This paper investigates datafication in schools through an analysis of the enactments of quality assurance and evaluation (QAE) policies in Brazil. In doing so, I question how data permeates and changes school environments, school actors’ conduct and their imaginaries. QAE policies encompass largescale assessments, indicators, rankings and other steering mechanisms, but importantly connect data to quality in education. Here, I analyse the discourses of school actors (principals, coordinators, supervisors, teachers, students and parents) from three Brazilian public schools collected through semi-structured interviews (n = 28). Data manifests in those schools as a technology of government. Schools enact QAE policies in distinct ways, incorporating the idea of governmentality, but also proposing alternative patterns of action.
  • Paupitz, Johanna (2008)
    This is a qualitative research. The purpose of this study is to assess the influence of international development policies in the Third World using Brazilian water resources management policies as an example. The focus of the study is the Guarapiranga water basin and reservoir located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. The research demonstrates how international development agencies and ideologies influence the development of Brazilian water resources management. The objective is to see how local experts view development policies in water resources management and their impact in the region. The research reflects the criticism given in the general literature on contemporary development policies. The results demonstrate the problems associated with the Third World city and the interrelationships between environmental, social and economic development. The outcome also questions the government decentralisation and the redemocratisation processes brought by the 1988 Constitution in Brazil. The research also points out the need for further and more elaborate research on the topic. References: Finger, M. and Allrouche, J. 2002 Water Privatisation: Trans-National Corporations and the Re-regulation of the Water Industry. Spon Press, New York. Oman, C. P. and Wignaraja, G. 1991 The Postwar Evolution of Development Thinking. Macmillan in association with the OECD Development Centre, London Alasuutari, P. 1994 Laadullinen Tutkimus, 2nd edition. Vastapaino, Tampere.
  • Freitas, Aline A.; Drumond, Anita; Carvalho, Vanessa S. B.; Reboita, Michelle S.; Silva, Benedito C.; Uvo, Cintia B. (MDPI AG, 2022)
    The São Francisco River Basin (SFRB) is one of the main watersheds in Brazil, standing out for generating energy and consumption, among other ecosystem services. Hence, it is important to identify hydrological drought events and the anomalous climate patterns associated with dry conditions. The Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) for 12 months was used to identify hydrological drought episodes over SFRB 1979 and 2020. For these episodes, the severity, duration, intensity, and peak were obtained, and SPI-1 was applied for the longest and most severe episode to identify months with wet and dry conditions within the rainy season (Nov–Mar). Anomalous atmospheric and oceanic patterns associated with this episode were also analyzed. The results revealed the longest and most severe hydrological drought episode over the basin occurred between 2012 and 2020. The episode over the Upper portion of the basin lasted 103 months. The results showed a deficit of monthly precipitation up to 250 mm in the southeast and northeast regions of the country during the anomalous dry months identified through SPI-1. The dry conditions observed during the rainy season of this episode were associated with an anomalous high-pressure system acting close to the coast of Southeast Brazil, hindering the formation of precipitating systems.
  • Leino, T.; Lodenius, M. (Elsevier Science BV., 1995)
  • Goncalves-Araujo, Rafael; Roettgers, Ruediger; Haraguchi, Lumi; Brandini, Frederico Pereira (Frontiers Media S.A., 2019)
    Frontiers in Marine Science 6: 716
    The South Brazilian Bight (SBB) is a hydrographically dynamic environment with strong seasonality that sustains a diverse planktonic community involved in diverse biogeochemical processes. The inherent optical properties (IOPs; e.g., absorption and scattering coefficients) of optically actives constituents of water (OACs; phytoplankton, non-algal particles–NAP, and colored dissolved organic matter–CDOM) have been widely employed to retrieve information on biogeochemical parameters in the water. In this study conducted in the SBB, a cross-shelf transect was performed for biogeochemistry and hydrographic sampling during a summer expedition. Our research aimed to determine the distribution and amount of the OACs based on their spectral signature, in relation to the distribution of water masses in the region. That allows us to get insights into the biogeochemical processes within each water mass and in the boundaries between them. We observed a strong intrusion of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) over the shelf, mainly driven by the wind action. With that, phytoplankton development was fueled by the input of nutrients, and increased chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations were observed within the shallowest stations. Colored dissolved organic matter did not follow the distribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Both CDOM and DOC presented high values at the low salinity Coastal Water (CW), as an indication of the continental influence over the shelf. However, CDOM was inversely correlated with salinity and lowest values were observed within Tropical Water (TW), whereas DOC values within TW were as high as within CW, indicating an autochthonous DOM source. Additionally, a deep Chl-a maximum (DCM) was noticed in the boundary between the TW and SACW. Along with the DCM, we observed the production of fresh, non-colored DOM attributed to the microbial community. Finally, our results suggest that CDOM is photodegraded at the surface of CW. This is mainly due to the Ekman transport effect over the region that traps CW at the surface, making it longer exposed to solar radiation.
  • Suomela, Jarkko (2018)
    Lähtötilanne 72-vuotias mies oli ollut kolme viikkoa Brasiliassa ja hakeutui pari päivää matkan jälkeen terveyskeskuksen päivystykseen rajun ripuloinnin ja vatsakivun vuoksi. Oireet olivat alkaneet kolme päivää ennen paluumatkaa, ja alkuvaiheessa oli ollut myös oksentelua.
  • Di Gregorio, Monica; Fatorelli, Leandra; Paavola, Jouni; Locatelli, Bruno; Pramova, Emilia; Nurrochmat, Dodik Ridho; May, Peter H.; Brockhaus, Maria; Sari, Intan Maya; Kusumadewi, Sonya Dyah (2019)
    This article proposes an innovative theoretical framework that combines institutional and policy network approaches to study multi-level governance. The framework is used to derive a number of propositions on how cross-level power imbalances shape communication and collaboration across multiple levels of governance. The framework is then applied to examine the nature of cross-level interactions in climate change mitigation and adaptation policy processes in the land use sectors of Brazil and Indonesia. The paper identifies major barriers to cross-level communication and collaboration between national and sub-national levels. These are due to power imbalances across governance levels that reflect broader institutional differences between federal and decentralized systems of government. In addition, powerful communities operating predominantly at the national level hamper cross-level interactions. The analysis also reveals that engagement of national level actors is more extensive in the mitigation and that of local actors in the adaptation policy domain, and specialisation in one of the climate change responses at the national level hampers effective climate policy integration in the land use sector.
  • de Moraes, Pedro L. R.; Sennikov, Alexander N. (2021)
    Cyperus megapotamicus (A. Spreng.) Kunth is a nomenclatural synonym of Rhynchospora megapotamica (A. Spreng.) H. Pfeiff. but was originally misapplied to a species of Cyperus. Contrary to the rules, both species names are in current use in different genera. We here clarify the perpetuated taxonomic and nomenclatural confusion regarding the identity of C. megapotamicus sensu Kunth and related names and conclude that Cyperus jaeggii Boeckeler is the correct name to be adopted. We provide an amended circumscription of this species, with Cyperus mauryi Kuntze and Pycreus nematodes Schrad. ex C. B. Clarke as its newly proposed heterotypic synonyms. Additionally, lectotypes are designated for the names Scirpus megapotamicus A. Spreng., Rhynchospora maculata Maury, Rhynchospora luzuliformis var. elongata Kuntze, Rhynchospora luzuliformis var. subcapitata Kuntze, Cyperus jaeggii, Cyperus mauryi and Pycreus nematodes.
  • Ghinoi, Stefano; Wesz Junior, Valdemar Joao; Piras, Simone (2018)
    The literature on rural development focuses on the socio-economic effects of agricultural support policies; the process of policy design, however, is devoted less attention. Identifying policy coalitions may help provide clarity on the motivations behind a given agricultural support system. Using Discourse Network Analysis, this paper studies the debates preceding the approval of the National Program for Strengthening Family Agriculture (Pronaf) in Brazil in the Nineties. This represented a relevant overturn of the preceding policy framework. Two coalitions that opposed each other have been identified: while large farm business associations favoured measures to enhance productivity, movements comprising of family farmers aimed at introducing credit instruments for small producers. The strong pressure from social movements was key to the adoption of Pronaf. However, findings suggest that the Workers' Party, which found itself in a less conflicting position, played a brokerage role in the negotiation of the final policy package.
  • Pereira, Patricia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The history of homosexuality, bisexuality, and transsexuality had a troubled beginning in Brazilian society and, in media, the existence of the LGBT movement was neglected for several years. Although the presence of LGBT people in media has increased, it is possible to observe that the portrayal of these citizens is still quite problematic. The present study investigates the representation of LGBT people in Brazilian media through the analysis of 109 articles published by the news outlet G1, which is a product of the biggest communications conglomerate in Latin America. The aim of this research was to identify how the representation of LGBT people occurs, and if lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people are portrayed in the same manner. This study was based on queer theory, discussing concepts such as the as binary organization of the society and heteronormativity, mainly reflecting on Judith Butler’s work, and on bisexual and transgender studies, which address the erasure of non-conforming genders in theories and media discourses, drawing from the ideas of Lisa Duggan, Christopher James, and Talia Bettcher, among other authors. Through a thematic analysis of the articles, five themes were identified. The results show that the coverage of LGBT-related topics carried out by G1 is based on heteronormativity and that a clear hierarchy exists when defining who, within the LGBT community, deserves more space in the pages of the news outlet, also displaying a homonormative discourse.
  • Toledo, Ana de Mesquita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Tourism is one of the largest industries in the world, raising billions of euros a year and employing millions of people worldwide. Tourism is also an integral part of the leisure activities in Western Europe in which travelling is commonplace and mainstream, looking for a new vacation spot draws many to seek guidance and inspiration to plan their next vacations. It is here that the reader, coming from the place I will call Origin, will look for the Destination. One of the most mainstream sources of information are the travel segments of periodicals in paper format or online. The intricacies of travel journalism connect both leisure and news with a touch of advertisement. Travel journalism is, as I will show further in this thesis, more connected to literature and adventure than its other counterparts. Travel segments in newspapers are directed at these potential travelers, inspiring them for their next vacation. In the contemporary world in which social media has spread the reach of pictures from all over the globe My research will focus on European travel journalism articles about Brazil. My analysis will be conducted using CDA and postcolonial theory, aided by feminist theory. This research is qualitative. I argue that the world scenario is unbalanced and that contemporary inequalities between countries stem from the not so distant colonial past. My aim is to spot and analyze these intrinsic relationships of power that are imbedded in discourse through the critical reading of travel journalism articles.
  • Camean Ariza, Josemaría (2001)
    The aim of the present research is to analyse one of the main integration processes going on in the world today, namely the Common Market of the Southern Cone (Mercosur). On March 1991, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay signed the Treaty of Asuncion in which they agreed to establish a common market by December 1994. Today, ten years later, Mercosur can be defined as a customs union. The main characteristic of Mercosur integration has been its state-centric nature and its intergovernmental structure. Negotiations and decision-making in Mercosur have taken place mainly among the national executive powers. Within the intergovernmental structure the presidents of the member-states have been the main actors. Decision-making organs are composed of members and representatives of the governments. Other institutions such us the national parliaments, the judiciaries and other organised economic and social sectors are represented in the Mercosur advisory organs, which have played an almost insignificant role in the process. The research deals with two main questions. Why did Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay decided to create Mercosur? And secondly, why have they adopted a strongly intergovernmental structure? The analysis of Mercosur, and the mentioned questions, happen in this research within the theoretical framework of new regionalism. The new regionalist multi-dimensional and state-centric view of integration is of essential importance to understand the target. Mercosur integration is explained as the result of the convergence of the restored democratic regimes and the development of the countries' international relations. The executive-centred decision-making structure is explained as a reflection of the executive-centred domestic political systems and culture, common to the whole region. The current Mercosur structure may not be responding to the demands of the integration. Legal and economic controversies have derived from certain deficit of integration. This situation may call for a reconsideration of the process within the present circumstances. This is the aim of the research, to rethink Mercosur.
  • Kröger, Markus; Nygren, Anja (2020)
    The concepts of resource frontier and commodity frontier are often treated interchangeably. This article suggests the benefits of clarifying these concepts because frontiers remain important analytics for understanding drastic land-use changes and other socio-environmental transformations. Based on long-term field research in different parts of South and Central America, we use frontier concepts as heuristic devices to analyze heterogeneous frontier situations and make broader generalizations. Our synchronic and diachronic analyses of frontier dynamics elucidate different frontier modalities and shifting frontier expansions. The concept of commoditizing resource frontier is introduced to explain recent frontier-makings in the Brazilian Amazonia and Cerrado and in the Nicaraguan Rio San Juan. Although earlier frontier research took a short-sighted time perspective and created conceptualizations based on a single modality of a particular period, our longitudinal analysis shows that drastic changes and complex overlappings are the hallmarks of frontier dynamics.
  • Piras, Simone; Wesz Jr., Valdemar João; Ghinoi, Stefano (2021)
    In the last decades, Brazil has become one of the largest soybean producers and exporters in the world. Although dedicated policies have been implemented since the 1960s, the recent rapid transition towards an agricultural system largely based on soy has had a strong impact on the country’s socio-economic structure—not only in terms of land and labour markets but also on its diverse ecosystems. According to the extant literature, soy has had a beneficial impact on local human development, measured by the human development index (HDI) of the municipalities. However, there is a lack of empirical studies assessing the impact of soy expansion on the single dimensions of the HDI (longevity, education, and income) to disentangle the indirect effects of socio-environmental change while controlling for other local dynamics. To fill this gap, we applied econometric methods to a novel dataset combining municipal-level data on soy production with socio-economic and environmental data for the period 1991–2010. Our findings confirm the positive relation between soy expansion and the HDI at local level, but this relation differs between different HDI dimensions. The marginal benefits of soy expansion are increasing for the income dimension but decreasing for education and longevity. On the other hand, changes in soy productivity (a proxy for agricultural intensification) have a more complex impact on the HDI and its dimensions, but in general its marginal benefits are decreasing over time. Further research could expand the time series once more up-to-date information becomes available.
  • Roa-Fuentes, Camilo A.; Heino, Jani; Cianciaruso, Marcus V.; Ferraz, Silvio; Zeni, Jaquelini O.; Casatti, Lilian (2019)
    Freshwater Biology (2019) 64 (3): 447-460
    A multi‐faceted assessment of diversity is needed to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying biodiversity patterns and to reveal the impacts of land use alterations on β‐diversity. In this study, we analysed stream fish β‐diversity based on taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic facets in an intensively cultivated tropical region. We sampled 43 stream reaches in the northwest of São Paulo State, south‐eastern Brazil. Each sampling site was characterised according to catchment‐scale features, landscape dynamic indicators, local‐scale features, and distance between stream reaches as network distance (a proxy for dispersal processes). As response variables, we considered taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic β‐diversities coupled with a null‐model approach. For each β‐diversity metric, we calculated the mean overall value and tested whether the mean value was different from that expected by chance. To examine variation in β‐diversity for the three facets and determine the relative contributions of predictor variables, we used a distance‐based approach. Taxonomic and functional β‐diversities were higher from the expected value under a null model, suggesting that community assembly of these facets was dominated by deterministic processes. In contrast, phylogenetic β‐diversity was not different from that expected by chance, suggesting that the lineage composition of these assemblages was random. Furthermore, for all three facets, there was a positive environment‐β‐diversity relationship that was determined primarily by local‐scale features, whereas catchment features and landscape dynamic indicators were not important. In addition, none of the β‐diversity facets was correlated with stream network distance, indicating that dispersal processes were not strongly structuring fish assemblages. Our study suggested that although multiple facets of stream fish β‐diversity are ruled mainly by deterministic processes (e.g. species sorting), stochasticity is also important in community assembly. An interesting finding was the mismatch between phylogenetic versus taxonomic and functional β‐diversity. It is likely that the lack of non‐random structure in phylogenetic β‐diversity is due to the variation of phylogenetic signal in some functional traits. Given that landscape dynamic indicators were not correlated with measures of β‐diversity, we suggest that the recent sugarcane expansion in our study area probably has not critically affected stream fish β‐diversity. Also, it is possible that catchment variables presented little variability and did not overwhelm the effect of local environmental variables on β‐diversity. In conclusion, our study suggests that even highly disturbed tropical agroecosystems with a pool of species that is probably decimated, can still display a relatively high β‐diversity determined mainly by species sorting. These findings suggest key environmental features that must be considered in restoration or conservation of β‐diversity in agroecosystems. Specifically, since variation in β‐diversity was explained mainly by local‐scale environmental gradients, conservation schemes would ideally protect enough sites to capture this entire gradient. Overall, the knowledge of multiple facets can foment more effective conservation and restoration actions by providing a more comprehensive view of the structuring factors of assemblages.
  • Karjalainen, Ninni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis examines the political career, agenda and narratives of Marielle Franco, a former city councillor of Rio de Janeiro. Franco ran for political office the first time in the municipal elections of 2016. Her campaign contained the demands of women and sexual minorities, black people and favela residents. With 46,502 votes, she was the fifth most voted-for council member. The councilwoman was assassinated on March 14, 2018, after leaving an event of black feminist activists. Her death was followed by rallies in several Brazilian cities. Many of the core organisers of these mass mobilisations were black women, and their actions ensured media visibility for the case. In the general elections of 2018, three cabinet members of Marielle Franco were elected to the State Legislative Assembly of Rio de Janeiro (Alerj), defending her political legacy. The primary sources of the thesis comprise of speeches, campaign material, interviews and articles of Marielle Franco as well as public hearings, reports and other records of her term which lasted for fifteen months. The data also includes material produced by black women’s movements following the councilwoman’s assassination. The thesis approaches this material through counter-narrative methodology, which aims to integrate marginalised communities’ voices and perspectives into the research agenda. The aim of the research is to contextualise the political career and agenda of Marielle Franco as a ‘black woman from the favela of Maré’. To that end, the research draws from an intersectional theoretical framework, deploying it as an analytical tool. Intersectionality theorises the relationships between socio-cultural categories and identities. This thesis applies the intracategorical approach, entailing an in-depth study of a particular social group. The analysis focuses on low- income black women. Brazilian black women are disadvantaged by multiple sources of oppression: their race, class and gender. They often work in the informal sector and are disproportionately affected by poverty. Race and gender discrimination prevent them from accessing positions of power. In 2016, the year when Marielle Franco was elected, black women comprised of more than 25% of the population, but represented only 5% of all elected councillors. Their exclusion from political institutions, where decisions concerning their lives are taken, render low-income black women vulnerable to governmental neglect and violations of their and their family members’ fundamental human rights. The election of Marielle Franco was considered as a breakthrough in local politics and seen as an opportunity to change oppressive power structures. The analysis reveals that the councilwoman empowered black women and favela residents to participate party politics in multiple ways. Franco brought their voices, bodies and demands into the institutional domain, and her powerful speeches voiced the concerns of black mothers resisting the state violence within their communities. She also asserted solidarity as part of an alternative political practice of black feminists. Besides being a councillor, Franco was also a scholar and a front- line human rights defender. The analysis also found that Franco’s conception of human rights was based on the praxis developed in the Human Rights Commission of Alerj and centered on the black women of the favelas and urban outskirts. The counter-narratives deployed by Franco emphasised the legacy of feminist movements, including their leaders and symbols. She campaigned for recognising and valuing social differences and fought against all forms of discrimination within political institutions. Her politics and narratives continue to inspire young Brazilian women, particularly black women from the favelas and the urban peripheries.
  • Barim, Estela Maria; McLellan, Kátia Cristina Portero; Ribeiro, Rogerio Silicani; de Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf; Lindström, Jaana; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Corrente, José Eduardo; Murta-Nascimento, Cristiane (2020)
    Introduction: The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) is a tool that was initially developed to predict the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. This tool is simple, quick to apply, non-invasive, and low-cost. The aims of this study were to perform a translation and cultural adaptation of the original version of FINDRISC into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess test-retest reliability. Methodology: This work was done following the ISPOR Principles of Good Practice for the Translation and Cultural Adaptation Process for Patient-Reported Outcomes Measures. Once the final Brazilian Portuguese version (FINDRISC-Br) was developed, the reliability assessment was performed using a non-random sample of 83 individuals attending a primary care health center. Each participant was interviewed by trained registered dieticians on two occasions with a mean interval of 14 days. The reliability assessment was performed by analyzing the level of agreement between the test-retest responses of FINDRISC-Br using Cohen’s kappa coefficient and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The steps of ISPOR guidelines were consecutively followed without major problems. Regarding the reliability assessment, the questionnaire as a whole presented adequate reliability (Cohen’s kappa = 0.82, 95%CI 0.72 – 0.92 and ICC = 0.94, 95%CI 0.91 – 0.96). Conclusion: FINDRISC was translated into Brazilian Portuguese and culturally adapted following standard procedures. FINDRISC-Br has thus become available for use and has potential as a screening tool in different Brazilian settings and applications. © 2020 Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva.
  • Ullom, Andrew William (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    This thesis explores representations of Brazil in Argentine print media coverage of the 2014 World Cup. In Argentina, and generally throughout Latin America as a whole, the game of football transcends the boundary of sport and has a significant effect on a societal level. Therefore, what is said within the context of sport can be then analyzed as potentially having significance on a more expansive, profound level. This thesis analyzes statements and portrayals of Brazil made within the context of a sporting competition-the 2014 World Cup- and examines if and how these statements cast Brazil as an inferior Other to Argentina. Theoretically, this thesis uses Edward Said’s Orientalism as a starting point with which to explore how an opposing group can be represented in such a way as to dominate it. Negatively stereotyping and essentializing an opposing group, as outlined by Said in Orientalism is applied to the Latin American context with the help of previous works by Latin American social scientists who have previously decontextualized Said’s work from the Orient and applied it specifically to the case of Argentina and Brazil. With his concept of ‘’banal nationalism’’, Michael Billig describes a type of nationalism which is almost constant and nearly undetectable. This proved highly relevant in relation to Argentine coverage of the World Cup, and also provides a theoretical basis for this thesis. Fieldwork was carried out in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 2014, where ethnographic fieldnotes and print media articles were collected, and semi-structured interviews were conducted. Qualitative content analysis and the application of coding frames to the collected print articles allow for the content of hundreds of articles to be reduced to pertinent reoccurring themes, which are then analyzed in relation to the research questions of this thesis. Within the data several reoccurring trends are found which contribute to the identity of a dominant or superior Argentina and a weak Brazil. Dominant and militaristic language, referred to as ‘’colonizing discourse’’ within this thesis, is employed to describe the interaction Argentine fans have with Brazilians and Brazilian space during the 2014 World Cup. The trend of speaking for the other by defining their mental state and applying negative emotional characteristics to the entire populations of Brazilian cities or even the entire country itself is also found, and it is argued that the assignation of negative emotions or a damaged psyche casts Brazil as weak, and thus, Argentina as strong.