Browsing by Subject "Bryophytes"

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  • Hyvönen, Jaakko (Finnish Botanical Publishing Board, 1989)
    Acta Botanica Fennica
    The genus Pogonatum P. Beauv. is characterized by a mammillose exo- thecium, 32 compound peristome teeth and by the absence of stomata. As so delimited die genus comprises 52 species including those species formerly assigned to Neopogonatum Xu & Xiong, Pseudatrichum Reim., Plagioracelopus Smith Merrill and Racelopus Dozy & Molk. The relationship of Pogonatum to other genera of the Polytrichaceae is evaluated and a cladogram of the genus is presented. Several monophyletic groups within the genus are recognized. The genus is divided into four subgenera. Subg. Alienum Hyvönen includes only Pogonatum volvatum (C. Mull.) Par. Subg. Dendroidea (Schimp.) Hyvönen, comb. nov. consists of three species formerly assigned to the sections Cephalotrichum (C. Miill.) Besch. and Dendroidea. Subg. Catharinella (C. Miill.) Hyvönen, comb. nov. contains 31 species including the nine species formerly accommodated in sect. Racelopus Touw. These species form a monophyletic group but distinction at sectional level is not supported by the cladistic analysis. Subg. Pogonatum comprises 17 species. The taxonomy of all species is revised including 395 specific and infraspecific combinations in the genera Neopogonatum, Plagioracelopus, Pogonatum, Pseudatrichum and Racelopus. 130 new synonyms are presented along with the selection of 13 new lectotypes. Pogonatum norrisii Hyvönen is described as new to science, and short diagnoses of other species are given with notes on phylogeny and ecology. Distribution of all species is illustrated by maps and diagnostic characters by line drawings. Citations of relevant illustrations are given. A key for the genus is presented. Discussion of morphology and anatomy is restricted to those characters used to infer the phylogeny of the genus.
  • Hodgetts, N. G.; Söderström, Lars; Blockeel, T. L.; Caspari, S.; Ignatov, M.S; Konstantinova, Nadezhda A.; Lockhart, N.; Papp, B.; Schröck, C.; Sim-Sim, M.; Bell, D.; Blom, H.; Bruggeman-Nannenga, M. A; Brugues, M; Enroth, Johannes; Garilleti, R.; Flatberg, K. I; Hedenäs, L; Holyoak, D. T; Hugonnot, V; Kariyawasam, I.; Köckinger, H.; Kucera, J.; Lara, F.; Porley, R. D. (2020)
    Introduction. Following on from work on the European bryophyte Red List, the taxonomically and nomenclaturally updated spreadsheets used for that project have been expanded into a new checklist for the bryophytes of Europe. Methods. A steering group of ten European bryologists was convened, and over the course of a year, the spreadsheets were compared with previous European checklists, and all changes noted. Recent literature was searched extensively. A taxonomic system was agreed, and the advice and expertise of many European bryologists sought. Key results. A new European checklist of bryophytes, comprising hornworts, liverworts and mosses, is presented. Fifteen new combinations are proposed. Conclusions. This checklist provides a snapshot of the current European bryophyte flora in 2019. It will already be out-of-date on publication, and further research, particularly molecular work, can be expected to result in many more changes over the next few years.
  • Salemaa, Maija; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Merilä, Päivi; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Manninen, Sirkku (2020)
    Mosses take up nitrogen (N) mainly from precipitation through their surfaces, which makes them competent bioindicators of N deposition. We found positive relationships between the total N concentration (mossN%) of common terrestrial moss species (feather mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens, and a group of Dicranum species) and different forms of N deposition in 11-16 coniferous forests with low N deposition load in Finland. The mosses were collected either inside (Dicranum group) or both inside and outside (feather mosses) the forests. Deposition was monitored in situ as bulk deposition (BD) and stand throughfall (TF) and detected for ammonium (NH4+-N), nitrate (NO3--N), dissolved organic N (DON), and total N (N-tot, kg ha(-1)yr(-1)). N-tot deposition was lower in TF than BD indicating that tree canopies absorbed N from deposition in N limited boreal stands. However, mossN % was higher inside than outside the forests. In regression equations, inorganic N in BD predicted best the mossN% in openings, while DON in TF explained most variation of mossN% in forests. An asymptotic form of mossN% vs. TF N-tot curves in forests and free NH4+-N accumulation in tissues in the southern plots suggested mosses were near the N saturation state already at the N-tot deposition level of 3-5 kg ha(-1) yr(-1). N leachate from ground litterfall apparently also contributed the N supply of mosses. Our study yielded new information on the sensitivity of boreal mosses to low N deposition and their response to different N forms in canopy TF entering moss layer. The equations predicting the N-tot deposition with mossN% showed a good fit both in forest sites and openings, especially in case of P. schreberi. However, the open site mossN% is a preferable predictor of N deposition in monitoring studies to minimize the effect of tree canopies and N leachate from litterfall on the estimates. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Marttinen, Eeva M.; Niemi-Kapee, Juhamatti; Laaka-Lindberg, Sanna; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2020)
    Green roofs play an important role for cities in mediating some problems caused by urbanization. Mosses are ecologically important plants and capable of tolerating harsh conditions, and thus their use for greening building surfaces has become more common. There is only a little information concerning moss-associated microbes, especially those found in green roof environments. Moss-associated microbes might have significant role on the welfare of green roofs as they might induce both beneficial as well as adverse effects on mosses. In this study, the occurrence of fungal populations was studied on green roofs in Finland. A total of 94 samples were collected from nine different green roofs, and 64 fungal isolates and one oomycete were obtained from the brown, necrotic parts of the collected green roof mosses. The most general isolated fungal genus was Trichoderma, comprising 25 different fungal isolates. The second most common genus was Fusarium, with 15 fungal isolates. The third most common genus was Mucor, with nine fungal isolates. Most of the Trichoderma isolates were described as T. harzianum, whereas most of the Fusarium isolates were described as F. acuminatium. In addition, the genera Phoma and Mortierella were frequently present. Fifty-two of 65 isolates caused symptoms in the model plant Physcomitrella patens. The most harmful Trichoderma isolates were described as T. atroviride, T. viride, T. koningiopsis and T. hamatum, all of which caused severe damage to the protonema, stem and leaves. The most harmful Fusarium isolates were F. acuminatium, F. avenaceum and F. tricinctum. The genera Mucor and Mortierella were isolated but they did not cause detectable symptoms in P. patens. These results indicate that many fungal isolates belonging to different genera are able to colonize mosses on green roofs and some of them cause severe damage to the mosses.
  • Flores, Jorge R.; Suárez, Guillermo M.; Hyvönen, Jaakko (2020)
    Morphological data has gained renewed attention and has been shown to be crucial in clarifying the phylogenetic relationship in a wide range of taxa. In the last decades, phylogenetic analyses of sequence-level data have radically modified the systematic schemes within bryophytes (early non-vascular land plants) and have revealed a widespread pattern of conflict with morphology-based classifications. Yet, a comprehensive evaluation of character conflict has not yet been performed in the context of combined matrices. In this study, we evaluate the impact of morphology on bryophyte phylogeny following a total-evidence approach across 10 published matrices. The analysed matrices span a wide range of bryophytes, taxonomic levels, gene sampling and number of morphological characters and taxa. Data conflict was addressed by measuring: (i) the topological congruence between individual partitions, (ii) changes in support values of the combined data relative to the molecular partition and (iii) clade stability. The association between these measures and the number of morphological characters per taxon (Nc/T ratio) and the proportion of non-fixed characters (i.e., inapplicable, polymorphic and missing data) was explored. In the individual partition analyses, the Nc/T ratio correlated positively with the topological congruence in six to seven datasets depending on the weighting scheme. The proportion of non-fixed cells had a minor influence on congruence between data partitions. The number of characters and proportion of non-fixed data varied significantly between morphological datasets that improved congruence between data types. This variation suggests that morphological datasets affect the results of combined analyses in different ways, depending on the taxa studied. Combined analyses revealed that, despite the low congruence values between partitions, integrating data types improves support values and stability. However, while non-fixed data had no negative effect on support values, stability was reduced as the proportion of non-fixed cells increased. Nc/T ratio was negatively associated with support values and it showed ambiguous responses in stability evaluations. Overall, the results indicate that adding morphology may contribute to the inference of phylogenetic relationships of bryophytes despite character conflict. Our findings suggest that merely comparing (a) morphology-based classifications with molecular phylogenies or (b) the outcome from individual data partitions can misestimate data conflict. These findings imply that analyses of combined data may provide conservative assessments of data conflict and, eventually, lead to an improved sampling of morphological characters in large-scale analyses of bryophytes.