Browsing by Subject "Butterfly"

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  • Järvelä, Riina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The diversity of nature has declined significantly over the past decades. The agricultural diversity has the same trend and the agricultural environments includes of high-value habitats and their associated biodiversity. In the EU and in the Finnish environmental schemes, therefore, efforts have been made to protect and increase biodiversity. Since 2009, voluntary nature management fields have been part of the Finnish’s agri-environmental measures in the agri-environment scheme. These nature management fields include perennial grass fields, game fields, landscape fields and meadow fields. Nature management fields are used specifically to maintain the diversity of the agricultural environment. This study examined two types of nature management fields in summer of 2013. The variety of vascular plants, butterflies and bumblebees was observed in Uusimaa, Finland. The study consists of 40 field blocks, divided into perennial grassland fields (3-4 years) and meadow fields (over 8 years). Nature management field types differed from each other by vegetation, establishment and temporal change. The aim of this study was to provide information which can help in the design and management of nature management fields. The intention is to provide insight on what kind of vegetation could be used to encourage increase in the number and diversity of pollinators, as well as, what kind of the nature management fields promote environmental diversity in farmland. This study was conducted as part of Marjaana Toivonen's dissertation project, “Enhancing biodiversity and ecosystem services through environmental Fallows”. Vegetation was clearly influenced by the time and what was sown in the field. The old perennial grassland fields can preserve and safeguard the permanence of species. Young meadow fields are sown usually with flower seed mixtures. Thus, the abundance of flowering plants is high and the plants provide pollen and nectar for the insects. It was also found that the vegetation was divided according to the type of nature management fields. With pollinators, this trend was not observed as clearly. However, bumblebees were most common in meadow fields. Clear division between the types of fields was not seen in butterflies but they appeared to prefer grassland fields. This study shows that both grassland and meadow fields are needed for protecting biodiversity. Nature management fields have an important role as the multi-species vegetation patches which allow organisms to survive, get food and travel in otherwise monocultural farming environments.
  • Duplouy, Anne; Hornett, Emily A. (2018)
    The Lepidoptera is one of the most widespread and recognisable insect orders. Due to their remarkable diversity, economic and ecological importance, moths and butterflies have been studied extensively over the last 200 years. More recently, the relationship between Lepidoptera and their heritable microbial endosymbionts has received increasing attention. Heritable endosymbionts reside within the host’s body and are often, but not exclusively, inherited through the female line. Advancements in molecular genetics have revealed that host-associated microbes are both extremely prevalent among arthropods and highly diverse. Furthermore, heritable endosymbionts have been repeatedly demonstrated to play an integral role in many aspects of host biology, particularly host reproduction. Here, we review the major findings of research of heritable microbial endosymbionts of butterflies and moths. We promote the Lepidoptera as important models in the study of reproductive manipulations employed by heritable endosymbionts, with the mechanisms underlying male-killing and feminisation currently being elucidated in moths and butterflies. We also reveal that the vast majority of research undertaken of Lepidopteran endosymbionts concerns Wolbachia. While this highly prevalent bacterium is undoubtedly important, studies should move towards investigating the presence of other, and interacting endosymbionts, and we discuss the merits of examining the microbiome of Lepidoptera to this end. We finally consider the importance of understanding the influence of endosymbionts under global environmental change and when planning conservation management of endangered Lepidoptera species.
  • Duplouy, Anne; Brattström, Oskar (2018)
    Bicyclus butterflies are key species for studies of wing pattern development, phenotypic plasticity, speciation and the genetics of Lepidoptera. One of the key endosymbionts in butterflies, the alpha-Proteobacterium Wolbachia pipientis, is affecting many of these biological processes; however, Bicyclus butterflies have not been investigated systematically as hosts to Wolbachia. In this study, we screen for Wolbachia infection in several Bicyclus species from natural populations across Africa as well as two laboratory populations. Out of the 24 species tested, 19 were found to be infected, and no double infection was found, but both A- and B-supergroup strains colonise this butterfly group. We also show that many of the Wolbachia strains identified in Bicyclus butterflies belong to the ST19 clonal complex. We discuss the importance of our results in regard to routinely screening for Wolbachia when using Bicyclus butterflies as the study organism of research in eco-evolutionary biology.