Browsing by Subject "C-JUN"

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  • Andjelkovic, Ana; Mordas, Amelia; Bruinsma, Lyon; Ketola, Annika; Cannino, Giuseppe; Giordano, Luca; Dhandapani, Praveen K.; Szibor, Marten; Dufour, Eric; Jacobs, Howard T. (2018)
    Downregulation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling inhibits cell migration in diverse model systems. In Drosophila pupal development, attenuated JNK signaling in the thoracic dorsal epithelium leads to defective midline closure, resulting in cleft thorax. Here we report that concomitant expression of the Ciona intestinalis alternative oxidase (AOX) was able to compensate for JNK pathway downregulation, substantially correcting the cleft thorax phenotype. AOX expression also promoted wound-healing behavior and single-cell migration in immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (iMEFs), counteracting the effect of JNK pathway inhibition. However, AOX was not able to rescue developmental phenotypes resulting from knockdown of the AP-1 transcription factor, the canonical target of JNK, nor its targets and had no effect on AP-1-dependent transcription. The migration of AOX-expressing iMEFs in the wound-healing assay was differentially stimulated by antimycin A, which redirects respiratory electron flow through AOX, altering the balance between mitochondrial ATP and heat production. Since other treatments affecting mitochondrial ATP did not stimulate wound healing, we propose increased mitochondrial heat production as the most likely primary mechanism of action of AOX in promoting cell migration in these various contexts.
  • Mohammad, H.; Marchisella, F.; Ortega-Martinez, S.; Hollos, P.; Eerola, K.; Komulainen, E.; Kulesskaya, N.; Freemantle, E.; Fagerholm, V.; Savontous, E.; Rauvala, H.; Peterson, B. D.; van Praag, H.; Coffey, E. T. (2018)
    Promoting adult hippocampal neurogenesis is expected to induce neuroplastic changes that improve mood and alleviate anxiety. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown and the hypothesis itself is controversial. Here we show that mice lacking Jnk1, or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor-treated mice, display increased neurogenesis in adult hippocampus characterized by enhanced cell proliferation and survival, and increased maturation in the ventral region. Correspondingly, anxiety behaviour is reduced in a battery of tests, except when neurogenesis is prevented by AraC treatment. Using engineered retroviruses, we show that exclusive inhibition of JNK in adult-born granule cells alleviates anxiety and reduces depressive-like behaviour. These data validate the neurogenesis hypothesis of anxiety. Moreover, they establish a causal role for JNK in the hippocampal neurogenic niche and anxiety behaviour, and advocate targeting of JNK as an avenue for novel therapies against affective disorders.
  • Raba, Mikk; Palgi, Jaan; Lehtivaara, Maria; Arumäe, Urmas (2016)
    Postnatal maturation of the neurons whose main phenotype and basic synaptic contacts are already established includes neuronal growth, refinement of synaptic contacts, final steps of differentiation, programmed cell death period (PCD) etc. In the sympathetic neurons, postnatal maturation includes permanent end of the PCD that occurs with the same time schedule in vivo and in vitro suggesting that the process could be genetically determined. Also many other changes in the neuronal maturation could be permanent and thus based on stable changes in the genome expression. However, postnatal maturation of the neurons is poorly studied. Here we compared the gene expression profiles of immature and mature sympathetic neurons using Affymetrix microarray assay. We found 1310 significantly up-regulated and 1151 significantly down-regulated genes in the mature neurons. Gene ontology analysis reveals up-regulation of genes related to neuronal differentiation, chromatin and epigenetic changes, extracellular factors and their receptors, and cell adhesion, whereas many down-regulated genes were related to metabolic and biosynthetic processes. We show that termination of PCD is not related to major changes in the expression of classical genes for apoptosis or cell survival. Our dataset is deposited to the ArrayExpress database and is a valuable source to select candidate genes in the studies of neuronal maturation. As an example, we studied the changes in the expression of selected genes Igf2bp3, CorolA, Zfp57, Dcx, and Apafl in the young and mature sympathetic ganglia by quantitative PCR and show that these were strongly downregulated in the mature ganglia.