Browsing by Subject "C-KIT"

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  • Bauer, Sebastian; Joensuu, Heikki (2015)
    Imatinib is strongly positioned as the recommended first-line agent for most patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) due to its good efficacy and tolerability. Imatinib-resistant advanced GIST continues to pose a therapeutic challenge, likely due to the frequent presence of multiple mutations that confer drug resistance. Sunitinib and regorafenib are approved as second- and third-line agents, respectively, for patients whose GIST does not respond to imatinib or who do not tolerate imatinib, and their use is supported by large randomized trials. ATP-mimetic tyrosine kinase inhibitors provide clinical benefit even in heavily pretreated GIST suggesting that oncogenic dependency on KIT frequently persists. Several potentially useful tyrosine kinase inhibitors with distinct inhibitory profiles against both KIT ATP-binding domain and activation loop mutations have not yet been fully evaluated. Agents that have been found promising in preclinical models and early clinical trials include small molecule KIT and PDGFRA mutation-specific inhibitors, heat shock protein inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors, allosteric KIT inhibitors, KIT and PDGFRA signaling pathway inhibitors, and immunological approaches including antibody-drug conjugates. Concomitant or sequential administration of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with KIT signaling pathway inhibitors require further evaluation, as well as rotation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors as a means to suppress drug-resistant cell clones.
  • Asadi-Azarbaijani, Babak; Braber, Saskia; van Duursen, Majorie; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Santos, Regiane; Oskam, Irma C. (2019)
    Chemotherapy may result in ovarian atrophy, a depletion of the primordial follicle pool, diminished ovarian weight, cortical and stromal fibrosis. Imatinib mesylate is an anticancer agent that inhibits competitively several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). RTKs play important roles in cell metabolism, proliferation, and apoptosis. In clinic, imatinib mesylate is also known as an anti-fibrotic medicine. In the present study, the impact of imatinib on the ovarian tissue was investigated by assessing ovarian tissue fibrosis in postnatal rat administered with or without imatinib for three days. Fibrosis in the ovarian tissue was determined by histology (Picrosirius and Masson's trichrome staining) and the protein expression of vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA). Furthermore, mRNA expression of Forkhead box transcription factor O1 and O3 (FOXO1 and FOXO3), which are markers of cell proliferation was quantified. A short-term exposure to imatinib showed to increase tissue fibrosis in ovaries. This was observed by Masson's trichrome staining. Exposure to imatinib led also to a down-regulation of vimentin protein expression and up-regulation mRNA expression of FOXO3. This may indicate a role of FOXO3 in ovarian tissue fibrosis in postnatal rat ovaries.
  • Vorkapic, Emina; Dugic, Elma; Vikingsson, Svante; Roy, Joy; Mäyränpää, Mikko; Eriksson, Per; Wagsater, Dick (2016)
    Background: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by vascular remodeling with increased infiltration of inflammatory cells and apoptosis/modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Imatinib is a selective inhibitor of several tyrosine kinases, including PDGF receptors, Abl, and c-kit. The objective of this study was to characterize the potential protective role of imatinib on AAA development and the molecular mechanisms involved. Methods: Male ApoE(-/)-mice were infused with angiotensin (Ang) II (1000 ng/kg/min) for 4 weeks to induce AAA or saline as controls. Daily treatment with 10 mg/kg imatinib, or tap water as control, was provided via gavage for 4 weeks. Results: Treatment with imatinib was found to decrease the aortic diameter and vessel wall thickness, mediated by multiple effects. Imatinib treatment in AngII infused mice resulted in a reduced cellular infiltration of CD3 epsilon positive T lymphocytes by 86% and reduced gene expression of mast cell chymase by 50% compared with AngII infused mice lacking imatinib. Gene expression analysis of SMC marker SM22a demonstrated an increase by 48% together with a more intact medial layer after treatment with imatinib as evaluated with SM22 alpha immunostaining. Conclusion: Present findings highlight the importance of tyrosine kinase pathways in the development of AAA. Our results show, that imatinib treatment inhibits essential mast cell, T lymphocyte and SMC mediated processes in experimental AAA. Thus, our results support the idea that tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of pathological vascular inflammation and remodeling in conditions like AAA. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NCND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Pulkka, Olli-Pekka; Nilsson, Bengt; Sarlomo-Rikala, Maarit; Reichardt, Peter; Eriksson, Mikael; Hall, Kirsten Sundby; Wardelmann, Eva; Vehtari, Aki; Joensuu, Heikki; Sihto, Harri (2017)
    Background: The SLUG transcription factor has been linked with the KIT signalling pathway that is important for gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) tumourigenesis. Its clinical significance in GIST is unknown. Methods: Influence of SLUG expression on cell proliferation and viability were investigated in GIST48 and GIST882 cell lines. The association between tumour SLUG expression in immunohistochemistry and recurrence-free survival (RFS) was studied in two clinical GIST series, one with 187 patients treated with surgery alone, and another one with 313 patients treated with surgery and adjuvant imatinib. Results: SLUG downregulation inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell death in both cell lines, and sensitised GIST882 cells to lower imatinib concentrations. SLUG was expressed in 125 (25.0%) of the 500 clinical GISTs evaluated, and expression was associated with several factors linked with unfavourable prognosis. SLUG expression was associated with unfavourable RFS both when patients were treated with surgery alone (HR = 3.40, 95% CI = 1.67-6.89, P = 0.001) and when treated with surgery plus adjuvant imatinib (HR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.29-2.60, P = 0.001). Conclusions: GIST patients with high tumour SLUG expression have unfavourable RFS. SLUG may mediate pro-survival signalling in GISTs.