Browsing by Subject "C3"

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  • Palviainen, Mari J.; Junnikkala, Sami; Raekallio, Marja; Meri, Seppo; Vainio, Outi (2015)
  • Livson, Sivan; Jarva, Hanna; Kalliala, Ilkka; Lokki, A. Inkeri; Heikkinen-Eloranta, Jenni; Nieminen, Pekka; Meri, Seppo (2021)
    Background Human pregnancy alters profoundly the immune system. The local involvement and mechanisms of activation of the complement system in the cervicovaginal milieu during pregnancy and delivery remain unexplored. Objectives To determine whether normal pregnancy and delivery are associated with local activation of complement or changes in the immunoglobulin profile in the cervix. Study Design This study was designed to assess IgA, IgG, and complement activation in the cervicovaginal area in three groups of patients: i) 49 pregnant women (week 41+3-42+0) not in active labor, ii) 24 women in active labor (38+4-42+2), and iii) a control group of nonpregnant women (n=23) at child-bearing age. We collected mucosal samples from the lateral fornix of the vagina and external cervix during routine visits and delivery. The Western blot technique was used to detect complement C3 and its activation products. For semiquantitative analysis, the bands of the electrophoresed proteins in gels were digitized on a flatbed photo scanner and analyzed. IgA and IgG were analyzed by Western blotting and quantified by ELISA. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's Multiple Comparison tests were used for statistical comparisons. Results A higher abundance but lower activation level of C3 in both the external cervix (P Conclusions Our results reveal an unexpectedly strong activation of the complement system and the presence IgG immunoglobulins in the cervicovaginal area during pregnancy, active labor, and among nonpregnant women. In contrast to the higher amounts of C3 in the cervicovaginal secretions during labor, its activation level was lower. Complement activating IgG was detected in higher concentrations than IgA in the mucosal secretions during pregnancy and labor. Taken together our results imply the presence a locally operating humoral immune system in the cervicovaginal mucosa.
  • Lokki, A. Inkeri; Kaartokallio, Tea; Holmberg, Ville; Onkamo, Paivi; Koskinen, Lotta L. E.; Saavalainen, Paivi; Heinonen, Seppo; Kajantie, Eero; Kere, Juha; Kivinen, Katja; Pouta, Anneli; Villa, Pia M.; Hiltunen, Leena; Laivuori, Hannele; Meri, Seppo (2017)
    Preeclampsia (PE) is a common vascular disease of pregnancy with genetic predisposition. Dysregulation of the complement system has been implicated, but molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. In this study, we determined the potential linkage of severe PE to the most central complement gene, C3. Three cohorts of Finnish patients and controls were recruited for a genetic case-control study. Participants were genotyped using Sequenom genotyping and Sanger sequencing. Initially, we studied 259 Finnish patients with severe PE and 426 controls from the Southern Finland PE and the Finnish population-based PE cohorts. We used a custom-made single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay consisting of 98 SNPs in 18 genes that encode components of the complement system. Following the primary screening, C3 was selected as the candidate gene and consequently Sanger sequenced. Fourteen SNPs from C3 were also genotyped by a Sequenom panel in 960 patients with severe PE and 705 controls, including already sequenced individuals. Three of the 43 SNPs observed within C3 were associated with severe PE: rs2287845 (p = 0.038, OR = 1.158), rs366510 (p = 0.039, OR = 1.158), and rs2287848 (p = 0.041, OR = 1.155). We also discovered 16 SNP haplotypes with extreme linkage disequilibrium in the middle of the gene with a protective (p = 0.044, OR = 0.628) or a predisposing (p = 0.011, OR = 2.110) effect to severe PE depending on the allele combination. Genetic variants associated with PE are located in key domains of C3 and could thereby influence the function of C3. This is, as far as we are aware, the first candidate gene in the complement system with an association to a clinically relevant PE subphenotype, severe PE. The result highlights a potential role for the complement system in the pathogenesis of PE and may help in defining prognostic and therapeutic subgroups of preeclamptic women.
  • Pekny, Milos; Wilhelmsson, Ulrika; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Pekna, Marcela (2019)
    Stroke is an acute insult to the central nervous system (CNS) that triggers a sequence of responses in the acute, subacute as well as later stages, with prominent involvement of astrocytes. Astrocyte activation and reactive gliosis in the acute stage of stroke limit the tissue damage and contribute to the restoration of homeostasis. Astrocytes also control many aspects of neural plasticity that is the basis for functional recovery. Here, we discuss the concept of intermediate filaments (nanofilaments) and the complement system as two handles on the astrocyte responses to injury that both present attractive opportunities for novel treatment strategies modulating astrocyte functions and reactive gliosis.
  • Livson, Sivan; Virtanen, Seppo; Lokki, A. Inkeri; Holster, Tiina; Rahkonen, Leena; Kalliala, Ilkka; Nieminen, Pekka; Salonen, Anne; Meri, Seppo (2022)
    BackgroundVaginal microbiome and the local innate immune defense, including the complement system, contribute to anti- and proinflammatory homeostasis during pregnancy and parturition. The relationship between commensal vaginal bacteria and complement activation during pregnancy and delivery is not known. ObjectiveTo study the association of the cervicovaginal microbiota composition to activation and regulation of the complement system during pregnancy and labor. Study designWe recruited women during late pregnancy (weeks 41 + 5 to 42 + 0, n=48) and women in active labor (weeks 38 + 4 to 42 + 2, n=25). Mucosal swabs were taken from the external cervix and lateral fornix of the vagina. From the same sampling site, microbiota was analyzed with 16S RNA gene amplicon sequencing. A Western blot technique was used to detect complement C3, C4 and factor B activation and presence of complement inhibitors. For semiquantitative analysis, the bands of the electrophoresed proteins in gels were digitized on a flatbed photo scanner and staining intensities were analyzed using ImageJ/Fiji win-64 software. Patient data was collected from medical records and questionnaires. ResultsThe vaginal microbiota was Lactobacillus-dominant in most of the samples (n=60), L. iners and L. crispatus being the dominant species. L. gasseri and L. jensenii were found to be more abundant during pregnancy than active labor. L. jensenii abundance correlated with C4 activation during pregnancy but not in labor. Gardnerella vaginalis was associated with C4 activation both during pregnancy and labor. The amount of L. gasseri correlated with factor B activation during pregnancy but not during labor. Atopobium vaginae was more abundant during pregnancy than labor and correlated with C4 activation during labor and with factor B activation during pregnancy. Activation of the alternative pathway factor B was significantly stronger during pregnancy compared to labor. During labor complement activation may be inhibited by the abundant presence of factor H and FHL1. ConclusionsThese results indicate that bacterial composition of the vaginal microbiota could have a role in the local activation and regulation of complement-mediated inflammation during pregnancy. At the time of parturition complement activation appears to be more strictly regulated than during pregnancy.
  • Holopainen, Saila (Helsingfors universitet, 2008)
    Malaria remains one of the major health problems in many tropical countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Among the most characteristic features of the malaria pathogens, protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium, is their ability to evade the immune defences of the host for extended periods of time. The complement system (C) is an essential part of the innate system in the first line of defense. It consists of over 30 soluble or membrane-bound components. C can be activated through three different (the classical, the lectin and the alternative) pathways, and the activation is tightly regulated. All three pathways converge at the C3 level and activation continues through the terminal pathway. C functions include lysis of microbes, opsonization, attraction and activation of leucocytes and enhancement of the inflammatory response. In the present study the aim was to look into whether Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) interferes with the complement at the level of C3 by accelerating C3b inactivation and thus inhibit the amplification of the C cascade. Considering the characteristics of Pf infection it is obvious that the plasmodia must somehow avoid complement attack. Flow cytometric analysis (FACS), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), immunoblotting assays and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) were used to determine if Pf evade C attack by acquisition of the host C inhibitors, factor H (FH) and C4b binding protein (C4bp), from serum. FH is the major regulator of the alternative-pathway while C4bp is an inhibitor of the classical-pathway. We also studied binding of complement components, especially C3, to Pf cells. In our studies, there appeared to be an elevated binding of FH to Pf parasitized erythrocytes in FACS. In immunoblotting assays, a putative C3-binding merozoite-stage Pf protein was observed. Previously, it has been suggested that Plasmodium spp. merozoites adsorb C3 fragments to their surface to gain entry into erythrocytes via CR1-receptor. No binding of C4bp was detected. Further studies are required to reveal the complement resistance mechanisms of Pf. Elucidation of Pf-C interactions will be of great importance for our understanding of the principles of Plasmodium immunoevasion that affect directly the virulence of the microbe. By identifying factors whereby Pf evades C, it is possible to understand better how the microbe causes disease and, ultimately, how this could be prevented.
  • Reichhardt, M.P.; Meri, S. (2018)
    Abstract It has become increasingly apparent that the complement system, being an ancient defense mechanism, is not operative only in the extracellular milieu but also intracellularly. In addition to the known synthetic machinery in the liver and by macrophages, many other cell types, including lymphocytes, adipocytes and epithelial cells produce selected complement components. Activation of e.g. C3 and C5 inside cells may have multiple effects ranging from direct antimicrobial defense to cell differentiation and possible influence on metabolism. Intracellular activation of C3 and C5 in T cells is involved in the maintenance of immunological tolerance and promotes differentiation of T helper cells into Th1-type cells that activate cell-mediated immune responses. Adipocytes are unique in producing many complement sensor proteins (like C1q) and Factor D (adipsin), the key enzyme in promoting alternative pathway amplification. The effects of complement activation products are mediated by intracellular and cell membrane receptors, like C3aR, C5aR1, C5aR2 and the complement regulator MCP/CD46, often jointly with other receptors like the T cell receptor, Toll-like receptors and those of the inflammasomes. These recent observations link complement activation to cellular metabolic processes, intracellular defense reactions and to diverse adaptive immune responses. The complement components may thus be viewed as intracellular alarm molecules involved in the cellular danger response.
  • Järvinen, Elli Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Ischemic stroke is a complex disease involving multiple pathophysiological mechanisms. To date, many therapeutic intervention strategies such as anti-inflammatory treatments have been tested, but none of them has been successful. Previous studies have shown that mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) improves stroke recovery and increases the expression of phagocytosis related genes. In this study, the phagocytic and inflammatory effect of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), complement component 3 (C3), adhesion G protein-coupled receptor E1 (ADGRE1), MER receptor tyrosine kinase (MerTK) and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) on microglia were studied simultaneously for the first time. The phagocytosis related genes were transiently transfected into a microglial cell line and studied in vitro utilizing phagocytosis assay, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MCP-1, M-CSF and C3a were shown to enhance microglial phagocytosis without inducing a pro-inflammatory response. In addition, MerTK induces phagocytosis and the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, the real therapeutic potential of MCP-1, M-CSF, C3a and MerTK in stroke treatment should be further characterized and tested in vivo.
  • O'Flynn, Joseph; Kotimaa, Juha; Faber-Krol, Ria; Koekkoek, Karin; Klar-Mohamad, Ngaisah; Koudijs, Angela; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J.; Stover, Cordula; Daha, Mohamed R.; van Kooten, Cees (2018)
    Properdin is the only known positive regulator of complement activation by stabilizing the alternative pathway convertase through C3 binding, thus prolonging its half-life. Recent in vitro studies suggest that properdin may act as a specific pattern recognition molecule. To better understand the role of properdin in vivo, we used an experimental model of acute anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with wild-type, C3-and properdin knockout mice. The model exhibited severe proteinuria, acute neutrophil infiltration and activation, classical and alternative pathway activation, and progressive glomerular deposition of properdin, C3 and C9. Although the acute renal injury was likely due to acute neutrophil activation, we found properdin deposition in C3-knockout mice that was not associated with IgG. Thus, properdin may deposit in injured tissues in vivo independent of its main ligand C3.
  • Arffman, R. K.; Saraswat, M.; Joenväärä, S.; Khatun, M.; Agarwal, R.; Tohmola, T.; Sundström-Poromaa, I.; Renkonen, R.; Piltonen, T. T. (2019)
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinological disorder of fertile-aged women. Several adverse pregnancy outcomes and abnormalities of the placenta have been associated with PCOS. By using quantitative label-free proteomics we investigated whether changes in the plasma proteome of pregnant women with PCOS could elucidate the mechanisms behind the pathologies observed in PCOS pregnancies. A total of 169 proteins with >= 2 unique peptides were detected to be differentially expressed between women with PCOS (n = 7) and matched controls (n = 20) at term of pregnancy, out of which 35 were significant (p-value <0.05). A pathway analysis revealed that networks related to humoral immune responses, inflammatory responses, cardiovascular disease and cellular growth and proliferation were affected by PCOS. Classification of cases and controls was carried out using principal component analysis, orthogonal projections on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), hierarchical clustering, self-organising maps and ROC-curve analysis. The most significantly enriched proteins in PCOS were properdin and insulin-like growth factor II. In the dataset, properdin had the best predictive accuracy for PCOS (AUC=1). Additionally, properdin abundances correlated with AMH levels in pregnant women.
  • Kaye, Sanna; Lokki, A. Inkeri; Hanttu, Anna; Nissilä, Eija; Heinonen, Sini; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Saarinen, Lilli; Tynninen, Olli; Muniandy, Maheswary; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko; Meri, Seppo; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H. (2017)
    Inflammation is an important mediator of obesity-related complications such as the metabolic syndrome but its causes and mechanisms are unknown. As the complement system is a key mediator of inflammation, we studied whether it is activated in acquired obesity in subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) and isolated adipocytes. We used a special study design of genetically matched controls of lean and heavy groups, rare monozygotic twin pairs discordant for body mass index (BMI) [n = 26, within-pair difference (triangle) in body mass index, BMI >3 kg/m(2)] with as much as 18 kg mean triangle weight. Additionally, 14 BMI-concordant (BMI