Browsing by Subject "C3a"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-3 of 3
  • Pekny, Milos; Wilhelmsson, Ulrika; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Pekna, Marcela (2019)
    Stroke is an acute insult to the central nervous system (CNS) that triggers a sequence of responses in the acute, subacute as well as later stages, with prominent involvement of astrocytes. Astrocyte activation and reactive gliosis in the acute stage of stroke limit the tissue damage and contribute to the restoration of homeostasis. Astrocytes also control many aspects of neural plasticity that is the basis for functional recovery. Here, we discuss the concept of intermediate filaments (nanofilaments) and the complement system as two handles on the astrocyte responses to injury that both present attractive opportunities for novel treatment strategies modulating astrocyte functions and reactive gliosis.
  • Reichhardt, M.P.; Meri, S. (2018)
    Abstract It has become increasingly apparent that the complement system, being an ancient defense mechanism, is not operative only in the extracellular milieu but also intracellularly. In addition to the known synthetic machinery in the liver and by macrophages, many other cell types, including lymphocytes, adipocytes and epithelial cells produce selected complement components. Activation of e.g. C3 and C5 inside cells may have multiple effects ranging from direct antimicrobial defense to cell differentiation and possible influence on metabolism. Intracellular activation of C3 and C5 in T cells is involved in the maintenance of immunological tolerance and promotes differentiation of T helper cells into Th1-type cells that activate cell-mediated immune responses. Adipocytes are unique in producing many complement sensor proteins (like C1q) and Factor D (adipsin), the key enzyme in promoting alternative pathway amplification. The effects of complement activation products are mediated by intracellular and cell membrane receptors, like C3aR, C5aR1, C5aR2 and the complement regulator MCP/CD46, often jointly with other receptors like the T cell receptor, Toll-like receptors and those of the inflammasomes. These recent observations link complement activation to cellular metabolic processes, intracellular defense reactions and to diverse adaptive immune responses. The complement components may thus be viewed as intracellular alarm molecules involved in the cellular danger response.
  • Järvinen, Elli Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Ischemic stroke is a complex disease involving multiple pathophysiological mechanisms. To date, many therapeutic intervention strategies such as anti-inflammatory treatments have been tested, but none of them has been successful. Previous studies have shown that mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) improves stroke recovery and increases the expression of phagocytosis related genes. In this study, the phagocytic and inflammatory effect of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), complement component 3 (C3), adhesion G protein-coupled receptor E1 (ADGRE1), MER receptor tyrosine kinase (MerTK) and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) on microglia were studied simultaneously for the first time. The phagocytosis related genes were transiently transfected into a microglial cell line and studied in vitro utilizing phagocytosis assay, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MCP-1, M-CSF and C3a were shown to enhance microglial phagocytosis without inducing a pro-inflammatory response. In addition, MerTK induces phagocytosis and the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, the real therapeutic potential of MCP-1, M-CSF, C3a and MerTK in stroke treatment should be further characterized and tested in vivo.