Browsing by Subject "CALIBRATION"

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  • Korpela, Ilkka (2017)
    Forest inventories comprise observations, models and sampling. Airborne LiDAR has established its role in providing observations of canopy geometry and topography. These data are input for estimation of important forest properties to support forestry-related decision-making. A major deficiency in forest remote sensing is tree species identification. This study examines the option of using multi-footprint airborne LiDAR data. Features of such sensor design exist in recently introduced multispectral laser scanners. The first objective was to acquire radiometrically normalized, multi-footprint (11, 22, 44 and 59 cm) waveform (WF) data that characterize 1064nm backscatter reflectance on the interval scale. The second objective was to analyze and validate the data quality in order to draw the correct conclusions about the effect of footprint size on WFs from natural and man-made targets. The experiment was carried out in Finland. Footprint variation was generated by acquiring data at different flying heights and by adjusting the transmitted power. The LiDAR campaign was successful and the data were of sufficient quality, except for a 1 dB trend due to the atmosphere. Significant findings were made conceming the magnitude of atmospheric losses, the linearity of the amplitude scale and the bandwidth characteristics of the receiver, the stability of the transmitter, the precision of the amplitude data and the transmission losses in canopies and power lines, as well as the response of WF attributes to footprint size in forest canopies. Multi-footprint data are a promising approach although the tree species-specific signatures were weak. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Harjumaki, Riina; Zhang, Xue; Nugroho, Robertus Wahyu N.; Farooq, Muhammad; Lou, Yan-Ru; Yliperttula, Marjo; Valle-Delgado, Juan Jose; Osterberg, Monika (2020)
    Transmembrane protein integrins play a key role in cell adhesion. Cell-biomaterial interactions are affected by integrin expression and conformation, which are actively controlled by cells. Although integrin structure and function have been studied in detail, quantitative analyses of integrin-mediated cell-biomaterial interactions are still scarce. Here, we have used atomic force spectroscopy to study how integrin distribution and activation (via intracellular mechanisms in living cells or by divalent cations) affect the interaction of human pluripotent stem cells (WA07) and human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2) with promising biomaterials.human recombinant laminin-521 (LN-521) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF). Cell adhesion to LN-521-coated probes was remarkably influenced by cell viability, divalent cations, and integrin density in WA07 colonies, indicating that specific bonds between LN-521 and activated integrins play a significant role in the interactions between LN-521 and HepG2 and WA07 cells. In contrast, the interactions between CNF and cells were nonspecific and not influenced by cell viability or the presence of divalent cations. These results shed light on the underlying mechanisms of cell adhesion, with direct impact on cell culture and tissue engineering applications.
  • Luoto, Tomi P.; Kivila, E. Henriikka; Kotrys, Bartosz; Plociennik, Mateusz; Rantala, Marttiina; Nevalainen, Liisa (2020)
    Independent Arctic records of temperature and precipitation from the same proxy archives are rare. Nevertheless, they are important for providing detailed information on long-term climate changes and temperature-precipitation relationships in the context of large-scale atmospheric dynamics. Here, we used chironomid and cladoceran fossil assemblages to reconstruct summer air-temperature and water-level changes, during the past 400 years, in a small lake located in Finnish Lapland. Temperatures remained persistently cold over the Little Ice Age (LIA), but increased in the 20th century. After a cooler phase in the 1970s, the climate rapidly warmed to the record-high temperatures of the most recent decades. The lake-level reconstruction suggested persistently wet conditions for the LIA, followed by a dry period between similar to 1910 and 1970 CE, when the lake apparently became almost dry. Since the 1980s, the lake level has returned to a similar position as during the IAA. The temperature development was consistent with earlier records, but a significant local feature was found in the lake-level reconstruction the LIA appears to have been continuously wet, without the generally depicted dry phase during the 18th and 19th centuries. Therefore, the results suggest local precipitation patterns and enforce the concept of spatially divergent LIA conditions.
  • Siren, Jukka; Lens, Luc; Cousseau, Laurence; Ovaskainen, Otso (2018)
    1. Individual-based models (IBMs) allow realistic and flexible modelling of ecological systems, but their parameterization with empirical data is statistically and computationally challenging. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) has been proposed as an efficient approach for inference with IBMs, but its applicability to data on natural populations has not been yet fully explored. 2. We construct an IBM for the metapopulation dynamics of a species inhabiting a fragmented patch network, and develop an ABC method for parameterization of the model. We consider several scenarios of data availability from count data to combination of mark-recapture and genetic data. We analyse both simulated and real data on white-starred robin (Pogonocichla stellata), a passerine bird living in montane forest environment in Kenya, and assess how the amount and type of data affect the estimates of model parameters and indicators of population state. 3. The indicators of the population state could be reliably estimated using the ABC method, but full parameterization was not achieved due to strong posterior correlations between model parameters. While the combination of the data types did not provide more accurate estimates for most of the indicators of population state or model parameters than the most informative data type (ringing data or genetic data) alone, the combined data allowed robust simultaneous estimation of all unknown quantities. 4. Our results show that ABC methods provide a powerful and flexible technique forparameterizing complex IBMs with multiple data sources, and assessing the dynamics of the population in a robust manner.
  • Niemi, Tero; Kokkonen, Teemu; Sillanpää, Nora; Setälä, Heikki; Koivusalo, Harri (2019)
    Constructing hydrological models for large urban areas is time consuming and laborious due to the requirements for high-resolution data and fine model detail. An open-source algorithm using adaptive subcatchments is proposed to automate Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) construction. The algorithm merges areas with homogeneous land cover and a common outlet into larger subcatchments, while retaining small-scale details where land cover or topography is more heterogeneous. The method was tested on an 85-ha urban catchment in Helsinki, Finland. A model with adaptive subcatchments reproduced the observed discharge at the catchment outlet with high model-performance indices emphasizing the strength of the proposed method. Computation times of the adaptive model were substantially lower than those of a corresponding model with uniformly sized high-resolution subcatchments. Given that high-resolution land cover and topography data are available, the proposed algorithm provides an advanced method for implementing SWMM models automatically even for large urban catchments without a substantial manual workload. Simultaneously, the high-resolution land cover details of the catchments can be maintained where they matter the most. (c) 2019 American Society of Civil Engineers.
  • Schafstall, Nick; Whitehouse, Nicki; Kuosmanen, Niina; Svobodova-Svitavska, Helena; Saulnier, Melanie; Chiverrell, Richard C.; Fleischer, Peter; Kunes, Petr; Clear, Jennifer L. (2020)
    Montane biomes are niche environments high in biodiversity with a variety of habitats. Often isolated, these non-continuous remnant ecosystems inhabit narrow ecological zones putting them under threat from changing climatic conditions and anthropogenic pressure. Twelve sediment cores were retrieved from a peat bog in Tatra National Park, Slovakia, and correlated to each other by wiggle-matching geochemical signals derived from micro-XRF scanning, to make a reconstruction of past conditions. A fossil beetle (Coleoptera) record, covering the last 1000 years at 50- to 100-year resolution, gives a new insight into changing flora and fauna in this region. Our findings reveal a diverse beetle community with varied ecological groups inhabiting a range of forest, meadow and synanthropic habitats. Changes in the beetle community were related to changes in the landscape, driven by anthropogenic activities. The first clear evidence for human activity in the area occurs c. 1250 CE and coincides with the arrival of beetle species living on the dung of domesticated animals (e.g. Aphodius spp.). From 1500 CE, human (re)settlement, and activities such as pasturing and charcoal burning, appear to have had a pronounced effect on the beetle community. Local beetle diversity declined steadily towards the present day, likely due to an infilling of the forest hollow leading to a decrease in moisture level. We conclude that beetle communities are directly affected by anthropogenic intensity and land-use change. When aiming to preserve or restore natural forest conditions, recording their past changes in diversity can help guide conservation and restoration. In doing so, it is important to look back beyond the time of significant human impact, and for this, information contained in paleoecological records is irreplaceable.
  • Abera, Temesgen; Heiskanen, Janne; Pellikka, Petri; Adhikari, Hari; Maeda, Eduardo (2020)
    Bushlands (Acacia-Commiphora) constitute the largest and one of the most threatened ecosystems in East Africa. Although several studies have investigated the climatic impacts of land changes on local and global climate, the main focus has been on forest loss and the impacts of bushland clearing thus remain poorly understood. Measuring the impacts of bushland loss on local climate is challenging given that changes often occur at fragmented and small patches. Here, we apply high-resolution satellite imagery and land surface flux modeling approaches to unveil the impacts of bushland clearing on surface biophysical properties and its associated effects on surface energy balance and land surface temperature. Our results show that bushland clearing leads to an average reduction in evapotranspiration of 0.4 mm day(-1). The changes in surface biophysical properties affected the surface energy balance components with different magnitude. The reduction in latent heat flux was stronger than other surface energy fluxes and resulted in an average net increase in daytime land surface temperature (LST) of up to 1.75 K. These results demonstrate the important impact of bushland-to-cropland conversion on the local climate, as they reveal increases in LST of a magnitude comparable to those caused by forest loss. This finding highlights the necessity of bushland conservation for regulating the land surface temperature in East Africa and, at the same time, warns of the climatic impacts of clearing bushlands for agriculture. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Fallenius, Marika; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Reinikainen, Matti; Bendel, Stepani; Raj, Rahul (2017)
    Background: Intensive care scoring systems are widely used in intensive care units (ICU) around the world for case-mix adjustment in research and benchmarking. The aim of our study was to investigate the usefulness of common intensive care scoring systems in predicting mid-term mortality in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) treated in intensive care units (ICU). Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study including adult patients with spontaneous ICH treated in Finnish ICUs during 2003-2012. We used six-month mortality as the primary outcome of interest. We used logistic regression to customize Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) for six-month mortality prediction. To assess the usefulness of the scoring systems, we compared their discrimination and calibration with two simpler models consisting of age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and premorbid functional status. Results: Totally 3218 patients were included. Overall six-month mortality was 48%. APACHE II and SAPS II outperformed SOFA (area under the receiver operator curve [AUC] 0.83 and 0.84, respectively, vs. 0.73) but did not show any benefit over the simpler models in terms of discrimination (AUC 0.84, p > 0.05 for all models). SAPS II showed satisfactory calibration (p = 0.058 in the Hosmer-Lemeshow test), whereas all other models showed poor calibration (p <0.05). Discussion: In this retrospective multi-center study, we found that SAPS II and APACHE II were of no additional prognostic value to a simple model based on only age and GCS score for patients with ICH treated in the ICU. In fact, the major predictive ability of APACHE II and SAPS II comes from their age and GCS score components. SOFA performed significantly poorer than the other models and is not applicable as a prognostic model for ICH patients. All models displayed poor calibration, highlighting the need for improved prognostic models for ICH patients. Conclusion: The common intensive care scoring systems did not outperform a simpler model based on only age and GCS score. Thus, the use of previous intensive care scoring systems is not warranted in ICH patients.
  • Leppanen, Marja H.; Migueles, Jairo H.; Abdollahi, Anna M.; Engberg, Elina; Ortega, Francisco B.; Roos, Eva (2022)
    This study aimed to compare sedentary time (SED) and intensity-specific physical activity (PA) estimates and the associations of SED and PA with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) using three different sets of cut-points in preschool-aged children. A total of 751 children (4.7 +/- 0.9 years, boys 52.7%) wore an ActiGraph GT3X+BT accelerometer on their hip for 7 days (24 h). Euclidean norm -1 G with negative values rounded to zero (ENMO) and activity counts from vertical axis (VACounts) and vector magnitude (VMCounts) were derived. Estimates of SED and light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) were calculated for commonly used cut-points by Hildebrand et al., Butte et al., and Evenson et al. Furthermore, the prevalence of meeting the PA recommendation, 180 min/day of which at least 60 min/day being MVPA, were assessed for the cut-points. Multilevel mixed analysis was used to examine associations of SED and PA with BMI and WC. In accordance with the results, SED and PA intensity estimates differed largely across cut-points (i.e., SED = 22-341 min/day; light PA = 52-257 min/day; moderate PA = 5-18 min/day; vigorous PA = 7-17 min/day; MVPA = 13-35 min/day), and the prevalence of children meeting the PA recommendation varied from 4% to 70%. Associations of SED and PA with BMI or WC varied between the cut-points. Our results indicate that SED and PA estimates in preschool-aged children between studies using these cut-points are poorly comparable. Methods facilitating accelerometer-derived PA estimate comparison between studies are highly warranted.
  • Key, Timothy J.; Appleby, Paul N.; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Sweeting, Michael; Wood, Angela; Johansson, Ingegerd; Kuehn, Tilman; Steur, Marinka; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Wennberg, Maria; Wuertz, Anne Mette Lund; Agudo, Antonio; Andersson, Jonas; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Bonnet, Fabrice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cross, Amanda J.; Ericson, Ulrika; Fagherazzi, Guy; Ferrari, Pietro; Gunter, Marc; Huerta, Jose Maria; Katzke, Verena; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Krogh, Vittorio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Matullo, Giuseppe; Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Naska, Androniki; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Quiros, J. Ramon; Skeie, Guri; Sluijs, Ivonne; Sonestedt, Emily; Stepien, Magdalena; Tjonneland, Anne; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Tumino, Rosario; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Langenberg, Claudia; Forouhi, Nita; Wareham, Nick; Butterworth, Adam; Riboli, Elio; Danesh, John (2019)
    Background: There is uncertainty about the relevance of animal foods to the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We examined meat, fish, dairy products, and eggs and risk for IHD in the pan-European EPIC cohort (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition). Methods: In this prospective study of 409 885 men and women in 9 European countries, diet was assessed with validated questionnaires and calibrated with 24-hour recalls. Lipids and blood pressure were measured in a subsample. During a mean of 12.6 years of follow-up, 7198 participants had a myocardial infarction or died of IHD. The relationships of animal foods with risk were examined with Cox regression with adjustment for other animal foods and relevant covariates. Results: The hazard ratio (HR) for IHD was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.06-1.33) for a 100-g/d increment in intake of red and processed meat, and this remained significant after exclusion of the first 4 years of follow-up (HR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.09-1.42]). Risk was inversely associated with intakes of yogurt (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89-0.98] per 100-g/d increment), cheese (HR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.86-0.98] per 30-g/d increment), and eggs (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.88-0.99] per 20-g/d increment); the associations with yogurt and eggs were attenuated and nonsignificant after exclusion of the first 4 years of follow-up. Risk was not significantly associated with intakes of poultry, fish, or milk. In analyses modeling dietary substitutions, replacement of 100 kcal/d from red and processed meat with 100 kcal/d from fatty fish, yogurt, cheese, or eggs was associated with approximate to 20% lower risk of IHD. Consumption of red and processed meat was positively associated with serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and systolic blood pressure, and consumption of cheese was inversely associated with serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Risk for IHD was positively associated with consumption of red and processed meat and inversely associated with consumption of yogurt, cheese, and eggs, although the associations with yogurt and eggs may be influenced by reverse causation bias. It is not clear whether the associations with red and processed meat and cheese reflect causality, but they were consistent with the associations of these foods with plasma non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and for red and processed meat with systolic blood pressure, which could mediate such effects.
  • Chitham, J. Ider; Comparat, J.; Finoguenov, A.; Clerc, N.; Kirkpatrick, C. C.; Damsted, S.; Kukkola, A.; Capasso, R.; Nandra, K.; Merloni, A.; Bulbul, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Schneider, D. P.; Brownstein, J. R. (2020)
    This paper presents a cosmological analysis based on the properties of X-ray selected clusters of galaxies from the CODEX survey which have been spectroscopically followed up within the SPIDERS programme as part of the sixteenth data release (DR16) of SDSS-IV. The cosmological sub-sample contains a total of 691 clusters over an area of 5350 deg(2) with newly measured optical properties provided by a reanalysis of the CODEX source catalogue using redMaPPer and the DESI Legacy Imaging Surveys (DR8). Optical richness is used as a proxy for the cluster mass, and the combination of X-ray, optical, and spectroscopic information ensures that only confirmed virialized systems are considered. Clusters are binned in observed redshift, (z) over tilde is an element of [0.1, 0.6) and optical richness, (lambda) over tilde is an element of[25, 148) and the number of clusters in each bin is modelled as a function of cosmological and richness-mass scaling relation parameters. A high-purity sub-sample of 691 clusters is used in the analysis and best-fitting cosmological parameters are found to be Omega m(0) = 0.34(-0.05)(+0.09) and sigma(8) = 0.73(-0.03)(+0.03). The redshift evolution of the self-calibrated richness-mass relation is poorly constrained due to the systematic uncertainties associated with the X-ray component of the selection function (which assumes a fixed X-ray luminosity-mass relation with h = 0.7 and Omega m(0) = 0.30). Repeating the analysis with the assumption of no redshift evolution is found to improve the consistency between both cosmological and scaling relation parameters with respect to recent galaxy cluster analyses in the literature.
  • Miettinen, Jukka; Carlier, Simon; Häme, Lauri; Mäkelä, Annikki; Minunno, Francesco; Penttilä, Juho; Pisl, Jan; Rasinmäki, Jussi; Rauste, Yrjo; Seitsonen, Lauri; Tian, Xianglin; Häme, Tuomas (2021)
    Forest biomass and carbon monitoring play a key role in climate change mitigation. Operational large area monitoring approaches are needed to enable forestry stakeholders to meet the increasing monitoring and reporting requirements. Here, we demonstrate the functionality of a cloud-based approach utilizing Sentinel-2 composite imagery and process-based ecosystem model to produce large area forest volume and primary production estimates. We describe the main components of the approach and implementation of the processing pipeline into the Forestry TEP cloud processing platform and produce four large area output maps: (1) Growing stock volume (GSV), (2) Gross primary productivity (GPP), (3) Net primary productivity (NPP) and (4) Stem volume increment (SVI), covering Finland and the Russian boreal forests until the Ural Mountains in 10 m spatial resolution. The accuracy of the forest structural variables evaluated in Finland reach pixel level relative Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values comparable to earlier studies (basal area 39.4%, growing stock volume 58.5%, diameter 35.5% and height 33.5%), although most of the earlier studies have concentrated on smaller study areas. This can be considered a positive sign for the feasibility of the approach for large area primary production modelling, since forest structural variables are the main input for the process-based ecosystem model used in the study. The full coverage output maps show consistent quality throughout the target area, with major regional variations clearly visible, and with noticeable fine details when zoomed into full resolution. The demonstration conducted in this study lays foundation for further development of an operational large area forest monitoring system that allows annual reporting of forest biomass and carbon balance from forest stand level to regional analyses. The system is seamlessly aligned with process based ecosystem modelling, enabling forecasting and future scenario simulation.
  • Forsius, Martin; Kujala, Heini; Minunno, Francesco; Holmberg, Maria; Leikola, Niko; Mikkonen, Ninni; Autio, Iida; Paunu, Ville-Veikko; Tanhuanpää, Topi; Hurskainen, Pekka; Mäyrä, Janne; Kivinen, Sonja; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Kosenius, Anna-Kaisa; Kuusela, Saija; Virkkala, Raimo; Viinikka, Arto; Vihervaara, Petteri; Akujarvi, Anu; Bäck, Jaana; Karvosenoja, Niko; Kumpula, Timo; Kuzmin, Anton; Mäkelä, Annikki; Moilanen, Atte; Ollikainen, Markku; Pekkonen, Minna; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Poikolainen, Laura; Rankinen, Katri; Rasilo, Terhi; Tuominen, Sakari; Valkama, Jari; Vanhala, Pekka; Heikkinen, Risto K (2021)
    The challenges posed by climate change and biodiversity loss are deeply interconnected. Successful co-managing of these tangled drivers requires innovative methods that can prioritize and target management actions against multiple criteria, while also enabling cost-effective land use planning and impact scenario assessment. This paper synthesises the development and application of an integrated multidisciplinary modelling and evaluation framework for carbon and biodiversity in forest systems. By analysing and spatio-temporally modelling carbon processes and biodiversity elements, we determine an optimal solution for their co-management in the study landscape. We also describe how advanced Earth Observation measurements can be used to enhance mapping and monitoring of biodiversity and ecosystem processes. The scenarios used for the dynamic models were based on official Finnish policy goals for forest management and climate change mitigation. The development and testing of the system were executed in a large region in southern Finland (Kokemäenjoki basin, 27,024 km2) containing highly instrumented LTER (Long-Term Ecosystem Research) stations; these LTER data sources were complemented by fieldwork, remote sensing and national data bases. In the study area, estimated total net emissions were currently 4.2 TgCO2eq a−1, but modelling of forestry measures and anthropogenic emission reductions demonstrated that it would be possible to achieve the stated policy goal of carbon neutrality by low forest harvest intensity. We show how this policy-relevant information can be further utilized for optimal allocation of set-aside forest areas for nature conservation, which would significantly contribute to preserving both biodiversity and carbon values in the region. Biodiversity gain in the area could be increased without a loss of carbon-related benefits.
  • Pohle, Alexander; Kröger, Björn; Warnock, Rachel C. M.; King, Andy H.; Evans, David H.; Aubrechtová, Martina; Cichowolski, Marcela; Fang, Xiang; Klug, Christian (2022)
    Background: Despite the excellent fossil record of cephalopods, their early evolution is poorly understood. Different, partly incompatible phylogenetic hypotheses have been proposed in the past, which reflected individual author's opinions on the importance of certain characters but were not based on thorough cladistic analyses. At the same time, methods of phylogenetic inference have undergone substantial improvements. For fossil datasets, which typically only include morphological data, Bayesian inference and in particular the introduction of the fossilized birth-death model have opened new possibilities. Nevertheless, many tree topologies recovered from these new methods reflect large uncertainties, which have led to discussions on how to best summarize the information contained in the posterior set of trees. Results: We present a large, newly compiled morphological character matrix of Cambrian and Ordovician cephalopods to conduct a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis and resolve existing controversies. Our results recover three major monophyletic groups, which correspond to the previously recognized Endoceratoidea, Multiceratoidea, and Orthoceratoidea, though comprising slightly different taxa. In addition, many Cambrian and Early Ordovician representatives of the Ellesmerocerida and Plectronocerida were recovered near the root. The Ellesmerocerida is para- and polyphyletic, with some of its members recovered among the Multiceratoidea and early Endoceratoidea. These relationships are robust against modifications of the dataset. While our trees initially seem to reflect large uncertainties, these are mainly a consequence of the way clade support is measured. We show that clade posterior probabilities and tree similarity metrics often underestimate congruence between trees, especially if wildcard taxa are involved. Conclusions: Our results provide important insights into the earliest evolution of cephalopods and clarify evolutionary pathways. We provide a classification scheme that is based on a robust phylogenetic analysis. Moreover, we provide some general insights on the application of Bayesian phylogenetic inference on morphological datasets. We support earlier findings that quartet similarity metrics should be preferred over the Robinson-Foulds distance when higher-level phylogenetic relationships are of interest and propose that using a posteriori pruned maximum clade credibility trees help in assessing support for phylogenetic relationships among a set of relevant taxa, because they provide clade support values that better reflect the phylogenetic signal.
  • Pulliainen, Jouni; Aurela, Mika; Laurila, Tuomas; Aalto, Tuula; Takala, Matias; Salminen, Miia; Kulmala, Markku; Barr, Alan; Heimann, Martin; Lindroth, Anders; Laaksonen, Ari; Derksen, Chris; Mäkelä, Annikki; Markkanen, Tiina; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Susiluoto, Jouni; Dengel, Sigrid; Mammarella, Ivan; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Vesala, Timo (2017)
    We determine the annual timing of spring recovery from space-borne microwave radiometer observations across northern hemisphere boreal evergreen forests for 1979-2014. We find a trend of advanced spring recovery of carbon uptake for this period, with a total average shift of 8.1 d (2.3 d/decade). We use this trend to estimate the corresponding changes in gross primary production (GPP) by applying in situ carbon flux observations. Micrometeoro-logical CO2 measurements at four sites in northern Europe and North America indicate that such an advance in spring recovery would have increased the January-June GPP sum by 29 g.C.m(-2) [8.4 g.C.m(-2) (3.7%)/decade]. We find this sensitivity of the measured springtime GPP to the spring recovery to be in accordance with the corresponding sensitivity derived from simulations with a land ecosystem model coupled to a global circulation model. The model-predicted increase in springtime cumulative GPP was 0.035 Pg/decade [15.5 g.C.m(-2) (6.8%)/decade] for Eurasian forests and 0.017 Pg/decade for forests in North America [9.8 g.C.m(-2) (4.4%)/decade]. This change in the springtime sum of GPP related to the timing of spring snowmelt is quantified here for boreal evergreen forests.
  • Luoma, Krista; Virkkula, Aki; Aalto, Pasi; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Petaja, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku (2021)
    We present a comparison between three absorption photometers that measured the absorption coefficient (sigma(abs)) of ambient aerosol particles in 2012-2017 at SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations II), a measurement station located in a boreal forest in southern Finland. The comparison included an Aethalometer (AE31), a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP). These optical instruments measured particles collected on a filter, which is a source of systematic errors, since in addition to the particles, the filter fibers also interact with light. To overcome this problem, several algorithms have been suggested to correct the AE31 and PSAP measurements. The aim of this study was to research how the different correction algorithms affected the derived optical properties. We applied the different correction algorithms to the AE31 and PSAP data and compared the results against the reference measurements conducted by the MAAP. The comparison between the MAAP and AE31 resulted in a multiple-scattering correction factor (C-ref) that is used in AE31 correction algorithms to compensate for the light scattering by filter fibers. C-ref varies between different environments, and our results are applicable to a boreal environment. We observed a clear seasonal cycle in C-ref, which was probably due to variations in aerosol optical properties, such as the backscatter fraction and single-scattering albedo, and also due to variations in the relative humidity (RH). The results showed that the filter-based absorption photometers seemed to be rather sensitive to the RH even if the RH was kept below the recommended value of 40 %. The instruments correlated well (R approximate to 0.98), but the slopes of the regression lines varied between the instruments and correction algorithms: compared to the MAAP, the AE31 underestimated sigma(abs) only slightly (the slopes varied between 0.96-1.00) and the PSAP overestimated sigma(abs) only a little (the slopes varied between 1.01-1.04 for a recommended filter transmittance >0.7). The instruments and correction algorithms had a notable influence on the absorption angstrom ngstrom exponent: the median absorption Angstrom exponent varied between 0.93-1.54 for the different algorithms and instruments.
  • Euclid Collaboration; Paykari, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Kirkpatrick, C. C. (2020)
    Aims. Our aim is to quantify the impact of systematic effects on the inference of cosmological parameters from cosmic shear.Methods. We present an "end-to-end" approach that introduces sources of bias in a modelled weak lensing survey on a galaxy-by-galaxy level. We propagated residual biases through a pipeline from galaxy properties at one end to cosmic shear power spectra and cosmological parameter estimates at the other end. We did this to quantify how imperfect knowledge of the pipeline changes the maximum likelihood values of dark energy parameters.Results. We quantify the impact of an imperfect correction for charge transfer inefficiency and modelling uncertainties of the point spread function for Euclid, and find that the biases introduced can be corrected to acceptable levels.
  • Euclid Collaboration; Borlaff, A. S.; Gómez-Alvarez, P.; Gozaliasl, G.; Keihänen, E.; Kirkpatrick , C. C.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lindholm, Valtteri; Väliviita, J. (2022)
    Context. While Euclid is an ESA mission specifically designed to investigate the nature of dark energy and dark matter, the planned unprecedented combination of survey area (similar to 15000 deg(2)), spatial resolution, low sky-background, and depth also make Euclid an excellent space observatory for the study of the low surface brightness Universe. Scientific exploitation of the extended low surface brightness structures requires dedicated calibration procedures that are yet to be tested. Aims. We investigate the capabilities of Euclid to detect extended low surface brightness structure by identifying and quantifying sky-background sources and stray-light contamination. We test the feasibility of generating sky flat-fields to reduce large-scale residual gradients in order to reveal the extended emission of galaxies observed in the Euclid survey. Methods. We simulated a realistic set of Euclid/VIS observations, taking into account both instrumental and astronomical sources of contamination, including cosmic rays, stray-light, zodiacal light, interstellar medium, and the cosmic infrared background, while simulating the effects of background sources in the field of view. Results. We demonstrate that a combination of calibration lamps, sky flats, and self-calibration would enable recovery of emission at a limiting surface brightness magnitude of mu(lim) = 29.5(-0.27)(+0.08) mag arcsec(-2) (3 sigma, 10 x 10 arcsec(2)) in theWide Survey, and it would reach regions deeper by 2 mag in the Deep Surveys. Conclusions. Euclid/VIS has the potential to be an excellent low surface brightness observatory. Covering the gap between pixel-to-pixel calibration lamp flats and self-calibration observations for large scales, the application of sky flat-fielding will enhance the sensitivity of the VIS detector at scales larger than 1 '', up to the size of the field of view, enabling Euclid to detect extended surface brightness structures below mu(lim) = 31 mag arcsec(-2) and beyond.
  • Voormansik, Tanel; Cremonini, Roberto; Post, Piia; Moisseev, Dmitri (2021)
    Accurate, timely, and reliable precipitation observations are mandatory for hydrological forecast and early warning systems. In the case of convective precipitation, traditional rain gauge networks often miss precipitation maxima, due to density limitations and the high spatial variability of the rainfall field. Despite several limitations like attenuation or partial beam blocking, the use of C-band weather radar has become operational in most European weather services. Traditionally, weather-radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) is derived from horizontal reflectivity data. Nevertheless, dual-polarization weather radar can overcome several shortcomings of the conventional horizontal-reflectivity-based estimation. As weather radar archives are growing, they are becoming increasingly important for climatological purposes in addition to operational use. For the first time, the present study analyses one of the longest datasets from fully operational polarimetric C-band weather radars; these are located in Estonia and Italy, in very different climate conditions and environments. The length of the datasets used in the study is 5 years for both Estonia and Italy. The study focuses on long-term observations of summertime precipitation and their quantitative estimations by polarimetric observations. From such derived QPEs, accumulations for 1 h, 24 h, and 1-month durations are calculated and compared with reference rain gauges to quantify uncertainties and evaluate performances. Overall, the radar products showed similar results in Estonia and Italy when compared to each other. The product where radar reflectivity and specific differential phase were combined based on a threshold exhibited the best agreement with gauge values in all accumulation periods. In both countries reflectivity-based rainfall QPE underestimated and specific differential-phase-based product overestimated gauge measurements.
  • CORE Collaboration; de Bernardis, P.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lindholm, V.; Väliviita, J. (2018)
    We describe a space-borne, multi-band, multi-beam polarimeter aiming at a precise and accurate measurement of the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background. The instrument is optimized to be compatible with the strict budget requirements of a medium size space mission within the Cosmic Vision Programme of the European Space Agency. The instrument has no moving parts, and uses arrays of diffraction-limited Kinetic Inductance Detectors to cover the frequency range from 60 GHz to 600 GHz in 19 wide bands, in the focal plane of a 1.2 m aperture telescope cooled at 40K, allowing for an accurate extraction of the CMB signal from polarized foreground emission. The projected CMB polarization survey sensitivity of this instrument, after foregrounds removal, is 1.7 mu K.arcmin. The design is robust enough to allow, if needed, a downscoped version of the instrument covering the 100 GHz to 600 GHz range with a 0.8 m aperture telescope cooled at 85K, with a projected CMB polarization survey sensitivity of 3.2 mu K.arcmin.