Browsing by Subject "CANADA"

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  • Hamalainen, S.; Kantele, A.; Arvonen, M.; Hakala, T.; Karhukorpi, J.; Heikkinen, J.; Berg, E.; Vanamo, K.; Tyrvainen, E.; Heiskanen-Kosma, T.; Oksanen, A.; Lavikainen, A. (2015)
  • Salonen, Anne H.; Kontto, Jukka; Perhoniemi, Riku; Alho, Hannu; Castren, Sari (2018)
    Background: Excessive expenditure and financial harms are core features of problem gambling. There are various forms of gambling and their nature varies. The aim was to measure gambling expenditure by game type while controlling for demographics and other gambling participation factors. A further aim was to find out how each game type was associated with gambling expenditure when the number of game types played is adjusted for. Methods: Using data from the 2015 Finnish Gambling survey on adult gamblers (n = 3555), multiple log-linear regression was used to examine the effects of demographics, gambling participation, and engaging in different game types on weekly gambling expenditure (WGE) and relative gambling expenditure (RGE). Background: Excessive expenditure and financial harms are core features of problem gambling. There are various forms of gambling and their nature varies. The aim was to measure gambling expenditure by game type while controlling for demographics and other gambling participation factors. A further aim was to find out how each game type was associated with gambling expenditure when the number of game types played is adjusted for. Conclusions: It seems that overall gambling frequency is the strongest indicator of high gambling expenditure. Our results showed that different game types had different effect sizes on gambling expenditure. Weekly gambling on horse races and non-monopoly games had the greatest increasing effect on expenditure. However, different game types also varied based on their popularity. The extent of potential harms caused by high expenditure therefore also varies on the population level. Based on our results, future prevention and harm minimization efforts should be tailored to different game types for greater effectiveness.
  • Gennaretti, Fabio; Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo; Boucher, Etienne; Berninger, Frank; Arseneault, Dominique; Guiot, Joel (2017)
    A better understanding of the coupling between photosynthesis and carbon allocation in the boreal forest, together with its associated environmental factors and mechanistic rules, is crucial to accurately predict boreal forest carbon stocks and fluxes, which are significant components of the global carbon budget. Here, we adapted the MAIDEN ecophysiological forest model to consider important processes for boreal tree species, such as nonlinear acclimation of photosynthesis to temperature changes, canopy development as a function of previous-year climate variables influencing bud formation and the temperature dependence of carbon partition in summer. We tested these modifications in the eastern Canadian taiga using black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) gross primary production and ring width data. MAIDEN explains 90% of the observed daily gross primary production variability, 73% of the annual ring width variability and 20-30% of its high-frequency component (i.e., when decadal trends are removed). The positive effect on stem growth due to climate warming over the last several decades is well captured by the model. In addition, we illustrate how we improve the model with each introduced model adaptation and compare the model results with those of linear response functions. Our results demonstrate that MAIDEN simulates robust relationships with the most important climate variables (those detected by classical response-function analysis) and is a powerful tool for understanding how environmental factors interact with black spruce ecophysiol-ogy to influence present-day and future boreal forest carbon fluxes.
  • Holmberg, Maria; Aalto, Tuula; Akujarvi, Anu; Arslan, Ali Nadir; Bergstrom, Irina; Bottcher, Kristin; Lahtinen, Ismo; Makela, Annikki; Markkanen, Tiina; Minunno, Francesco; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Rankinen, Katri; Vihervaara, Petteri; Forsius, Martin (2019)
    Forests regulate climate, as carbon, water and nutrient fluxes are modified by physiological processes of vegetation and soil. Forests also provide renewable raw material, food, and recreational possibilities. Rapid climate warming projected for the boreal zone may change the provision of these ecosystem services. We demonstrate model based estimates of present and future ecosystem services related to carbon cycling of boreal forests. The services were derived from biophysical variables calculated by two dynamic models. Future changes in the biophysical variables were driven by climate change scenarios obtained as results of a sample of global climate models downscaled for Finland, assuming three future pathways of radiative forcing. We introduce continuous monitoring on phenology to be used in model parametrization through a webcam network with automated image processing features. In our analysis, climate change impacts on key boreal forest ecosystem services are both beneficial and detrimental. Our results indicate an increase in annual forest growth of about 60% and an increase in annual carbon sink of roughly 40% from the reference period (1981-2010) to the end of the century. The vegetation active period was projected to start about 3 weeks earlier and end ten days later by the end of the century compared to currently. We found a risk for increasing drought, and a decrease in the number of soil frost days. Our results show a considerable uncertainty in future provision of boreal forest ecosystem services.
  • Idehen, Esther E.; Korhonen, Tellervo; Castaneda, Anu; Juntunen, Teppo; Kangasniemi, Mari; Pietila, Anna-Maija; Koponen, Paivikki (2017)
    Background: Previous studies revealed low participation in cervical cancer screening among immigrants compared with non-immigrants. Only a few studies about factors associated with immigrants' lower participation rates have been conducted in European countries that have universal access for all eligible women. Our study aimed to explore factors associated with cervical screening participation among women of Russian, Somali, and Kurdish origin in Finland. Methods: We used data from the Migrant Health and Well-being Survey, 2010-2012. Structured face-to-face interviews of groups of immigrants aged 25-60 yielded 620 responses concerning screening participation in the previous five years. Statistical analysis employed logistic regression. Results: The age-adjusted participation rates were as follows: among women of Russian origin 73.9% (95% CI 68.1-79.7), for Somalis 34.7% (95% CI 26.4-43.0), and for Kurds 61.3% (95% CI 55.0-67.7). Multiple logistic regressions showed that the most significant factor increasing the likelihood of screening participation among all groups was having had at least one gynecological check-up in the previous five years (Odds ratio [OR] = 6.54-26.2; p <0.001). Other factors were higher education (OR = 2.63; p = 0.014), being employed (OR = 4.31; p = 0.007), and having given birth (OR = 9.34; p= 0.014), among Kurds; and literacy in Finnish/Swedish (OR = 3.63; p = 0.003) among Russians. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that women who refrain from using reproductive health services, those who are unemployed and less educated, as well as those with poor language proficiency, might need more information on the importance of screening participation. Primary and occupational healthcare services may have a significant role in informing immigrant women about this importance.
  • Top, Janetta; Sinnige, Jan C.; Brouwer, Ellen C.; Werner, Guido; Corander, Jukka; Severin, Juliette A.; Jansen, Rogier; Bathoorn, E.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Rossen, John W. A.; Willems, Rob J. L. (2018)
    Genomic comparison of the first six Dutch vanD-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolates with four vanD gene clusters from other enterococcal species and anaerobic gut commensals revealed that the vanD gene cluster was located on a genomic island of variable size. Phylogenetic inferences revealed that the Dutch VRE isolates were genetically not closely related and that genetic variation of the vanD-containing genomic island was not species specific, suggesting that this island is transferred horizontally between enterococci and anaerobic gut commensals.
  • Kuusio, Hannamaria; Lamsa, Riikka; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Manderbacka, Kristiina; Keskimaki, Ilmo; Elovainio, Marko (2014)
  • Muster, Sina; Roth, Kurt; Langer, Moritz; Lange, Stephan; Aleina, Fabio Cresto; Bartsch, Annett; Morgenstern, Anne; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin; Sannel, A. Britta K.; Sjoberg, Ylva; Guenther, Frank; Andresen, Christian; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Lindgren, Prajna R.; Bouchard, Frederic; Lara, Mark J.; Fortier, Daniel; Charbonneau, Simon; Virtanen, Tarmo A.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Palmtag, Juri; Siewert, Matthias B.; Riley, William J.; Koven, Charles D.; Boike, Julia (2017)
    Ponds and lakes are abundant in Arctic permafrost lowlands. They play an important role in Arctic wetland ecosystems by regulating carbon, water, and energy fluxes and providing freshwater habitats. However, ponds, i. e., waterbodies with surface areas smaller than 1.0 x 10(4) m(2), have not been inventoried on global and regional scales. The Permafrost Region Pond and Lake (PeRL) database presents the results of a circum-Arctic effort to map ponds and lakes from modern (2002-2013) high-resolution aerial and satellite imagery with a resolution of 5m or better. The database also includes historical imagery from 1948 to 1965 with a resolution of 6m or better. PeRL includes 69 maps covering a wide range of environmental conditions from tundra to boreal regions and from continuous to discontinuous permafrost zones. Waterbody maps are linked to regional permafrost landscape maps which provide information on permafrost extent, ground ice volume, geology, and lithology. This paper describes waterbody classification and accuracy, and presents statistics of waterbody distribution for each site. Maps of permafrost landscapes in Alaska, Canada, and Russia are used to extrapolate waterbody statistics from the site level to regional landscape units. PeRL presents pond and lake estimates for a total area of 1.4 x 10(6) km(2) across the Arctic, about 17% of the Arctic lowland (
  • Jiang, Yangao; Zhang, Junhui; Han, Shijie; Chen, Zhenju; Setala, Heikki; Yu, Jinghua; Zheng, Xingbo; Guo, Yingtao; Gu, Yue (2016)
    To explore how climatic factors influence tree growth within the context of global climate changes, we used a dendroclimatological analysis to understand the response of Larix gmelinii to climatic variations along a broad latitudinal gradient from 47.27 degrees to 52.66 degrees N in the Greater Khingan Mountains of Northeastern China. The growth-limiting climate factors and a detailed association between radial growth and climate were identified along the gradient using redundancy analysis (RDA) and standard correlation function analysis over the period 1960-2013. The results showed that temperatures during current June to July represented the most important factor affecting tree radial growth in the study area. Across all studied latitudes, Larix gmelinii growth might be decreasing in radial growth due to higher monthly maximum temperature (Tmax) and monthly mean temperatures (Tm) in the current June, especially for the stands at low and middle latitudes. With continued warming, Larix gmelinii radial growth at high latitudes (e.g., Mangui (MG) and Mohe (MH)) might be reduced by warmer temperatures in July. In addition, Larix gmelinii might be decreasing in radial growth from decreasing precipitation. Our results show that there is a decreasing trend in Larix gmelinii radial growth under the observed general increase of temperatures in the Greater Khingan Mountains in recent years.
  • Huang, Wenfeng; Li, Zhijun; Leppäranta, Matti; Han, Hongwei; Wang, Ni (2018)
    Ice strain dominates the ice thrust and dynamics on reservoir dams and retaining structures. An exclusively designed laser range finder was deployed to measure the surface ice displacements along six directions at a reservoir in northeastern China. The incompletely confined boundary (ice-boundary bonding), ice cracks development, water level fluctuations, parallel crack dynamics, and ice creep allow the surface ice to move rather than keep still in response to thermal deformation/pressure, and thus cause the ice strain to deviate from thermal strain. Consequently, a residual strain was introduced and calculated from the recorded displacements. Observations showed that the residual strains were anisotropic and showed diurnal patterns following the air/ice temperature. A scale-dependence of crack development was observed to cause potential scale-effects to residual strains. The real ice strain consists of thermal strain and residual strain. The proportion of the latter increased as time went by. A modified constitutive law accommodating the residual strains was developed to evaluate the impacts of the residual strains and to estimate the surface ice stresses. Modeling results underlined the role of the residual strain in determining both the principal stress and the stress perpendicular to and parallel with the dam face. The residual strain is probably the reason why the observed ice stress is always much lower than the single thermal stress. (C) 2018 American Society of Civil Engineers.
  • Siragusa, Laura; Westman, Clinton; Moritz, Sarah (2020)
    We introduce and elaborate on the notion of "shared breath" as a way of understanding human and nonhuman copresence and offer descriptions and narratives about three Indigenous groups in Russia and Canada, namely, Veps, Western Woods Cree, and Interior Salish St'at'imc. These data illustrate vividly how the underused metaphor of shared breath sheds light on active participation in life by and respectful relations with nonhuman beings, thus surpassing other overly used spatial, physical, and spiritual metaphors. We move beyond the physical aspects of discrete spaces and materials in extending consideration to pertinent metaphorical and tangible aspects of the verbal, sonorous, and ritual performances undertaken by humans in order to negotiate and reinforce relations with other beings. Relationality is continuously accommodated and regenerated by human and nonhuman agencies through ritual acts that include blowing, chants, breathing, drumming, visualizing, and smoking. The shared breath through which these encounters take place emblematizes turning moments, when new directions may be taken and long-term relations of respect may be established, validated, and reinforced. Shared breath is both a medium and a modality of shamanic and animist relationality, offering a new way of looking at human-nonhuman contact and exchange in animist ritual contexts and beyond.
  • Mueller, Matthias; Peltonen, Petri; Eilu, Pasi; Goldfarb, Richard; Hanski, Eero (2020)
    The Mustajarvi gold occurrence lies in the southern part of the Paleoproterozoic Central Lapland Greenstone Belt, in proximity to the first-order transcrustal Venejoki thrust fault system. The gold occurrence is structurally controlled by the second-order Mustajarvi shear zone, which is located at the contact between siliciclastic metasedimentary and mafic to ultramafic metavolcanic rocks. The main mineralization comprises a set of parallel veins and sulfidized rocks that are slightly oblique to the shear zone and are hosted by third-order structures likely representing Riedel R-type shears. The gold-mineralized rock at Mustajarvi is associated with pyrite that is present in 0.15- to 1-m-wide quartz-pyrite-tourmaline veins and in zones of massive pyrite in the host rocks with thicknesses ranging from 1.15 to 2 m. In unweathered rock, hypogene gold is hosted by Au- and Au-Bi-telluride micro-inclusions in pyrite, whereas strong weathering at near surface levels has caused a remobilization of gold, resulting in free gold deposited mainly in the cracks of oxidized pyrite. The geochemistry of both mineralization styles is typical of orogenic gold systems with strong enrichments comprising Au, B, Bi, CO2, Te, and Se; and less consistent anomalous amounts of Ag, As, Sb, and W. Unusual for orogenic gold deposits is the strong enrichment of Ni and Co, which leads to the classification of Mustajarvi as orogenic gold occurrence with atypical metal association.
  • Gennaretti, Fabio; Boucher, Etienne; Nicault, Antoine; Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo; Arseneault, Dominique; Berninger, Frank; Savard, Martine M.; Begin, Christian; Guiot, Joel (2018)
    The Tambora eruption (1815 AD) was one of the major eruptions of the last two millennia and has no equivalents over the last two centuries. Here, we collected an extensive network of early meteorological time series, climate simulation data and numerous, well-replicated proxy records from Eastern Canada to analyze the strength and the persistence of the Tambora impact on the regional climate and forest processes. Our results show that the Tambora impacts on the terrestrial biosphere were stronger than previously thought, and not only affected tree growth and carbon uptake for a longer period than registered in the regional climate, but also determined forest demography and structure. Increased tree mortality, four times higher than the background level, indicates that the Tambora climatic impact propagated to influence the structure of the North American taiga for several decades. We also show that the Tambora signal is more persistent in observed data (temperature, river ice dynamics, forest growth, tree mortality) than in simulated ones (climate and forest-growth simulations), indicating that our understanding of the mechanisms amplifying volcanic perturbations on climates and ecosystems is still limited, notably in the North American taiga.