Browsing by Subject "CAP"

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  • Kujala, Paivi; Virkkala, Seija; Lahdesmaki, Merja (2021)
    This article focuses on rural business support as a policy regime of the second pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). We examine the relationships present in the regime to find out how authorities become enablers in the entrepreneurship promotion process. A rural business support regime is considered as a government policy network, consisting of dynamic collaboration and interaction between the European Commission, policymakers, policy implementers and rural entrepreneurs. Based on 38 interviews of rural development actors in Finland, our case-study identifies four properties in the relationships, namely trust, learning, discretion and creativity that are crucial factors in enabling interactions in the rural business support regime. As a contribution, we develop a model for enabling rural authority. We conclude the article by presenting implications for the legitimacy, coherence and durability of the rural business support regime in Finland and in the EU, as we argue that enabling action affects these policy impacts.
  • Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Brady, Mark V.; Graversgaard, Morten; Kilis, Emils; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Pitzén, Samuli; Valve, Helena (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 2021)
    Ambio
    Following decades of international collaboration to restore the Baltic Sea, we provide an assessment of the domestic implementation of measures agreed to limit diffuse agricultural pollution and the patterns of policy instruments applied. Despite the Helsinki Convention being unusually specific in detailing what measures countries should introduce, we find many shortcomings. These are most pronounced in the larger countries (Poland, Germany and Russia), while smaller countries perform better, notably Sweden and Estonia. The patterns of policy instruments applied differ, influenced by domestic politics. The limited use of complementary policy instruments suggests that other priorities overrule full and effective implementation, with engagement mirroring the advantages that a restored Baltic Sea can bring to countries. Using the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development to support farmers in managing nutrients, particularly advisory services and investments in modern manure management technologies, represents a significant opportunity for reducing agricultural pollution in most countries.
  • Tolonen, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Epithelial cells form a barrier between the tissue and the external environment. Epithelial morphogenesis refers to the shaping of epithelial layers and is a key step in the development of organisms. The actin cytoskeleton provides the cell its form and during epithelial morphogenesis, produces force to shape the cells. To achieve this, the actin cytoskeleton is organized into protrusive and contractile networks. In a living cell, these actin networks are dynamic, as the filaments are constantly undergoing assembly and disassembly. Actin-binding proteins regulate the turnover of actin filaments, but in epithelial morphogenesis, the regulatory role of most of these proteins is still relatively unknown. In all multicellular organisms, actin disassembly is controlled by ADF/cofilin. ADF/cofilin activity is furthermore enhanced by other actin-binding proteins, one of which is cyclase-associated protein (CAP). CAP promotes actin turnover by accelerating ADF/cofilin mediated actin disassembly and in recycling actin monomers to sites of actin polymerization. Unlike ADF/cofilin that regulates actin disassembly throughout the whole cell, CAP could be subject to more specific spatial regulation, as loss of CAP leads to F-actin accumulation on the apical side of epithelial cells. However, the role of CAP in morphogenetic cell rearrangements remains poorly known. In addition, the in vivo role of the biochemical functions of CAP has not been elucidated. The aim of this master’s thesis is to describe the role of CAP in regulating the actin cytoskeleton in the follicular epithelium of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. For this purpose, chimeric mutant flies with homozygous CAP loss of function mutation were generated. Subsequently, the effect of the CAP loss of function was observed in follicle cell populations undergoing morphogenetic changes. In addition, CAP loss of function was rescued with different transgenes producing mutant CAP proteins to identify the protein domains of CAP with in vivo significance. In addition, a Drosophila CAP specific antibody was purified to be used in immunostaining. The ovaries were imaged using confocal microscopy. In this thesis, it is shown that CAP loss of function caused accumulation of filamentous actin in all observed follicular cell populations. Surprisingly, the actin turnover was rescued by all of the used CAP rescue transgenes, but the mutant transgenes exhibited phenotypes resembling the CAP loss of function in other epithelial tissues. Moreover, CAP loss of function caused defects in the follicle cell movement and cell spreading. The loss of function also caused expression changes in other actin-binding proteins. The findings of these thesis support the current knowledge of CAP importance for functional actin turnover in the follicle cells, even though the protein domain necessary for in vivo function could not be deciphered. Moreover, this project provides indication that CAP has an indispensable role in dynamic morphogenetic processes in the epithelium. Together with other actin-binding proteins, CAP could regulate epithelial actin turnover in spatially directed manner, providing force for epithelial cell adhesions or protrusions.