Browsing by Subject "CAPACITY"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 34
  • Greiff, Samuel; Wuestenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, March H. (2015)
    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students' CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence.
  • Bonetti, L.; Haumann, N. T.; Brattico, E.; Kliuchko, M.; Vuust, P.; Särkämö, T.; Näätänen, R. (2018)
    Objective: Memory is the faculty responsible for encoding, storing and retrieving information, comprising several sub-systems such as sensory memory (SM) and working memory (WM). Some previous studies exclusively using clinical population revealed associations between these two memory systems. Here we aimed at investigating the relation between modality-general WM performance and auditory SM formation indexed by magnetic mismatch negativity (MMN) responses in a healthy population of young adults. Methods: Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we recorded MMN amplitudes to changes related to six acoustic features (pitch, timbre, location, intensity, slide, and rhythm) inserted in a 4-tone sequence in 86 adult participants who were watching a silent movie. After the MEG recordings, participants were administered the WM primary subtests (Spatial Span and Letter Number Sequencing) of Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). Results: We found significant correlations between frontal MMN amplitudes to intensity and slide deviants and WM performance. In case of intensity, the relation was revealed in all participants, while for slide only in individuals with a musical background. Conclusions: Automatic neural responses to auditory feature changes are increased in individuals with higher visual WM performance. Significance: Conscious WM abilities might be linked to pre-attentive sensory-specific neural skills of prediction and short-term storage of environmental regularities. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Kumar, Arjun; Hoque, Mohammad Ashraful; Nurmi, Petteri; Pecht, Michael G.; Tarkoma, Sasu; Song, Junehwa (ACM, 2020)
    Deployments of battery-powered IoT devices have become ubiquitous, monitoring everything from environmental conditions in smart cities to wildlife movements in remote areas. How to manage the life-cycle of sensors in such large-scale deployments is currently an open issue. Indeed, most deployments let sensors operate until they fail and fix or replace the sensors post-hoc. In this paper, we contribute by developing a new approach for facilitating the life-cycle management of large-scale sensor deployments through online estimation of battery health. Our approach relies on so-called V-edge dynamics which capture and characterize instantaneous voltage drops. Experiments carried out on a dataset of battery discharge measurements demonstrate that our approach is capable of estimating battery health with up to 80% accuracy, depending on the characteristics of the devices and the processing load they undergo. Our method is particularly well-suited for the sensor devices, operating dedicated tasks, that have constant discharge during their operation.
  • Lai, Tin-Yu; Salminen, Jani; Jäppinen, Jukka-Pekka; Koljonen, Saija; Mononen, Laura; Nieminen, Emmi; Vihervaara, Petteri; Oinonen, Soile (2018)
    In this paper, we examine how progress on ecosystem service indicators could contribute to ecosystem accounting within the scope of environmental-economic accounting in Finland. We propose an integration framework and examine the integration of ecosystem service indicators into environmental-economic accounting with two case studies relevant for Finland: (1) water-related ecosystem services and (2) the ecosystem services of fish provisioning in marine ecosystems. In light of these case studies, we evaluate the relevance of existing Finnish ecosystem service indicators, the data availability for ecosystem accounting in Finland, and the applicability of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting o Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA-EEA) framework to integrate Finnish ecosystem service indicators and other relevant data into environmental-economic accounts. The results indicate that the present ecosystem service indicators can assist in creating a basis for ecosystem accounting, but the indicators require further elaboration to be more compatible with the existing environmental-economic accounting system.
  • Abot, Anne; Brochot, Amandine; Pomie, Nicolas; Wemelle, Eve; Druart, Celine; Regnier, Marion; Delzenne, Nathalie M.; de Vos, Willem M.; Knauf, Claude; Cani, Patrice D. (2022)
    Overweight, obesity, and their comorbidities are currently considered a major public health concern. Today considerable efforts are still needed to develop efficient strategies able to attenuate the burden of these diseases. Nutritional interventions, some with plant extracts, present promising health benefits. In this study, we evaluated the action of Camu-Camu (Myrciaria dubia), an Amazonian fruit rich in polyphenols and vitamin C, on the prevention of obesity and associated disorders in mice and the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila in both cecum and feces. Methods: We investigated the dose-response effects of Camu-Camu extract (CCE) in the context of high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity. After 5 weeks of supplementation, we demonstrated that the two doses of CCE differently improved glucose and lipid homeostasis. The lowest CCE dose (62.5 mg/kg) preferentially decreased non-HDL cholesterol and free fatty acids (FFA) and increased the abundance of A. muciniphila without affecting liver metabolism, while only the highest dose of CCE (200 mg/kg) prevented excessive body weight gain, fat mass gain, and hepatic steatosis. Both doses decreased fasting hyperglycemia induced by HFD. In conclusion, the use of plant extracts, and particularly CCE, may represent an additional option in the support of weight management strategies and glucose homeostasis alteration by mechanisms likely independent from the modulation of A. muciniphila abundance.
  • Virtanen, Lari S.; Olkkonen, Maria; Saarela, Toni P. (2020)
    Color serves both to segment a scene into objects and background and to identify objects. Although objects and surfaces usually contain multiple colors, humans can readily extract a representative color description, for instance, that tomatoes are red and bananas yellow. The study of color discrimination and identification has a long history, yet we know little about the formation of summary representations of multicolored stimuli. Here, we characterize the human ability to integrate hue information over space for simple color stimuli varying in the amount of information, stimulus size, and spatial configuration of stimulus elements. We show that humans are efficient at integrating hue information over space beyond what has been shown before for color stimuli. Integration depends only on the amount of information in the display and not on spatial factors such as element size or spatial configuration in the range measured. Finally, we find that observers spontaneously prefer a simple averaging strategy even with skewed color distributions. These results shed light on how human observers form summary representations of color and make a link between the perception of polychromatic surfaces and the broader literature of ensemble perception.
  • Baniasadi, Mehdi; Azizkhani, Maryam; Saris, Per Erik Joakim; Tooryan, Fahimeh (2022)
    The aim of this study was to compare the antioxidant potential of the yogurt and kefir produced from ewe, camel, goat, and cow milk. The antioxidant activity of the samples was assessed by measuring total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical reducing capacity during 20-day storage at 4 oC. Kefir and yogurt prepared from ewe and camel milk had significantly higher antioxidative potential than samples made from goat and cow milk (P <0.05). Ewe kefir (74.55-80.11 mg GAE 100 mL(-1)) showed the highest TPC followed by cow kefir (65-73.15 mg GAE 100 mL(-1)), camel kefir (61.2-69.91 mg GAE 100 mL(-1)) and goat kefir (58.31-73.5 mg GAE 100 mL(-1)) (P <0.05). Camel yogurt possesses the highest TPC (56.5-68.25 mg GAE 100 mL(-1)) followed by ewe (40.32-46.5 mg GAE 100 mL(-1)), cow (29.5-35.5 mg GAE 100 mL(-1)) and goat (20.03-26.85 mg GAE 100 mL(-1)) yogurt (P <0.05). According to DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS results, the antioxidant activity of samples was as follows in descending order: ewe kefir, camel kefir, ewe yogurt, camel yogurt, cow kefir, goat kefir, goat yogurt, cow yogurt.
  • Touzani, Soumaya; Imtara, Hamada; Katekhaye, Shankar; Mechchate, Hamza; Ouassou, Hayat; Alqahtani, Ali S.; Noman, Omar M.; Nasr, Fahd A.; Fearnley, Hugo; Fearnley, James; Paradkar, Anant; ElArabi, Ilham; Lyoussi, Badiaa (2021)
    The biological activities of propolis samples are the result of many bioactive compounds present in the propolis. The aim of the present study was to determine the various chemical compounds of some selected propolis samples collected from Palestine and Morocco by the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array Detection (HPLC-PDA) method, as well as the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of this bee product. The chemical analysis of propolis samples by HPLC-PDA shows the cinnamic acid content in the Palestinian sample is higher compared to that in Moroccan propolis. The results of antioxidant activity demonstrated an important free radical scavenging activity (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); 2,2 '-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and reducing power assays) with EC50 values ranging between 0.02 +/- 0.001 and 0.14 +/- 0.01 mg/mL. Additionally, all tested propolis samples possessed a moderate antibacterial activity against bacterial strains. Notably, Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) values ranged from 0.31 to 2.50 mg/mL for Gram-negative bacterial strains and from 0.09 to 0.125 mg/mL for Gram-positive bacterial strains. The S2 sample from Morocco and the S4 sample from Palestine had the highest content of polyphenol level. Thus, the strong antioxidant and antibacterial properties were apparently due to the high total phenolic and flavone/flavonol contents in the samples. As a conclusion, the activities of propolis samples collected from both countries are similar, while the cinnamic acid in the Palestinian samples was more than that of the Moroccan samples.
  • Rochette, Anne-Julie; Akpona, Jean Didier T.; Akpona, Hugues Adeloui; Akouehou, Gaston S.; Kwezi, Blanchard Mayundo; Djagoun, Chabi A. M. S.; Habonimana, Bernadette; Idohou, Rodrigue; Legba, Ingride S.; Nzigidahera, Benoit; Matilo, Augustin Orou; Taleb, Mohammed Sghir; Bamoninga, Benjamin Toirambe; Ivory, Sarah; de Bisthoven, Luc Janssens; Vanhove, Maarten P. M. (2019)
    There is an increasing need for monitoring schemes that help understand the evolution of the global biodiversity crisis and propose solutions for the future. Indicators, including temporal baselines, are crucial to measure the change in biodiversity over time, to evaluate progress towards its conservation and sustainable use and to set conservation priorities. They help design and monitor national and regional policies on biodiversity; they also feed into national reporting on international agreements such as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Sustainable Development Goals. We analyse the methodological approach of five small African projects resulting from a call to promote indicator development, improve monitoring capacity and strengthen the science-policy interface in the field of biodiversity. We compared their approach to existing guidance provided by the international community, specifically the Biodiversity Indicators Partnership. To this end, we assess whether internationally recommended steps are effectively applied to national/local biodiversity monitoring in selected developing countries. We also present lessons learnt from workshop interactions between partners involved in these projects. Through our pilot projects we identified data availability and data accessibility, together with the involvement of stakeholders, as critical steps in indicator development. Moreover, there is a need for a better awareness and a wider application of the indicator concept itself. Hence, training of key actors both in the policy and science spheres is needed to operationalize indicators and ensure their continuity and sustainability. We hope that these case studies and lessons learnt can stimulate and support countries in the Global South to formulate policy-relevant biodiversity indicators.
  • Leskinen, Tuija; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Rintala, Mirva; Seppanen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Pollanen, Eija; Alen, Markku; Sipila, Sarianna; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kovanen, Vuokko; Rahkila, Paavo; Oresic, Matej; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M. (2010)
    High physical activity/aerobic fitness predicts low morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to identify the most up-regulated gene sets related to long-term physical activity vs. inactivity in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues and to obtain further information about their link with cardio-metabolic risk factors. We studied ten same-sex twin pairs (age range 50-74 years) who had been discordant for leisure-time physical activity for 30 years. The examinations included biopsies from m. vastus lateralis and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. RNA was analyzed with the genome-wide Illumina Human WG-6 v3.0 Expression BeadChip. For pathway analysis we used Gene Set Enrichment Analysis utilizing active vs. inactive co-twin gene expression ratios. Our findings showed that among the physically active members of twin pairs, as compared to their inactive co-twins, gene expression in the muscle tissue samples was chronically up-regulated for the central pathways related to energy metabolism, including oxidative phosphorylation, lipid metabolism and supportive metabolic pathways. Up-regulation of these pathways was associated in particular with aerobic fitness and high HDL cholesterol levels. In fat tissue we found physical activity-associated increases in the expression of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and branched-chain amino acid degradation gene sets both of which associated with decreased 'high-risk' ectopic body fat and plasma glucose levels. Consistent with other findings, plasma lipidomics analysis showed up-regulation of the triacylglycerols containing the polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our findings identified skeletal muscle and fat tissue pathways which are associated with the long-term physical activity and reduced cardio-metabolic disease risk, including increased aerobic fitness. In particular, improved skeletal muscle oxidative energy and lipid metabolism as well as changes in adipocyte function and redistribution of body fat are associated with reduced cardio-metabolic risk.
  • Suvanto, Hannele; Niemi, Jarkko K.; Lahdesmaki, Merja (2020)
    Protein crops are important in enhancing sustainable and self-contained agriculture and food security in Europe. Individual farmers are key players in protein crop production. The aim of this research is to understand how an entrepreneurial identity affects strategic cultivation decisions in the context of protein-rich crop farming. In this study, entrepreneurial identity consists of a farmer's personal and entrepreneurial orientations. Data on 308 Finnish farmers were gathered and statistically tested. Our findings clarify that entrepreneurial identity increases the probability of beginning protein-rich crop cultivation, especially if the farmer in question is innovative, a risk-taker and highly educated. This article contributes to the understanding of agricultural entrepreneurship and strategic cultivation decisions made by different kinds of farmers. We further claim that profitable but risky and demanding crops have tempted farmers with a high entrepreneurial identity for the most part, which would not suffice for protein crops to become mainstream.
  • Juntunen, Miia; Heinonen, Sini; Huhtala, Heini; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kuismanen, Kirsi; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Miettinen, Susanna; Patrikoski, Mimmi (2021)
    Background Adipose stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are promising candidates for future clinical applications. ASCs have regenerative capacity, low immunogenicity, and immunomodulatory ability. The success of future cell-based therapies depends on the appropriate selection of donors. Several factors, including age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), may influence ASC characteristics. Our aim was to investigate the effect of acquired weight on ASC characteristics under the same genetic background using ASCs derived from monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. Methods ASCs were isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue from five weight-discordant (WD, within-pair difference in BMI > 3 kg/m(2)) MZ twin pairs, with measured BMI and metabolic status. The ASC immunophenotype, proliferation and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity were studied. ASC immunogenicity, immunosuppression capacity and the expression of inflammation markers were investigated. ASC angiogenic potential was assessed in cocultures with endothelial cells. Results ASCs showed low immunogenicity, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation capacity independent of weight among all donors. ASCs showed a mesenchymal stem cell-like immunophenotype; however, the expression of CD146 was significantly higher in leaner WD twins than in heavier cotwins. ASCs from heavier twins from WD pairs showed significantly greater adipogenic differentiation capacity and higher expression of TNF and lower angiogenic potential compared with their leaner cotwins. ASCs showed immunosuppressive capacity in direct cocultures; however, heavier WD twins showed stronger immunosuppressive capacity than leaner cotwins. Conclusions Our genetically matched data suggest that a higher weight of the donor may have some effect on ASC characteristics, especially on angiogenic and adipogenic potential, which should be considered when ASCs are used clinically.
  • Karppinen, Jari E.; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Wiklund, Petri; Hamalainen, Kaisa; Laakkonen, Eija K.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M. (2019)
    Purpose We aimed to investigate if hereditary factors, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and metabolic health interact with resting fat oxidation (RFO) and peak fat oxidation (PFO) during ergometer cycling. Methods We recruited 23 male monozygotic twin pairs (aged 32-37 years) and determined their RFO and PFO with indirect calorimetry for 21 and 19 twin pairs and for 43 and 41 twin individuals, respectively. Using physical activity interviews and the Baecke questionnaire, we identified 10 twin pairs as LTPA discordant for the past 3 years. Of the twin pairs, 8 pairs participated in both RFO and PFO measurements, and 2 pairs participated in either of the measurements. We quantified the participants' metabolic health with a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Results Fat oxidation within co-twins was correlated at rest [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-0.78] and during exercise (ICC = 0.67, 95% CI 0.33-0.86). The LTPA-discordant pairs had no pairwise differences in RFO or PFO. In the twin individual-based analysis, PFO was positively correlated with the past 12-month LTPA (r = 0.26, p = 0.034) and the Baecke score (r = 0.40, p = 0.022) and negatively correlated with the area under the curve of insulin (r = - 0.42, p = 0.015) and glucose (r = - 0.31, p = 0.050) during the oral glucose tolerance test. Conclusions Hereditary factors were more important than LTPA for determining fat oxidation at rest and during exercise. Additionally, PFO, but not RFO, was associated with better metabolic health.
  • Jyske, Tuula; Brännström, Hanna; Sarjala, Tytti; Hellström, Jarkko; Halmemies, Eelis; Raitanen, Jan-Erik; Kaseva, Janne; Lagerquist, Lucas; Eklund, Patrik; Nurmi, Juha (2020)
    Softwood bark is an important by-product of forest industry. Currently, bark is under-utilized and mainly directed for energy production, although it can be extracted with hot water to obtain compounds for value-added use. In Norway spruce (Picea abies[L.] Karst.) bark, condensed tannins and stilbene glycosides are among the compounds that comprise majority of the antioxidative extractives. For developing feasible production chain for softwood bark extractives, knowledge on raw material quality is critical. This study examined the fate of spruce bark tannins and stilbenes during storage treatment with two seasonal replications (i.e., during winter and summer). In the experiment, mature logs were harvested and stored outside. During six-month-storage periods, samples were periodically collected for chemical analysis from both inner and outer bark layers. Additionally, bark extractives were analyzed for antioxidative activities by FRAP, ORAC, and H(2)O(2)scavenging assays. According to the results, stilbenes rapidly degraded during storage, whereas tannins were more stable: only 5-7% of the original stilbene amount and ca. 30-50% of the original amount of condensed tannins were found after 24-week-storage. Summer conditions led to the faster modification of bark chemistry than winter conditions. Changes in antioxidative activity were less pronounced than those of analyzed chemical compounds, indicating that the derivatives of the compounds contribute to the antioxidative activity. The results of the assays showed that, on average, ca. 27% of the original antioxidative capacity remained 24 weeks after the onset of the storage treatment, while a large variation (2-95% of the original capacity remaining) was found between assays, seasons, and bark layers. Inner bark preserved its activities longer than outer bark, and intact bark attached to timber is expected to maintain its activities longer than a debarked one. Thus, to ensure prolonged quality, no debarking before storage is suggested: outer bark protects the inner bark, and debarking enhances the degradation.
  • Kuusisto, Sanna; Karjalainen, Minna K.; Tillin, Therese; Kangas, Antti J.; Holmes, Michael; Kahonen, Mika; Lehtimaki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma; Perola, Markus; Chaturvedi, Nishi; Salomaa, Veikko; Raitakari, Olli T.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kettunen, Johannes; Ala-Korpela, Mika (2022)
    Background Observational findings for high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity (HDL-CEC) and coronary heart disease (CHD) appear inconsistent, and knowledge of the genetic architecture of HDL-CEC is limited. Objectives A large-scale observational study on the associations of HDL-CEC and other HDL-related measures with CHD and the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HDL-CEC. Participants/methods Six independent cohorts were included with follow-up data for 14,438 participants to investigate the associations of HDL-related measures with incident CHD (1,570 events). The GWAS of HDL-CEC was carried out in 20,372 participants. Results HDL-CEC did not associate with CHD when adjusted for traditional risk factors and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). In contradiction, almost all HDL-related concentration measures associated consistently with CHD after corresponding adjustments. There were no genetic loci associated with HDL-CEC independent of HDL-C and triglycerides. Conclusion HDL-CEC is not unequivocally associated with CHD in contrast to HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-I, and most of the HDL subclass particle concentrations.
  • Kuusisto, Sanna; Kostara, Christina; Kangas, Antti J.; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Kettunen, Johannes; Ala-Korpela, Mika (2021)
  • Wang, Sheng H.; Lobier, Muriel; Siebenhühner, Felix; Puoliväli, Tuomas; Palva, Satu; Palva, J. Matias (2018)
    It has not been well documented that MEG/EEG functional connectivity graphs estimated with zero-lag-free interaction metrics are severely confounded by a multitude of spurious interactions (SI), i.e., the false-positive “ghosts” of true interactions [1,2]. These SI are caused by the multivariate linear mixing between sources, and thus they pose a severe challenge to the validity of connectivity analysis. Due to the complex nature of signal mixing and the SI problem, there is a need to intuitively demonstrate how the SI are discovered and how they can be attenuated using a novel approach that we termed hyperedge bundling. Here we provide a dataset with software with which the readers can perform simulations in order to better understand the theory and the solution to SI. We include the supplementary material of [1] that is not directly relevant to the hyperedge bundling per se but reflects important properties of the MEG source model and the functional connectivity graphs. For example, the gyri of dorsal-lateral cortices are the most accurately modeled areas; the sulci of inferior temporal, frontal and the insula have the least modeling accuracy. Importantly, we found the interaction estimates are heavily biased by the modeling accuracy between regions, which means the estimates cannot be straightforwardly interpreted as the coupling between brain regions. This raise a red flag that the conventional method of thresholding graphs by estimate values is rather suboptimal: because the measured topology of the graph reflects the geometric property of source-model instead of the cortical interactions under investigation.
  • Narumanchi, Suneeta; Kalervo, Karri; Perttunen, Sanni; Wang, Hong; Immonen, Katariina; Kosonen, Riikka; Laine, Mika; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Lakkisto, Päivi; Paavola, Jere (2019)
    The let-7c family of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) is expressed during embryonic development and plays an important role in cell differentiation. We have investigated the role of let-7c in heart regeneration after injury in adult zebrafish. let-7c antagomir or scramble injections were given at one day after cryoinjury (1 dpi). Tissue samples were collected at 7 dpi, 14 dpi and 28 dpi and cardiac function was assessed before cryoinjury, 1 dpi, 7 dpi, 14 dpi and 28 dpi. Inhibition of let-7c increased the rate of fibrinolysis, increased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cardiomyocytes at 7 dpi and increased the expression of the epicardial marker raldh2 at 7 dpi. Additionally, cardiac function measured with echocardiography recovered slightly more rapidly after inhibition of let-7c. These results reveal a beneficial role of let-7c inhibition in adult zebrafish heart regeneration.
  • Ölander, K.; Muukkonen, I.; Saarela, T. P.; Salmela, V. R. (2019)
    Simple visual items and complex real-world objects are stored into visual working memory as a collection of independent features, not as whole or integrated objects. Storing faces into memory might differ, however, since previous studies have reported perceptual and memory advantage for whole faces compared to other objects. We investigated whether facial features can be integrated in a statistically optimal fashion and whether memory maintenance disrupts this integration. The observers adjusted a probe - either a whole face or isolated features (eyes or mouth region) - to match the identity of a target while viewing both stimuli simultaneously or after a 1.5 second retention period. Precision was better for the whole face compared to the isolated features. Perceptual precision was higher than memory precision, as expected, and memory precision further declined as the number of memorized items was increased from one to four. Interestingly, the whole-face precision was better predicted by models assuming injection of memory noise followed by integration of features than by models assuming integration of features followed by the memory noise. The results suggest equally weighted or optimal integration of facial features and indicate that feature information is preserved in visual working memory while remembering faces.
  • Cole, Robert; Brockhaus, Maria; Wong, Grace Yee; Kallio, Maarit Helena; Moeliono, Moira (2019)
    Themes of inclusion, empowerment, and participation are recurrent in development discourse and interventions, implying enablement of agency on the part of communities and individuals to inform and influence how policies that affect them are enacted. This article aims to contribute to debates on participation in rural development and environmental conservation, by applying a structure-agency lens to examine experiences of marginal farm households in three distinct systems of resource allocation in Lao PDR’s northern uplands—in other words, three institutional or (in)formal structures. These comprise livelihood development and poverty reduction projects, maize contract farming, and a national protected area. Drawing on qualitative data from focus group discussions and household surveys, the article explores the degree to which farmers may shape their engagement with the different systems, and ways in which agency may be enabled or disabled by this engagement. Our findings show that although some development interventions provide consultative channels for expressing needs, these are often within limited options set from afar. The market-based maize system, while in some ways agency-enabling, also entailed narrow choices and heavy dependence on external actors. The direct regulation of the protected area system meanwhile risked separating policy decisions from existing local knowledge. Our analytical approach moves beyond notions of agency commonly focused on decision-making and/or resistance, and instead revisits the structure-agency dichotomy to build a nuanced understanding of people’s lived experiences of interventions. This allows for fresh perspectives on the everyday enablement or disablement of agency, aiming to support policy that is better grounded in local realities. Keywords: agency, participation, rural development, forests, conservation, Lao PDR