Browsing by Subject "CAPACITY"

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  • Greiff, Samuel; Wuestenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, March H. (2015)
    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students' CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence.
  • Bonetti, L.; Haumann, N. T.; Brattico, E.; Kliuchko, M.; Vuust, P.; Särkämö, T.; Näätänen, R. (2018)
    Objective: Memory is the faculty responsible for encoding, storing and retrieving information, comprising several sub-systems such as sensory memory (SM) and working memory (WM). Some previous studies exclusively using clinical population revealed associations between these two memory systems. Here we aimed at investigating the relation between modality-general WM performance and auditory SM formation indexed by magnetic mismatch negativity (MMN) responses in a healthy population of young adults. Methods: Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we recorded MMN amplitudes to changes related to six acoustic features (pitch, timbre, location, intensity, slide, and rhythm) inserted in a 4-tone sequence in 86 adult participants who were watching a silent movie. After the MEG recordings, participants were administered the WM primary subtests (Spatial Span and Letter Number Sequencing) of Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). Results: We found significant correlations between frontal MMN amplitudes to intensity and slide deviants and WM performance. In case of intensity, the relation was revealed in all participants, while for slide only in individuals with a musical background. Conclusions: Automatic neural responses to auditory feature changes are increased in individuals with higher visual WM performance. Significance: Conscious WM abilities might be linked to pre-attentive sensory-specific neural skills of prediction and short-term storage of environmental regularities. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Kumar, Arjun; Hoque, Mohammad Ashraful; Nurmi, Petteri; Pecht, Michael G.; Tarkoma, Sasu; Song, Junehwa (ACM, 2020)
    Deployments of battery-powered IoT devices have become ubiquitous, monitoring everything from environmental conditions in smart cities to wildlife movements in remote areas. How to manage the life-cycle of sensors in such large-scale deployments is currently an open issue. Indeed, most deployments let sensors operate until they fail and fix or replace the sensors post-hoc. In this paper, we contribute by developing a new approach for facilitating the life-cycle management of large-scale sensor deployments through online estimation of battery health. Our approach relies on so-called V-edge dynamics which capture and characterize instantaneous voltage drops. Experiments carried out on a dataset of battery discharge measurements demonstrate that our approach is capable of estimating battery health with up to 80% accuracy, depending on the characteristics of the devices and the processing load they undergo. Our method is particularly well-suited for the sensor devices, operating dedicated tasks, that have constant discharge during their operation.
  • Lai, Tin-Yu; Salminen, Jani; Jäppinen, Jukka-Pekka; Koljonen, Saija; Mononen, Laura; Nieminen, Emmi; Vihervaara, Petteri; Oinonen, Soile (2018)
    In this paper, we examine how progress on ecosystem service indicators could contribute to ecosystem accounting within the scope of environmental-economic accounting in Finland. We propose an integration framework and examine the integration of ecosystem service indicators into environmental-economic accounting with two case studies relevant for Finland: (1) water-related ecosystem services and (2) the ecosystem services of fish provisioning in marine ecosystems. In light of these case studies, we evaluate the relevance of existing Finnish ecosystem service indicators, the data availability for ecosystem accounting in Finland, and the applicability of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting o Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA-EEA) framework to integrate Finnish ecosystem service indicators and other relevant data into environmental-economic accounts. The results indicate that the present ecosystem service indicators can assist in creating a basis for ecosystem accounting, but the indicators require further elaboration to be more compatible with the existing environmental-economic accounting system.
  • Virtanen, Lari S.; Olkkonen, Maria; Saarela, Toni P. (2020)
    Color serves both to segment a scene into objects and background and to identify objects. Although objects and surfaces usually contain multiple colors, humans can readily extract a representative color description, for instance, that tomatoes are red and bananas yellow. The study of color discrimination and identification has a long history, yet we know little about the formation of summary representations of multicolored stimuli. Here, we characterize the human ability to integrate hue information over space for simple color stimuli varying in the amount of information, stimulus size, and spatial configuration of stimulus elements. We show that humans are efficient at integrating hue information over space beyond what has been shown before for color stimuli. Integration depends only on the amount of information in the display and not on spatial factors such as element size or spatial configuration in the range measured. Finally, we find that observers spontaneously prefer a simple averaging strategy even with skewed color distributions. These results shed light on how human observers form summary representations of color and make a link between the perception of polychromatic surfaces and the broader literature of ensemble perception.
  • Touzani, Soumaya; Imtara, Hamada; Katekhaye, Shankar; Mechchate, Hamza; Ouassou, Hayat; Alqahtani, Ali S.; Noman, Omar M.; Nasr, Fahd A.; Fearnley, Hugo; Fearnley, James; Paradkar, Anant; ElArabi, Ilham; Lyoussi, Badiaa (2021)
    The biological activities of propolis samples are the result of many bioactive compounds present in the propolis. The aim of the present study was to determine the various chemical compounds of some selected propolis samples collected from Palestine and Morocco by the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array Detection (HPLC-PDA) method, as well as the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of this bee product. The chemical analysis of propolis samples by HPLC-PDA shows the cinnamic acid content in the Palestinian sample is higher compared to that in Moroccan propolis. The results of antioxidant activity demonstrated an important free radical scavenging activity (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); 2,2 '-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and reducing power assays) with EC50 values ranging between 0.02 +/- 0.001 and 0.14 +/- 0.01 mg/mL. Additionally, all tested propolis samples possessed a moderate antibacterial activity against bacterial strains. Notably, Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) values ranged from 0.31 to 2.50 mg/mL for Gram-negative bacterial strains and from 0.09 to 0.125 mg/mL for Gram-positive bacterial strains. The S2 sample from Morocco and the S4 sample from Palestine had the highest content of polyphenol level. Thus, the strong antioxidant and antibacterial properties were apparently due to the high total phenolic and flavone/flavonol contents in the samples. As a conclusion, the activities of propolis samples collected from both countries are similar, while the cinnamic acid in the Palestinian samples was more than that of the Moroccan samples.
  • Rochette, Anne-Julie; Akpona, Jean Didier T.; Akpona, Hugues Adeloui; Akouehou, Gaston S.; Kwezi, Blanchard Mayundo; Djagoun, Chabi A. M. S.; Habonimana, Bernadette; Idohou, Rodrigue; Legba, Ingride S.; Nzigidahera, Benoit; Matilo, Augustin Orou; Taleb, Mohammed Sghir; Bamoninga, Benjamin Toirambe; Ivory, Sarah; de Bisthoven, Luc Janssens; Vanhove, Maarten P. M. (2019)
    There is an increasing need for monitoring schemes that help understand the evolution of the global biodiversity crisis and propose solutions for the future. Indicators, including temporal baselines, are crucial to measure the change in biodiversity over time, to evaluate progress towards its conservation and sustainable use and to set conservation priorities. They help design and monitor national and regional policies on biodiversity; they also feed into national reporting on international agreements such as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Sustainable Development Goals. We analyse the methodological approach of five small African projects resulting from a call to promote indicator development, improve monitoring capacity and strengthen the science-policy interface in the field of biodiversity. We compared their approach to existing guidance provided by the international community, specifically the Biodiversity Indicators Partnership. To this end, we assess whether internationally recommended steps are effectively applied to national/local biodiversity monitoring in selected developing countries. We also present lessons learnt from workshop interactions between partners involved in these projects. Through our pilot projects we identified data availability and data accessibility, together with the involvement of stakeholders, as critical steps in indicator development. Moreover, there is a need for a better awareness and a wider application of the indicator concept itself. Hence, training of key actors both in the policy and science spheres is needed to operationalize indicators and ensure their continuity and sustainability. We hope that these case studies and lessons learnt can stimulate and support countries in the Global South to formulate policy-relevant biodiversity indicators.
  • Leskinen, Tuija; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Rintala, Mirva; Seppanen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Pollanen, Eija; Alen, Markku; Sipila, Sarianna; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kovanen, Vuokko; Rahkila, Paavo; Oresic, Matej; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M. (2010)
    High physical activity/aerobic fitness predicts low morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to identify the most up-regulated gene sets related to long-term physical activity vs. inactivity in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues and to obtain further information about their link with cardio-metabolic risk factors. We studied ten same-sex twin pairs (age range 50-74 years) who had been discordant for leisure-time physical activity for 30 years. The examinations included biopsies from m. vastus lateralis and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. RNA was analyzed with the genome-wide Illumina Human WG-6 v3.0 Expression BeadChip. For pathway analysis we used Gene Set Enrichment Analysis utilizing active vs. inactive co-twin gene expression ratios. Our findings showed that among the physically active members of twin pairs, as compared to their inactive co-twins, gene expression in the muscle tissue samples was chronically up-regulated for the central pathways related to energy metabolism, including oxidative phosphorylation, lipid metabolism and supportive metabolic pathways. Up-regulation of these pathways was associated in particular with aerobic fitness and high HDL cholesterol levels. In fat tissue we found physical activity-associated increases in the expression of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and branched-chain amino acid degradation gene sets both of which associated with decreased 'high-risk' ectopic body fat and plasma glucose levels. Consistent with other findings, plasma lipidomics analysis showed up-regulation of the triacylglycerols containing the polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our findings identified skeletal muscle and fat tissue pathways which are associated with the long-term physical activity and reduced cardio-metabolic disease risk, including increased aerobic fitness. In particular, improved skeletal muscle oxidative energy and lipid metabolism as well as changes in adipocyte function and redistribution of body fat are associated with reduced cardio-metabolic risk.
  • Karppinen, Jari E.; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Wiklund, Petri; Hamalainen, Kaisa; Laakkonen, Eija K.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M. (2019)
    Purpose We aimed to investigate if hereditary factors, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and metabolic health interact with resting fat oxidation (RFO) and peak fat oxidation (PFO) during ergometer cycling. Methods We recruited 23 male monozygotic twin pairs (aged 32-37 years) and determined their RFO and PFO with indirect calorimetry for 21 and 19 twin pairs and for 43 and 41 twin individuals, respectively. Using physical activity interviews and the Baecke questionnaire, we identified 10 twin pairs as LTPA discordant for the past 3 years. Of the twin pairs, 8 pairs participated in both RFO and PFO measurements, and 2 pairs participated in either of the measurements. We quantified the participants' metabolic health with a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Results Fat oxidation within co-twins was correlated at rest [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-0.78] and during exercise (ICC = 0.67, 95% CI 0.33-0.86). The LTPA-discordant pairs had no pairwise differences in RFO or PFO. In the twin individual-based analysis, PFO was positively correlated with the past 12-month LTPA (r = 0.26, p = 0.034) and the Baecke score (r = 0.40, p = 0.022) and negatively correlated with the area under the curve of insulin (r = - 0.42, p = 0.015) and glucose (r = - 0.31, p = 0.050) during the oral glucose tolerance test. Conclusions Hereditary factors were more important than LTPA for determining fat oxidation at rest and during exercise. Additionally, PFO, but not RFO, was associated with better metabolic health.
  • Jyske, Tuula; Brännström, Hanna; Sarjala, Tytti; Hellström, Jarkko; Halmemies, Eelis; Raitanen, Jan-Erik; Kaseva, Janne; Lagerquist, Lucas; Eklund, Patrik; Nurmi, Juha (2020)
    Softwood bark is an important by-product of forest industry. Currently, bark is under-utilized and mainly directed for energy production, although it can be extracted with hot water to obtain compounds for value-added use. In Norway spruce (Picea abies[L.] Karst.) bark, condensed tannins and stilbene glycosides are among the compounds that comprise majority of the antioxidative extractives. For developing feasible production chain for softwood bark extractives, knowledge on raw material quality is critical. This study examined the fate of spruce bark tannins and stilbenes during storage treatment with two seasonal replications (i.e., during winter and summer). In the experiment, mature logs were harvested and stored outside. During six-month-storage periods, samples were periodically collected for chemical analysis from both inner and outer bark layers. Additionally, bark extractives were analyzed for antioxidative activities by FRAP, ORAC, and H(2)O(2)scavenging assays. According to the results, stilbenes rapidly degraded during storage, whereas tannins were more stable: only 5-7% of the original stilbene amount and ca. 30-50% of the original amount of condensed tannins were found after 24-week-storage. Summer conditions led to the faster modification of bark chemistry than winter conditions. Changes in antioxidative activity were less pronounced than those of analyzed chemical compounds, indicating that the derivatives of the compounds contribute to the antioxidative activity. The results of the assays showed that, on average, ca. 27% of the original antioxidative capacity remained 24 weeks after the onset of the storage treatment, while a large variation (2-95% of the original capacity remaining) was found between assays, seasons, and bark layers. Inner bark preserved its activities longer than outer bark, and intact bark attached to timber is expected to maintain its activities longer than a debarked one. Thus, to ensure prolonged quality, no debarking before storage is suggested: outer bark protects the inner bark, and debarking enhances the degradation.
  • Kuusisto, Sanna; Kostara, Christina; Kangas, Antti J.; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Kettunen, Johannes; Ala-Korpela, Mika (2021)
  • Wang, Sheng H.; Lobier, Muriel; Siebenhühner, Felix; Puoliväli, Tuomas; Palva, Satu; Palva, J. Matias (2018)
    It has not been well documented that MEG/EEG functional connectivity graphs estimated with zero-lag-free interaction metrics are severely confounded by a multitude of spurious interactions (SI), i.e., the false-positive “ghosts” of true interactions [1,2]. These SI are caused by the multivariate linear mixing between sources, and thus they pose a severe challenge to the validity of connectivity analysis. Due to the complex nature of signal mixing and the SI problem, there is a need to intuitively demonstrate how the SI are discovered and how they can be attenuated using a novel approach that we termed hyperedge bundling. Here we provide a dataset with software with which the readers can perform simulations in order to better understand the theory and the solution to SI. We include the supplementary material of [1] that is not directly relevant to the hyperedge bundling per se but reflects important properties of the MEG source model and the functional connectivity graphs. For example, the gyri of dorsal-lateral cortices are the most accurately modeled areas; the sulci of inferior temporal, frontal and the insula have the least modeling accuracy. Importantly, we found the interaction estimates are heavily biased by the modeling accuracy between regions, which means the estimates cannot be straightforwardly interpreted as the coupling between brain regions. This raise a red flag that the conventional method of thresholding graphs by estimate values is rather suboptimal: because the measured topology of the graph reflects the geometric property of source-model instead of the cortical interactions under investigation.
  • Narumanchi, Suneeta; Kalervo, Karri; Perttunen, Sanni; Wang, Hong; Immonen, Katariina; Kosonen, Riikka; Laine, Mika; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Lakkisto, Päivi; Paavola, Jere (2019)
    The let-7c family of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) is expressed during embryonic development and plays an important role in cell differentiation. We have investigated the role of let-7c in heart regeneration after injury in adult zebrafish. let-7c antagomir or scramble injections were given at one day after cryoinjury (1 dpi). Tissue samples were collected at 7 dpi, 14 dpi and 28 dpi and cardiac function was assessed before cryoinjury, 1 dpi, 7 dpi, 14 dpi and 28 dpi. Inhibition of let-7c increased the rate of fibrinolysis, increased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cardiomyocytes at 7 dpi and increased the expression of the epicardial marker raldh2 at 7 dpi. Additionally, cardiac function measured with echocardiography recovered slightly more rapidly after inhibition of let-7c. These results reveal a beneficial role of let-7c inhibition in adult zebrafish heart regeneration.
  • Ölander, K.; Muukkonen, I.; Saarela, T. P.; Salmela, V. R. (2019)
    Simple visual items and complex real-world objects are stored into visual working memory as a collection of independent features, not as whole or integrated objects. Storing faces into memory might differ, however, since previous studies have reported perceptual and memory advantage for whole faces compared to other objects. We investigated whether facial features can be integrated in a statistically optimal fashion and whether memory maintenance disrupts this integration. The observers adjusted a probe - either a whole face or isolated features (eyes or mouth region) - to match the identity of a target while viewing both stimuli simultaneously or after a 1.5 second retention period. Precision was better for the whole face compared to the isolated features. Perceptual precision was higher than memory precision, as expected, and memory precision further declined as the number of memorized items was increased from one to four. Interestingly, the whole-face precision was better predicted by models assuming injection of memory noise followed by integration of features than by models assuming integration of features followed by the memory noise. The results suggest equally weighted or optimal integration of facial features and indicate that feature information is preserved in visual working memory while remembering faces.
  • Cole, Robert; Brockhaus, Maria; Wong, Grace Yee; Kallio, Maarit Helena; Moeliono, Moira (2019)
    Themes of inclusion, empowerment, and participation are recurrent in development discourse and interventions, implying enablement of agency on the part of communities and individuals to inform and influence how policies that affect them are enacted. This article aims to contribute to debates on participation in rural development and environmental conservation, by applying a structure-agency lens to examine experiences of marginal farm households in three distinct systems of resource allocation in Lao PDR’s northern uplands—in other words, three institutional or (in)formal structures. These comprise livelihood development and poverty reduction projects, maize contract farming, and a national protected area. Drawing on qualitative data from focus group discussions and household surveys, the article explores the degree to which farmers may shape their engagement with the different systems, and ways in which agency may be enabled or disabled by this engagement. Our findings show that although some development interventions provide consultative channels for expressing needs, these are often within limited options set from afar. The market-based maize system, while in some ways agency-enabling, also entailed narrow choices and heavy dependence on external actors. The direct regulation of the protected area system meanwhile risked separating policy decisions from existing local knowledge. Our analytical approach moves beyond notions of agency commonly focused on decision-making and/or resistance, and instead revisits the structure-agency dichotomy to build a nuanced understanding of people’s lived experiences of interventions. This allows for fresh perspectives on the everyday enablement or disablement of agency, aiming to support policy that is better grounded in local realities. Keywords: agency, participation, rural development, forests, conservation, Lao PDR
  • Lappi, Pauli Antero; Ollikainen, Markku Martti Olavi (2019)
    This study analyzes socially optimal environmental policy for a mine with a model that takes into account waste or waste rock production and abatement possibilities of the mine. We develop a model, in which the mine produces an externality related to the waste rocks, such as acid mine drainage. We find that the extraction rate tends to be lower in a mine with higher waste rock production, and that the optimal tax on the waste rock production is strictly increasing in time. We extend the model to incorporate an additional externality in the form of a stock pollutant. We analyze the optimal taxes and show that the typical result that the time path of the tax on the stock pollutant is inverted U-shaped may be lost in a mine model with abatement possibility and fixed operation period.
  • Diduck, Alan P.; Raymond, Christopher M.; Rodela, Romina; Moquin, Robert; Boerchers, Morrissa (2020)
    Nature-based solutions directed at improving biodiversity, on both public and private land, can provide multiple benefits, but many of these benefits are not being fully realised. One reason is the normative and cognitive disconnect between people and nature, highlighting the need for new learning programs to foster better nature connections. More is known about learning in the context of community gardens than in relation to private gardens. Using semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis, this study explores learning among residents engaged in home gardening for biodiversity in Winnipeg, Canada. We uncovered diverse and interconnected learning processes/activities founded on formative childhood experiences. The processes/activities were non-formal and informal, and included individual, social and blended experiences. Learning outcomes were also mutually influencing and multi-levelled, comprising normative, cognitive/behavioural and relational changes. The results support an analytical framework suggesting how learning-focused initiatives can enhance biodiversity on private property and aid in delivery of nature-based solutions.
  • Antinluoma, Markku; Ilomäki, Liisa; Toom, Auli (2021)
    Building professional learning communities (PLC) has become a widely recognized strategy for school development and for student achievement. Four Finnish comprehensive schools were identified as being ready to be PLCs in a previous quantitative study, and the purpose of this study was to investigate practices of PLCs in these schools. In this paper, we used data from qualitative multiple-case study, which investigated practices of leadership, culture, teacher collaboration, professional learning, and development. The results showed that the principals had played the main role in the progression of schools as PLCs. Principals were described as visionary leaders who had started positive progression, shared the leadership, and created commitment to common goals. The results indicated also that a change of leaders can have a positive effect. Decision-making processes were participative, inclusive, democratic, and collaborative, aiming for a satisfactory level of consensus. Relationships among staff were reported as being based on mutual trust and openness, and members were encouraged to express their opinions. Common responsibility of students, peer support, encouragement, and co-teaching were practiced. Co-teaching practices were identified as an effective form of collaborative work-embedded professional learning which is related to the core principles of professional learning communities. Structural conditions were reported as barriers to schools' development as PLCs.
  • Salmela, Viljami R.; Ölander, Kaisu; Muukkonen, Ilkka; Bays, Paul M. (2019)
    Many studies of visual working memory have tested humans' ability to reproduce primary visual features of simple objects, such as the orientation of a grating or the hue of a color patch, following a delay. A consistent finding of such studies is that precision of responses declines as the number of items in memory increases. Here we compared visual working memory for primary features and high-level objects. We presented participants with memory arrays consisting of oriented gratings, facial expressions, or a mixture of both. Precision of reproduction for all facial expressions declined steadily as the memory load was increased from one to five faces. For primary features, this decline and the specific distributions of error observed, have been parsimoniously explained in terms of neural population codes. We adapted the population coding model for circular variables to the non-circular and bounded parameter space used for expression estimation. Total population activity was held constant according to the principle of normalization and the intensity of expression was decoded by drawing samples from the Bayesian posterior distribution. The model fit the data well, showing that principles of population coding can be applied to model memory representations at multiple levels of the visual hierarchy. When both gratings and faces had to be remembered, an asymmetry was observed. Increasing the number of faces decreased precision of orientation recall, but increasing the number of gratings did not affect recall of expression, suggesting that memorizing faces involves the automatic encoding of low-level features, in addition to higher-level expression information.
  • Zeng, Zhen; Li, Cheng; Ertbjerg, Per (2017)
    The purpose of this study was to increase the knowledge on the relationship between proteolysis of myofibrillar proteins and the water-holding of meat. Myofibrils isolated from porcine longissimus thoracic et lumborum muscle were used as a model system. Myofibrils were incubated with either calpain-2, the proteasome or a lysosomal extract at 25 degrees C for 2 h. All three proteolytic systems improved the relative water-holding and generally there was a larger effect with increasing amount of enzymes in the incubation. The improved water-holding occurred in parallel to degradation of myofibrillar proteins. Desmin was degraded by calpain-2 as well as by lysosomal enzymes and a-actinin was released by the proteasome. We here propose a model in which degradation of proteins in and around the Z-disk allows overall swelling of the filament lattice and more specifically in the I band area. In conclusion, proteolytic degradation of myofibrillar proteins by calpain-2, the proteasome or lysosomal enzymes improves the water-holding of myofibrils.