Browsing by Subject "CAPILLARY"

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  • Sihvo, H. -K.; Airas, N.; Linden, J.; Puolanne, E. (2018)
    In wooden breast myopathy (WBM) of broiler chickens, the pectoralis major muscles show abnormally hard consistency and microscopical myodegeneration of unknown aetiology. To date, previous studies have focused primarily on chronic WBM and ultrastructural descriptions of early WBM are lacking. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pathogenesis of WBM by light microscopical morphometry of vessel density and the ultra structural description of early WBM changes with transmission electron microscopy. The pectoral vessel density was compared between unaffected chickens (n = 14) and two areas of focal WBM in affected chickens (n = 14). The transverse myofibre area per vessel was highest in the unaffected area of muscle from cases of focal WBM, significantly higher (P = 0.01) than in macroscopically unaffected tissue, indicating that relatively decreased blood supply may trigger the development of WBM. The ultrastructural study included unaffected chickens (n = 3), two areas offocal WBM from affected chickens (n = 3) and areas of diffuse WBM from affected chickens (n = 3). The morphologically least affected myofibres within the WBM lesion areas in light microscopy exhibited ultrastructural changes of increased sarcoplasmic reticulum diameter and mitochondrial hyperplasia. Such changes originate typically from osmotic imbalance, for which the most likely aetiologies in WBM include tissue hypoxia or myodegencration of the surrounding myofibres. The findings suggest that a relative reduction of blood supply in the major pectoral muscle occurs in the early phase of WBM, which may be linked to the ultrastructural changes of osmotic imbalance. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Khalifat, Nada; Beaune, Gregory; Nagarajan, Usharani; Winnik, Francoise M.; Brochard-Wyart, Francoise (2016)
    Tissues belong to the broad field of active matter, a novel class of non-equilibrium materials composed of many interacting units that individually consume energy and collectively generate motion or mechanical stresses. Active systems span an enormous range of length scales, from individual living cells, to tissues and organisms, to animal groups. We introduce the concept of biological tissues as examples of entangled active matter, where the units (cell) are bound by transient links. We focus here on the mechanical properties (surface tension, elasticity, and viscosity) of cells and tissues derived from measurements performed by the pipette aspiration technique. This approach has been very fruitful in unveiling striking analogies between the physics of inert soft matter (polymer, viscous pastes, and Silly Putty (R)) and the behavior of biological tissues. The results obtained from such analogies suggest important implications in the fields of tissue engineering and development. (C) 2016 The Japan Society of Applied Physics