Browsing by Subject "CAPSAICIN"

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  • Timperley, Christopher M.; Forman, Jonathan E.; Aas, Pal; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Benachour, Djafer; Al-Amri, Abdullah Saeed; Baulig, Augustin; Becker-Arnold, Renate; Borrett, Veronica; Carino, Flerida A.; Curty, Christophe; Gonzalez, David; Geist, Michael; Kane, William; Kovarik, Zrinka; Martinez-Alvarez, Roberto; Mikulak, Robert; Fusaro Mourao, Nicia Maria; Neffe, Slawomir; Nogueira, Evandro De Souza; Ramasami, Ponnadurai; Raza, Syed K.; Rubaylo, Valentin; Saeed, Ahmed E. M.; Takeuchi, Koji; Tang, Cheng; Trifiro, Ferruccio; van Straten, Francois Mauritz; Suarez, Alejandra G.; Waqar, Farhat; Vanninen, Paula S.; Zafar-Uz-Zaman, Mohammad; Vucinic, Slavica; Zaitsev, Volodymyr; Zina, Mongia Said; Holen, Stian; Izzati, Fauzia Nurul (2018)
    Compounds that cause powerful sensory irritation to humans were reviewed by the Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in response to requests in 2014 and 2017 by the OPCW Director-General to advise which riot control agents (RCAs) might be subject to declaration under the Chemical Weapons Convention (the Convention). The chemical and toxicological properties of 60 chemicals identified from a survey by the OPCW of RCAs that had been researched or were available for purchase, and additional chemicals recognised by the SAB as having potential RCA applications, were considered. Only 17 of the 60 chemicals met the definition of a RCA under the Convention. These findings were provided to the States Parties of the Convention to inform the implementation of obligations pertaining to RCAs under this international chemical disarmament and non-proliferation treaty.
  • Drummen, Mathijs; Tischmann, Lea; Gatta-Cherifi, Blandine; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Adam, Tanja C.; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S. (2020)
    Background: Weight loss has been associated with adaptations in energy expenditure. Identifying factors that counteract these adaptations are important for long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased protein/carbohydrate ratio would reduce adaptive thermogenesis (AT) and the expected positive energy balance (EB) during weight maintenance after weight loss in participants with prediabetes in the postobese state. Methods: In 38 participants, the effects of 2 diets differing in protein/carbohydrate ratio on energy expenditure and respiratory quotient (RQ) were assessed during 48-h respiration chamber measurements similar to 34 mo after weight loss. Participants consumed a high-protein (HP) diet In = 20; 13 women/7 men; age: 64.0 +/- 6.2 y; BMI: 28.9 +/- 4.0 kg/m(2)) with 25:45:30% or a moderate-protein (MP) diet (n = 18; 9 women/9 men; age: 65.1 +/- 5.8 y; BMI: 29.0 +/- 3.8 kg/m(2)) with 15:55:30% of energy from protein:carbohydrate:fat. Predicted resting energy expenditure (REEp) was calculated based on fat-free mass and fat mass. AT was assessed by subtracting measured resting energy expenditure (REE) from REEp. The main outcomes included differences in components of energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, and AT between groups. Results: EB (MP = 0.2 +/- 0.9 MJ/d; HP = -0.5 +/- 0.9 MJ/d) and RO (MP = 0.84 +/- 0.02; HP = 0.82 +/- 0.02) were reduced and REE (MP: 73 +/- 0.2 MJ/d compared with HP: 78 +/- 0.2 MJ/d) was increased in the HP group compared with the MP group (P <0.05). REE was not different from REEp in the HP group, whereas REE was lower than REEp in the MP group (P <0.05). Furthermore, EB was positively related to AT (r(s) = 0.74; P <0.001) and RQ (r(s) = 0.47; P <0.01) in the whole group of participants. Conclusions: In conclusion, an HP diet compared with an MP diet led to a negative EB and counteracted AT similar to 34 mo after weight loss, in participants with prediabetes in the postobese state. These results indicate the relevance of compliance to an increased protein/carbohydrate ratio for long-term weight maintenance after weight loss.
  • Roukka, Sulo; Puputti, Sari; Aisala, Heikki; Hoppu, Ulla; Seppä, Laila; Sandell, Mari A. (2021)
    Chemesthesis is a part of the flavor experience of foods. Chemesthetic perception is studied to understand its effect on food-related behavior and health. Thus, the objective of this research was to study individual differences in chemesthetic perception. Our study involved sensory tests of three chemesthetic modalities (astringency, pungency, and cooling). Participants (N = 196) evaluated the intensity of samples in different concentrations using a line scale under sensory laboratory conditions. Aluminum ammonium sulfate, capsaicin, and menthol were used as the prototypic chemesthetic compounds. The participants were divided into sensitivity groups in different chemesthetic modalities by hierarchical clustering based on their intensity ratings. In addition, an oral chemesthesis sensitivity score was determined to represent the generalized chemesthesis sensitivity. The results showed that people can perceive chemesthesis on different intensity levels. There were significantly positive correlations between (1) sensitivity scores for oral chemesthesis and taste as well as (2) each chemesthesis and taste modalities. Moreover, based on the multinomial logistic regression model, significant interactions between oral chemesthesis and taste sensitivity were discovered. Our findings showed that people can be classified into different oral chemesthesis sensitivity groups. The methods and results of this study can be utilized to investigate associations with food-related behavior and health.