Browsing by Subject "CARBON"

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  • Salonen, Iines S.; Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Nomaki, Hidetaka; Langlet, Dewi; Tsuchiya, Masashi; Koho, Karoliina A. (2021)
    Foraminifera are unicellular eukaryotes that are an integral part of benthic fauna in many marine ecosystems, including the deep sea, with direct impacts on benthic biogeochemical cycles. In these systems, different foraminiferal species are known to have a distinct vertical distribution, i.e., microhabitat preference, which is tightly linked to the physico-chemical zonation of the sediment. Hence, foraminifera are well-adapted to thrive in various conditions, even under anoxia. However, despite the ecological and biogeochemical significance of foraminifera, their ecology remains poorly understood. This is especially true in terms of the composition and diversity of their microbiome, although foraminifera are known to harbor diverse endobionts, which may have a significant meaning to each species' survival strategy. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding to investigate the microbiomes of five different deep-sea benthic foraminiferal species representing differing microhabitat preferences. The microbiomes of these species were compared intra- and inter-specifically, as well as with the surrounding sediment bacterial community. Our analysis indicated that each species was characterized with a distinct, statistically different microbiome that also differed from the surrounding sediment community in terms of diversity and dominant bacterial groups. We were also able to distinguish specific bacterial groups that seemed to be strongly associated with particular foraminiferal species, such as the family Marinilabiliaceae for Chilostomella ovoidea and the family Hyphomicrobiaceae for Bulimina subornata and Bulimina striata. The presence of bacterial groups that are tightly associated to a certain foraminiferal species implies that there may exist unique, potentially symbiotic relationships between foraminifera and bacteria that have been previously overlooked. Furthermore, the foraminifera contained chloroplast reads originating from different sources, likely reflecting trophic preferences and ecological characteristics of the different species. This study demonstrates the potential of 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding in resolving the microbiome composition and diversity of eukaryotic unicellular organisms, providing unique in situ insights into enigmatic deep-sea ecosystems.
  • Qi, Lu; Vogel, Alexander L.; Esmaeilirad, Sepideh; Cao, Liming; Zheng, Jing; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Fermo, Paola; Kasper-Giebl, Anne; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Chen, Mindong; Ge, Xinlei; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Slowik, Jay G. (2020)
    The aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), combined with statistical methods such as positive matrix factorization (PMF), has greatly advanced the quantification of primary organic aerosol (POA) sources and total secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass. However, the use of thermal vaporization and electron ionization yields extensive thermal decomposition and ionization-induced fragmentation, which limit chemical information needed for SOA source apportionment. The recently developed extractive electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF) provides mass spectra of the organic aerosol fraction with a linear response to mass and no thermal decomposition or ionization-induced fragmentation. However, the costs and operational requirements of online instruments make their use impractical for long-term or spatially dense monitoring applications. This challenge was overcome for AMS measurements by measuring re-nebulized water extracts from ambient filter samples. Here, we apply the same strategy for EESI-TOF measurements of 1 year of 24 h filter samples collected approximately every fourth day throughout 2013 at an urban site. The nebulized water extracts were measured simultaneously with an AMS. The application of positive matrix factorization (PMF) to EESI-TOF spectra resolved seven factors, which describe water-soluble OA: less and more aged biomass burning aerosol (LABB(EESI) and MABB(EESI), respectively), cigarette-smoke-related organic aerosol, primary biological organic aerosol, biogenic secondary organic aerosol, and a summer mixed oxygenated organic aerosol factor. Seasonal trends and relative contributions of the EESI-TOF OA sources were compared with AMS source apportionment factors, measured water-soluble ions, cellulose, and meteorological data. Cluster analysis was utilized to identify key factor-specific ions based on PMF. Both LABB and MABB contribute strongly during winter. LABB is distinguished by very high signals from C6H10O5 (levoglucosan and isomers) and C8H12O6, whereas MABB is characterized by a large number of CxHyOz and CxHyOzN species of two distinct populations: one with low H : C and high O : C and the other with high H : C and low O : C. Two oxygenated summertime SOA sources were attributed to terpene-derived biogenic SOA, a major summertime aerosol source in central Europe. Furthermore, a primary biological organic aerosol factor was identified, which was dominated by plant-derived fatty acids and correlated with free cellulose. The cigarette-smoke-related factor contained a high contribution of nicotine and high abundance of organic nitrate ions with low m/z.
  • Celaya, Christian A.; Orozco-Ic, Mesias; Dimitrova, Maria; Wirz, Lukas N.; Sundholm, Dage (2020)
    We propose a novel class of gold-containing molecules, which have been designed using conjugated carbon structures as templates. The sp-hybridized carbons of C-2 moieties are replaced with a gold atom and one of the adjacent carbons is replaced by nitrogen. Applying the procedure to hexadehydro[12]annulene yields the well-known cyclic trinuclear gold(i) carbeniate complex. Planar, tubular and cage-shaped complexes can be obtained by taking similar sp-hybridized carbon structures as the starting point.
  • Baltrenaite, Edita; Baltrenas, Pranas; Bhatnagar, Amit; Vilppo, Teemu; Selenius, Mikko; Koistinen, Arto; Dahl, Mari; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka (2017)
    The environmental legislation and strict enforcement of environmental regulations are the tools effectively used for developing the market of materials for environmental protection technologies. Sustain ability criteria shift environmental engineering systems to more sustainable-material-based technologies. For carbon-based medium materials in biofiltration, this trend results in attempts to use biochar for biofiltration purposes. The paper presents the analysis of biochar properties based on the main criteria for biofiltration medium integrating the environmental quality properties of biochar, following the European Biochar Certificate guidelines. Three types of biochar produced from feedstock of highly popular and abundant types of waste are analysed. A multi component approach was applied to summarize the results. The lignocellulosic type of biochar was found to be more competitive for use as a biofiltration medium than the types of biochar with high ash or lignin content. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Arroyo-Mora, J. Pablo; Kalacska, Margaret; Soffer, Raymond J.; Moore, Tim R.; Roulet, Nigel T.; Juutinen, Sari; Ifimov, Gabriela; Leblanc, George; Inamdar, Deep (2018)
    Peatlands cover a large area in Canada and globally (12% and 3% of the landmass, respectively). These ecosystems play an important role in climate regulation through the sequestration of carbon dioxide from, and the release of methane to, the atmosphere. Monitoring approaches, required to understand the response of peatlands to climate change at large spatial scales, are challenged by their unique vegetation characteristics, intrinsic hydrological complexity, and rapid changes over short periods of time (e.g., seasonality). In this study, we demonstrate the use of multitemporal, high spatial resolution (1 m(2)) hyperspectral airborne imagery (Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) and Shortwave Airborne Spectrographic Imager (SASI) sensors) for assessing maximum instantaneous gross photosynthesis (PGmax) in hummocks, and gravimetric water content (GWC) and carbon uptake efficiency in hollows, at the Mer Bleue ombrotrophic bog. We applied empirical models (i.e., in situ data and spectral indices) and we derived spatial and temporal trends for the aforementioned variables. Our findings revealed the distribution of hummocks (51.2%), hollows (12.7%), and tree cover (33.6%), which is the first high spatial resolution map of this nature at Mer Bleue. For hummocks, we found growing season PGmax values between 8 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) and 12. tmol m(-2) s(-1) were predominant (86.3% of the total area). For hollows, our results revealed, for the first time, the spatial heterogeneity and seasonal trends for gravimetric water content and carbon uptake efficiency for the whole bog.
  • Mencuccini, Maurizio; Salmon, Yann; Mitchell, Patrick; Hölttä, Teemu; Choat, Brendan; Meir, Patrick; O'Grady, Anthony; Tissue, David; Zweifel, Roman; Sevanto, Sanna; Pfautsch, Sebastian (2017)
    Substantial uncertainty surrounds our knowledge of tree stem growth, with some of the most basic questions, such as when stem radial growth occurs through the daily cycle, still unanswered. We employed high-resolution point dendrometers, sap flow sensors, and developed theory and statistical approaches, to devise a novel method separating irreversible radial growth from elastic tension-driven and elastic osmotically driven changes in bark water content. We tested this method using data from five case study species. Experimental manipulations, namely a field irrigation experiment on Scots pine and a stem girdling experiment on red forest gum trees, were used to validate the theory. Time courses of stem radial growth following irrigation and stem girdling were consistent with a-priori predictions. Patterns of stem radial growth varied across case studies, with growth occurring during the day and/or night, consistent with the available literature. Importantly, our approach provides a valuable alternative to existing methods, as it can be approximated by a simple empirical interpolation routine that derives irreversible radial growth using standard regression techniques. Our novel method provides an improved understanding of the relative source-sink carbon dynamics of tree stems at a sub-daily time scale.
  • Wang, Qian; Lintunen, Anna; Zhao, Ping; Shen, Weijun; Salmon, Yann; Chen, Xia; Ouyang, Lei; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan; Sun, Dan; Rao, Xinquan; Holtta, Teemu (2020)
    Prerequisite for selection of appropriate tree species in afforestation programs is to understand their water use strategy. Acacia mangium Willd., Schima wallichii Choisy, and Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook are the three main vegetation restoration pioneer species in southern China, but no comparative research on the water use strategy of these three tree species have been reported. Our objective was to gain a detailed understanding of how photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and soil water content (SWC) at different soil depths control the sap flux density (J(s)) in the dry and wet seasons. We measured the J(s) of these three tree species by using the thermal dissipation method in low subtropical China. We found that both S. wallichii and C. lanceolata differed clearly in their stomatal behavior from one season to another, while A. mangium did not. The canopy conductance per sapwood area of S. wallichii and C. lanceolata was very sensitive to VPD in the dry season, but not in the wet season. The J(s) of A. mangium was negatively correlated to SWC in all soil layers and during both seasons, while the other two species were not sensitive to SWC in the deeper layers and only positively correlated to SWC in dry season. Our results demonstrate that the three species have distinct water use strategies and may therefore respond differently to changing climate.
  • Nadal-Sala, Daniel; Grote, Ruediger; Birami, Benjamin; Lintunen, Anna; Mammarella, Ivan; Preisler, Yakir; Rotenberg, Eyal; Salmon, Yann; Tatarinov, Fedor; Yakir, Dan; Ruehr, Nadine K. (2021)
    Climate change will impact forest productivity worldwide. Forecasting the magnitude of such impact, with multiple environmental stressors changing simultaneously, is only possible with the help of process-based models. In order to assess their performance, such models require careful evaluation against measurements. However, direct comparison of model outputs against observational data is often not reliable, as models may provide the right answers due to the wrong reasons. This would severely hinder forecasting abilities under unprecedented climate conditions. Here, we present a methodology for model assessment, which supplements the traditional output-to-observation model validation. It evaluates model performance through its ability to reproduce observed seasonal changes of the most limiting environmental driver (MLED) for a given process, here daily gross primary productivity (GPP). We analyzed seasonal changes of the MLED for GPP in two contrasting pine forests, the Mediterranean Pinus halepensis Mill. Yatir (Israel) and the boreal Pinus sylvestris L. Hyytiala (Finland) from three years of eddy-covariance flux data. Then, we simulated the same period with a state-of-the-art process-based simulation model (LandscapeDNDC). Finally, we assessed if the model was able to reproduce both GPP observations and MLED seasonality. We found that the model reproduced the seasonality of GPP in both stands, but it was slightly overestimated without site-specific fine-tuning. Interestingly, although LandscapeDNDC properly captured the main MLED in Hyytiala (temperature) and in Yatir (soil water availability), it failed to reproduce high-temperature and high-vapor pressure limitations of GPP in Yatir during spring and summer. We deduced that the most likely reason for this divergence is an incomplete description of stomatal behavior. In summary, this study validates the MLED approach as a model evaluation tool, and opens up new possibilities for model improvement.
  • Saarinen, Ninni; Kankare, Ville; Pyorala, Jiri; Yrttimaa, Tuomas; Liang, Xinlian; Wulder, Michael A.; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppa, Juha; Vastaranta, Mikko (2019)
    Large and comprehensive datasets, traditionally based on destructive stem analysis or other labor-intensive approaches, are commonly considered as a necessity in developing stem-volume equations. The aim here was to investigate how a decreasing number of sample trees affects parametrizing an existing taper curve equation and resultant stem-volume estimates. Furthermore, the potential of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in producing taper curves was examined. A TLS-based taper curve was derived for 246 Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) from southern Finland to parametrize an existing taper curve equation. To assess sensitivity of the parametrization regarding sample size, the number of Scots pines included in the parametrization varied between full census and 1 Scots pine at a time. Root mean square error of stem-volume estimates remained = 46 Scots pines. Thus, it can be concluded that, with a rather small sample size, a taper curve equation can be re-parametrized for local conditions using point clouds from TLS to produce consistent stem-volume estimates.
  • Booyens, Wanda; Beukes, Johan P.; Van Zyl, Pieter G.; Ruiz-Jimenez, Jose; Kopperi, Matias; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Josipovic, Miroslav; Vakkari, Ville; Laakso, Lauri (2019)
    A recent paper reported GCxGC-TOFMS analysis used for the first time in southern Africa to tentatively characterise and semi-quantify 1000 organic compounds in aerosols at Welgegund - a regional background atmospheric monitoring station. Ambient polar organic aerosols characterised are further explored in terms of temporal variations, as well as the influence of meteorology and sources. No distinct seasonal pattern was observed for the total number of polar organic compounds tentatively characterised and their corresponding semi-quantified concentrations (sum of the normalised response factors, Sigma NRFs). However, the total number of polar organic compounds and Sigma NRFs between late spring and early autumn seemed relatively lower compared to the period from mid-autumn to mid-winter, while there was a period during late winter and early spring with significantly lower total number of polar organic compounds and Sigma NRFs. Relatively lower total number of polar organic compounds and corresponding Sigma NRFs were associated with fresher plumes from a source region relatively close to Welgegund. Meteorological parameters indicated that wet removal during late spring to early autumn also contributed to lower total numbers of polar organics and associated Sigma NRFs. Increased anticyclonic recirculation and more pronounced inversion layers contributed to higher total numbers of polar organic species and Sigma NRFs from mid-autumn to mid-winter, while the influence of regional biomass burning during this period was also evident. The period with significantly lower total number of polar organic compounds and Sigma NRFs was attributed to fresh open biomass burning plumes occurring within proximity of Welgegund, consisting mainly of volatile organic compounds and non-polar hydrocarbons. Multiple linear regression substantiated that the temporal variations in polar organic compounds were related to a combination of the factors investigated in this study.
  • Vesala, Risto; Kiheri, Heikki; Hobbie, Erik A.; van Dijk, Netty; Dise, Nancy; Larmola, Tuula (2021)
    Peatlands store one third of global soil carbon (C) and up to 15% of global soil nitrogen (N) but often have low plant nutrient availability owing to slow organic matter decomposition under acidic and waterlogged conditions. In rainwater-fed ombrotrophic peatlands, elevated atmospheric N deposition has increased N availability with potential consequences to ecosystem nutrient cycling. Here, we studied how 14 years of continuous N addition with either nitrate or ammonium had affected ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) shrubs at Whim Bog, Scotland. We examined whether enrichment has influenced foliar nutrient stoichiometry and assessed using N stable isotopes whether potential changes in plant nutrient constraints are linked with plant N uptake through ERM fungi versus direct plant uptake. High doses of ammonium alleviated N deficiency in Calluna vulgaris and Erica tetralix, whereas low doses of ammonium and nitrate improved plant phosphorus (P) nutrition, indicated by the lowered foliar N:P ratios. Root acid phosphatase activities correlated positively with foliar N:P ratios, suggesting enhanced P uptake as a result of improved N nutrition. Elevated foliar delta N-15 of fertilized shrubs suggested that ERM fungi were less important for N supply with N fertilization. Increases in N availability in peat porewater and in direct nonmycorrhizal N uptake likely have reduced plant nitrogen uptake via mycorrhizal pathways. As the mycorrhizal N uptake correlates with the reciprocal C supply from host plants to the soil, such reduction in ERM activity may affect peat microbial communities and even accelerate C loss via decreased ERM activity and enhanced saprotrophic activity. Our results thus introduce a previously unrecognized mechanism for how anthropogenic N pollution may affect nutrient and carbon cycling within peatland ecosystems. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Mattinen, Miika; Popov, Georgi; Vehkamäki, Marko; King, Peter J.; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Jalkanen, Pasi; Räisänen, Jyrki; Leskelä, Markku; Ritala, Mikko (2019)
    Semiconducting two-dimensional (2D) materials are studied intensively because of their promising performance in diverse applications from electronics to energy storage and catalysis. Recently, HfS2 and ZrS2 have emerged as potential rivals for the commonly studied 2D semiconductors such as MoS2 and WSe2, but their use is hindered by the difficulty of producing continuous films. Herein, we report the first atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes for HfS2 and ZrS2 using HfCl4 and ZrCl4 with H2S as the precursors. We demonstrate the deposition of uniform and continuous films on a range of substrates with accurately controlled thicknesses ranging from a few monolayers to tens of nanometers. The use of semiconductor industry-compatible precursors and temperatures (approximately 400 degrees C) enables facile upscaling of the process. The deposited HfS2 and ZrS2 films are crystalline, smooth, and stoichiometric with oxygen as the main impurity. As an important step toward applications of HfS2 and ZrS2, we show that their sensitivity toward oxidation can be overcome by minimizing the impurities in the reactor and by depositing a protective AlxSiyOz layer on the top without a vacuum break. Finally, we demonstrate HfS2 and ZrS2 photodetectors exhibiting good performance and stable operation in ambient conditions. Photoresponsivity comparable to thin films or even single flakes of HfS2 or ZrS2 deposited at much higher temperatures is achieved, although the response speed seems to be limited by photogating, as is common for 2D photodetectors. We expect the first ALD processes for HfS2 and ZrS2 to enable further exploration of these materials for various semiconductor applications.
  • Tison, J. -L.; Schwegmann, S.; Dieckmann, G.; Rintala, J. -M.; Meyer, H.; Moreau, S.; Vancoppenolle, M.; Nomura, D.; Engberg, S.; Blomster, L. J.; Hendrickx, S.; Uhlig, C.; Luhtanen, A. -M.; de Jong, J.; Janssens, J.; Carnat, G.; Zhou, J.; Delille, B. (2017)
    Sea ice is a dynamic biogeochemical reactor and a double interface actively interacting with both the atmosphere and the ocean. However, proper understanding of its annual impact on exchanges, and therefore potentially on the climate, notably suffer from the paucity of autumnal and winter data sets. Here we present the results of physical and biogeochemical investigations on winter Antarctic pack ice in the Weddell Sea (R. V. Polarstern AWECS cruise, June-August 2013) which are compared with those from two similar studies conducted in the area in 1986 and 1992. The winter 2013 was characterized by a warm sea ice cover due to the combined effects of deep snow and frequent warm cyclones events penetrating southward from the open Southern Ocean. These conditions were favorable to high ice permeability and cyclic events of brine movements within the sea ice cover (brine tubes), favoring relatively high chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations. We discuss the timing of this algal activity showing that arguments can be presented in favor of continued activity during the winter due to the specific physical conditions. Large-scale sea ice model simulations also suggest a context of increasingly deep snow, warm ice, and large brine fractions across the three observational years, despite the fact that the model is forced with a snowfall climatology. This lends support to the claim that more severe Antarctic sea ice conditions, characterized by a longer ice season, thicker, and more concentrated ice are sufficient to increase the snow depth and, somehow counterintuitively, to warm the ice.
  • Oinonen, Markku; Alenius, Teija; Arppe, Laura; Bocherens, Hervé; Etu-Sihvola, Heli; Helama, Samuli; Huhtamaa, Heli; Lahtinen, Maria; Mannermaa, Kristiina; Onkamo, Päivi; Palo, Jukka; Sajantila, Antti; Salo, Kati; Sundell, Tarja; Vanhanen, Santeri; Wessman, Anna (2020)
    Levanluhta is a unique archaeological site with the remains of nearly a hundred Iron Age individuals found from a water burial in Ostrobothnia, Finland. The strongest climatic downturn of the Common Era, resembling the great Fimbulvinter in Norse mythology, hit these people during the 6th century AD. This study establishes chronological, dietary, and livelihood synthesis on this population based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic and radiocarbon analyses on human remains, supported by multidisciplinary evidence. Extraordinarily broad stable isotopic distribution is observed, indicating three subgroups with distinct dietary habits spanning four centuries. This emphasizes the versatile livelihoods practiced at this boundary of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems. While the impact of the prolonged cold darkness of the 6th century was devastating for European communities relying on cultivation, the broad range of livelihoods provided resilience for the Levanluhta people to overcome the abrupt climatic decline.
  • Susiluoto, Jouni; Raivonen, Maarit; Backman, Leif; Laine, Marko; Makela, Jarmo; Peltola, Olli; Vesala, Timo; Aalto, Tuula (2018)
    Estimating methane (CH4) emissions from natural wetlands is complex, and the estimates contain large uncertainties. The models used for the task are typically heavily parameterized and the parameter values are not well known. In this study, we perform a Bayesian model calibration for a new wetland CH4 emission model to improve the quality of the predictions and to understand the limitations of such models. The detailed process model that we analyze contains descriptions for CH4 production from anaerobic respiration, CH4 oxidation, and gas transportation by diffusion, ebullition, and the aerenchyma cells of vascular plants. The processes are controlled by several tunable parameters. We use a hierarchical statistical model to describe the parameters and obtain the posterior distributions of the parameters and uncertainties in the processes with adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), importance resampling, and time series analysis techniques. For the estimation, the analysis utilizes measurement data from the Siikaneva flux measurement site in southern Finland. The uncertainties related to the parameters and the modeled processes are described quantitatively. At the process level, the flux measurement data are able to constrain the CH4 production processes, methane oxidation, and the different gas transport processes. The posterior covariance structures explain how the parameters and the processes are related. Additionally, the flux and flux component uncertain-ties are analyzed both at the annual and daily levels. The parameter posterior densities obtained provide information regarding importance of the different processes, which is also useful for development of wetland methane emission models other than the square root HelsinkI Model of MEthane buiLd- up and emIssion for peatlands (sqHIMMELI). The hierarchical modeling allows us to assess the effects of some of the parameters on an annual basis. The results of the calibration and the cross validation suggest that the early spring net primary production could be used to predict parameters affecting the annual methane production. Even though the calibration is specific to the Siikaneva site, the hierarchical modeling approach is well suited for larger-scale studies and the results of the estimation pave way for a regional or global- scale Bayesian calibration of wetland emission models.
  • Urzainki, Iñaki; Laurén, Ari; Palviainen, Marjo; Haahti, Kersti; Budiman, Arif; Basuki, Imam; Netzer, Michael; Hökkä, Hannu (2020)
    Drained peatlands are one of the main sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions globally. Emission reduction and, more generally, ecosystem restoration can be enhanced by raising the water table using canal or drain blocks. When restoring large areas, the number of blocks becomes limited by the available resources, which raises the following question: in which exact positions should a given number of blocks be placed in order to maximize the water table rise throughout the area? There is neither a simple nor an analytic answer. The water table response is a complex phenomenon that depends on several factors, such as the topology of the canal network, site topography, peat hydraulic properties, vegetation characteristics and meteorological conditions. We developed a new method to position the canal blocks based on the combination of a hydrological model and heuristic optimization algorithms. We simulated 3 d dry downs from a water saturated initial state for different block positions using the Boussinesq equation, and the block configurations maximizing water table rise were searched for by means of genetic algorithm and simulated annealing. We applied this approach to a large drained peatland area (931 km(2)) in Sumatra, Indonesia. Our solution consistently outperformed traditional block locating methods, indicating that drained peatland restoration can be made more effective at the same cost by selecting the positions of the blocks using the presented scheme.
  • Booyens, Wanda; Van Zyl, Pieter G.; Beukes, Johan P.; Ruiz-Jimenez, Jose; Kopperi, Matias; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Vakkari, Ville; Josipovic, Miroslav; Kulmala, Markku; Laakso, Lauri (2019)
    Although atmospheric organic N compounds are considered to be important, especially in new particle formation and their contribution to brown carbon, these species are not that well understood. This can be partially attributed to their chemical complexity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of organic N compounds utilising comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GCxGC-TOFMS) in aerosol samples that were collected at a savanna-grassland background region and to determine the possible sources. 135 atmospheric organic N compounds were tentatively characterised and semi-quantified, which included amines, nitriles, amides, urea, pyridine derivatives, amino acids, nitro-and nitroso compounds, imines, cyanates and isocyanates, and azo compounds. Amines contributed to 51% of the semi-quantified concentrations, while nitriles, pyridine derivatives, and amides comprised 20%, 11%, and 8%, respectively, of the semi-quantified concentrations. Amines, nitriles, amides, and pyridine derivatives concentrations were higher during the dry season, which were attributed to meteorology and open biomass burning. Anthropogenic sources impacting air masses measured at Welgegund, as well as regional agricultural activities, were considered as the major sources of amines, while the regional influence of household combustion was most likely the main source of nitriles, amides, and pyridine derivatives. The other organic N species were most likely related to the influence of local and regional agricultural activities.
  • Portillo-Estrada, Miguel; Pihlatie, Mari; Korhonen, Janne F. J.; Levula, Janne; Frumau, Arnoud K. F.; Ibrom, Andreas; Lembrechts, Jonas J.; Morillas, Lourdes; Horvath, Laszlo; Jones, Stephanie K.; Niinemets, Uelo (2016)
    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling under future climate change is associated with large uncertainties in litter decomposition and the turnover of soil C and N. In addition, future conditions (especially altered precipitation regimes and warming) are expected to result in changes in vegetation composition, and accordingly in litter species and chemical composition, but it is unclear how such changes could potentially alter litter decomposition. Litter transplantation experiments were carried out across six European sites (four forests and two grasslands) spanning a large geographical and climatic gradient (5.6-11.4 degrees C in annual temperature 511-878mm in precipitation) to gain insight into the climatic controls on litter decomposition as well as the effect of litter origin and species. The decomposition k rates were overall higher in warmer and wetter sites than in colder and drier sites, and positively correlated with the litter total specific leaf area. Also, litter N content increased as less litter mass remained and decay went further. Surprisingly, this study demonstrates that climatic controls on litter decomposition are quantitatively more important than species or site of origin. Cumulative climatic variables, precipitation, soil water content and air temperature (ignoring days with air temperatures below zero degrees Celsius), were appropriate to predict the litter remaining mass during decomposition (M-r). M-r and cumulative air temperature were found to be the best predictors for litter carbon and nitrogen remaining during the decomposition. Using mean annual air temperature, precipitation, soil water content and litter total specific leaf area as parameters we were able to predict the annual decomposition rate (k) accurately.
  • Haraguchi, Lumi; Asmala, Eero; Jakobsen, Hans H.; Carstensen, Jacob (2019)
    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important component of nutrient cycling, but the role of different organisms controlling the processing of autochthonous DOM remains poorly understood. Aiming to characterize phytoplankton-derived DOM and the effects of complex pelagic communities on its dynamics, we incubated natural plankton communities from a temperate mesohaline estuary under controlled conditions for 18 days. The incubations were carried out in contrasting seasons (spring and autumn) and changes in the planktonic community (phytoplankton, bacteria and microzooplankton), nutrients and DOM were assessed. Our results highlight the complexity of DOM production and fate in natural planktonic communities. Small changes in DOM composition were observed in the experiments relative to the orders-of-magnitude variations experienced in the phytoplankton assembly. We argue that the tight coupling between microbial processing and DOM production by phytoplankton and grazers stabilizes variations in quantity and characteristics of autochthonous DOM, resulting in apparently homogeneous semi-labile DOM pool throughout the experiments. However, seasonal differences in the production and processing of DOM were observed, reflecting differences in the nutrient regimes and initial DOM characteristics in each experiment, but also likely influenced by changes in the successional status of the pelagic community. Acknowledging that characteristics of the DOM derived from phytoplankton growth can vary broadly, heterotrophic processing and successional status of the community are synergistically important factors for shaping those characteristics, and thus affecting the seasonal signature of the semi-labile autochthonous DOM pool.
  • Hari, Pertti Kaarlo Juhani; Petäjä, Tuukka Taneli; Bäck, Jaana Kaarina; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Lappalainen, Hanna K; Vihma, Timo; Laurila, Tuomas; Viisanen, Yrjö; Vesala, Timo Veikko; Kulmala, Markku Tapio (2016)
    The global environment is changing rapidly due to anthropogenic emissions and actions. Such activities modify aerosol and greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, leading to regional and global climate change and affecting, e.g., food and fresh-water security, sustainable use of natural resources and even demography. Here we present a conceptual design of a global, hierarchical observation network that can provide tools and increased understanding to tackle the inter-connected environmental and societal challenges that we will face in the coming decades. The philosophy behind the conceptual design relies on physical conservation laws of mass, energy and momentum, as well as on concentration gradients that act as driving forces for the atmosphere-biosphere exchange. The network is composed of standard, flux and/or advanced and flagship stations, each of which having specific and identified tasks. Each ecosystem type on the globe has its own characteristic features that have to be taken into consideration. The hierarchical network as a whole is able to tackle problems related to large spatial scales, heterogeneity of ecosystems and their complexity. The most comprehensive observations are envisioned to occur in flagship stations, with which the process-level understanding can be expanded to continental and global scales together with advanced data analysis, Earth system modelling and satellite remote sensing. The denser network of the flux and standard stations allows application and up-scaling of the results obtained from flagship stations to the global level.