Browsing by Subject "CARBON"

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  • Salonen, Iines S.; Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Nomaki, Hidetaka; Langlet, Dewi; Tsuchiya, Masashi; Koho, Karoliina A. (2021)
    Foraminifera are unicellular eukaryotes that are an integral part of benthic fauna in many marine ecosystems, including the deep sea, with direct impacts on benthic biogeochemical cycles. In these systems, different foraminiferal species are known to have a distinct vertical distribution, i.e., microhabitat preference, which is tightly linked to the physico-chemical zonation of the sediment. Hence, foraminifera are well-adapted to thrive in various conditions, even under anoxia. However, despite the ecological and biogeochemical significance of foraminifera, their ecology remains poorly understood. This is especially true in terms of the composition and diversity of their microbiome, although foraminifera are known to harbor diverse endobionts, which may have a significant meaning to each species' survival strategy. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding to investigate the microbiomes of five different deep-sea benthic foraminiferal species representing differing microhabitat preferences. The microbiomes of these species were compared intra- and inter-specifically, as well as with the surrounding sediment bacterial community. Our analysis indicated that each species was characterized with a distinct, statistically different microbiome that also differed from the surrounding sediment community in terms of diversity and dominant bacterial groups. We were also able to distinguish specific bacterial groups that seemed to be strongly associated with particular foraminiferal species, such as the family Marinilabiliaceae for Chilostomella ovoidea and the family Hyphomicrobiaceae for Bulimina subornata and Bulimina striata. The presence of bacterial groups that are tightly associated to a certain foraminiferal species implies that there may exist unique, potentially symbiotic relationships between foraminifera and bacteria that have been previously overlooked. Furthermore, the foraminifera contained chloroplast reads originating from different sources, likely reflecting trophic preferences and ecological characteristics of the different species. This study demonstrates the potential of 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding in resolving the microbiome composition and diversity of eukaryotic unicellular organisms, providing unique in situ insights into enigmatic deep-sea ecosystems.
  • Qi, Lu; Vogel, Alexander L.; Esmaeilirad, Sepideh; Cao, Liming; Zheng, Jing; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Fermo, Paola; Kasper-Giebl, Anne; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Chen, Mindong; Ge, Xinlei; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Slowik, Jay G. (2020)
    The aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), combined with statistical methods such as positive matrix factorization (PMF), has greatly advanced the quantification of primary organic aerosol (POA) sources and total secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass. However, the use of thermal vaporization and electron ionization yields extensive thermal decomposition and ionization-induced fragmentation, which limit chemical information needed for SOA source apportionment. The recently developed extractive electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF) provides mass spectra of the organic aerosol fraction with a linear response to mass and no thermal decomposition or ionization-induced fragmentation. However, the costs and operational requirements of online instruments make their use impractical for long-term or spatially dense monitoring applications. This challenge was overcome for AMS measurements by measuring re-nebulized water extracts from ambient filter samples. Here, we apply the same strategy for EESI-TOF measurements of 1 year of 24 h filter samples collected approximately every fourth day throughout 2013 at an urban site. The nebulized water extracts were measured simultaneously with an AMS. The application of positive matrix factorization (PMF) to EESI-TOF spectra resolved seven factors, which describe water-soluble OA: less and more aged biomass burning aerosol (LABB(EESI) and MABB(EESI), respectively), cigarette-smoke-related organic aerosol, primary biological organic aerosol, biogenic secondary organic aerosol, and a summer mixed oxygenated organic aerosol factor. Seasonal trends and relative contributions of the EESI-TOF OA sources were compared with AMS source apportionment factors, measured water-soluble ions, cellulose, and meteorological data. Cluster analysis was utilized to identify key factor-specific ions based on PMF. Both LABB and MABB contribute strongly during winter. LABB is distinguished by very high signals from C6H10O5 (levoglucosan and isomers) and C8H12O6, whereas MABB is characterized by a large number of CxHyOz and CxHyOzN species of two distinct populations: one with low H : C and high O : C and the other with high H : C and low O : C. Two oxygenated summertime SOA sources were attributed to terpene-derived biogenic SOA, a major summertime aerosol source in central Europe. Furthermore, a primary biological organic aerosol factor was identified, which was dominated by plant-derived fatty acids and correlated with free cellulose. The cigarette-smoke-related factor contained a high contribution of nicotine and high abundance of organic nitrate ions with low m/z.
  • Celaya, Christian A.; Orozco-Ic, Mesias; Dimitrova, Maria; Wirz, Lukas N.; Sundholm, Dage (2020)
    We propose a novel class of gold-containing molecules, which have been designed using conjugated carbon structures as templates. The sp-hybridized carbons of C-2 moieties are replaced with a gold atom and one of the adjacent carbons is replaced by nitrogen. Applying the procedure to hexadehydro[12]annulene yields the well-known cyclic trinuclear gold(i) carbeniate complex. Planar, tubular and cage-shaped complexes can be obtained by taking similar sp-hybridized carbon structures as the starting point.
  • Baltrenaite, Edita; Baltrenas, Pranas; Bhatnagar, Amit; Vilppo, Teemu; Selenius, Mikko; Koistinen, Arto; Dahl, Mari; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka (2017)
    The environmental legislation and strict enforcement of environmental regulations are the tools effectively used for developing the market of materials for environmental protection technologies. Sustain ability criteria shift environmental engineering systems to more sustainable-material-based technologies. For carbon-based medium materials in biofiltration, this trend results in attempts to use biochar for biofiltration purposes. The paper presents the analysis of biochar properties based on the main criteria for biofiltration medium integrating the environmental quality properties of biochar, following the European Biochar Certificate guidelines. Three types of biochar produced from feedstock of highly popular and abundant types of waste are analysed. A multi component approach was applied to summarize the results. The lignocellulosic type of biochar was found to be more competitive for use as a biofiltration medium than the types of biochar with high ash or lignin content. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Arroyo-Mora, J. Pablo; Kalacska, Margaret; Soffer, Raymond J.; Moore, Tim R.; Roulet, Nigel T.; Juutinen, Sari; Ifimov, Gabriela; Leblanc, George; Inamdar, Deep (2018)
    Peatlands cover a large area in Canada and globally (12% and 3% of the landmass, respectively). These ecosystems play an important role in climate regulation through the sequestration of carbon dioxide from, and the release of methane to, the atmosphere. Monitoring approaches, required to understand the response of peatlands to climate change at large spatial scales, are challenged by their unique vegetation characteristics, intrinsic hydrological complexity, and rapid changes over short periods of time (e.g., seasonality). In this study, we demonstrate the use of multitemporal, high spatial resolution (1 m(2)) hyperspectral airborne imagery (Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) and Shortwave Airborne Spectrographic Imager (SASI) sensors) for assessing maximum instantaneous gross photosynthesis (PGmax) in hummocks, and gravimetric water content (GWC) and carbon uptake efficiency in hollows, at the Mer Bleue ombrotrophic bog. We applied empirical models (i.e., in situ data and spectral indices) and we derived spatial and temporal trends for the aforementioned variables. Our findings revealed the distribution of hummocks (51.2%), hollows (12.7%), and tree cover (33.6%), which is the first high spatial resolution map of this nature at Mer Bleue. For hummocks, we found growing season PGmax values between 8 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) and 12. tmol m(-2) s(-1) were predominant (86.3% of the total area). For hollows, our results revealed, for the first time, the spatial heterogeneity and seasonal trends for gravimetric water content and carbon uptake efficiency for the whole bog.
  • Vuorinne, Ilja; Heiskanen, Janne; Maghenda, Marianne; Mwangala, Lucas; Muukkonen, Petteri; Pellikka, Petri K.E. (2021)
    Biomass is a key variable for crop monitoring and for assessing carbon stocks and bioenergy potential. This study aimed to develop an allometric model for predicting the dry leaf biomass of sisal, an agave plant with crassulacean acid metabolism grown for fibre production in the tropics and subtropics and whose biomass can be utilised as a feedstock to produce biogas through anaerobic digestion. The allometric model was used to estimate leaf biomass and productivity across different stand ages in a sisal plantation in semi-arid region in south-east Kenya (annual rainfall 611 mm and temperature 24.9 °C). Based on a sample of 38 leaves, the best predictor for biomass was leaf maximum width and plant height used as a combined variable in a log-log regression model (cross-validated R2 = 0.96 and root-mean-square error = 7.69 g). The mean productivity in nine 26- to 36-month-old plots was 11.1 Mg ha−1 yr−1, which could potentially yield approximately 3000 m3 CH4 ha−1 yr−1. The leaf biomass in 55 field plots (400 m2 in area) ranged from 2.7 to 42.7 Mg ha−1, with mean at 13.5 Mg ha−1, which equals to 6.3 Mg C ha−1. The yielded allometric equations can be utilised for predicting the leaf biomass of sisal in similar agro-ecological zones. The estimates on plantation biomass can be used in assessing the role of sisal plantations as a regional carbon storage. In addition, the results provide reference on the productivity of agave and crassulacean acid metabolism in semi-arid regions of East Africa, where such reports are few.
  • Mencuccini, Maurizio; Salmon, Yann; Mitchell, Patrick; Hölttä, Teemu; Choat, Brendan; Meir, Patrick; O'Grady, Anthony; Tissue, David; Zweifel, Roman; Sevanto, Sanna; Pfautsch, Sebastian (2017)
    Substantial uncertainty surrounds our knowledge of tree stem growth, with some of the most basic questions, such as when stem radial growth occurs through the daily cycle, still unanswered. We employed high-resolution point dendrometers, sap flow sensors, and developed theory and statistical approaches, to devise a novel method separating irreversible radial growth from elastic tension-driven and elastic osmotically driven changes in bark water content. We tested this method using data from five case study species. Experimental manipulations, namely a field irrigation experiment on Scots pine and a stem girdling experiment on red forest gum trees, were used to validate the theory. Time courses of stem radial growth following irrigation and stem girdling were consistent with a-priori predictions. Patterns of stem radial growth varied across case studies, with growth occurring during the day and/or night, consistent with the available literature. Importantly, our approach provides a valuable alternative to existing methods, as it can be approximated by a simple empirical interpolation routine that derives irreversible radial growth using standard regression techniques. Our novel method provides an improved understanding of the relative source-sink carbon dynamics of tree stems at a sub-daily time scale.
  • Wang, Qian; Lintunen, Anna; Zhao, Ping; Shen, Weijun; Salmon, Yann; Chen, Xia; Ouyang, Lei; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan; Sun, Dan; Rao, Xinquan; Holtta, Teemu (2020)
    Prerequisite for selection of appropriate tree species in afforestation programs is to understand their water use strategy. Acacia mangium Willd., Schima wallichii Choisy, and Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook are the three main vegetation restoration pioneer species in southern China, but no comparative research on the water use strategy of these three tree species have been reported. Our objective was to gain a detailed understanding of how photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and soil water content (SWC) at different soil depths control the sap flux density (J(s)) in the dry and wet seasons. We measured the J(s) of these three tree species by using the thermal dissipation method in low subtropical China. We found that both S. wallichii and C. lanceolata differed clearly in their stomatal behavior from one season to another, while A. mangium did not. The canopy conductance per sapwood area of S. wallichii and C. lanceolata was very sensitive to VPD in the dry season, but not in the wet season. The J(s) of A. mangium was negatively correlated to SWC in all soil layers and during both seasons, while the other two species were not sensitive to SWC in the deeper layers and only positively correlated to SWC in dry season. Our results demonstrate that the three species have distinct water use strategies and may therefore respond differently to changing climate.
  • Nadal-Sala, Daniel; Grote, Ruediger; Birami, Benjamin; Lintunen, Anna; Mammarella, Ivan; Preisler, Yakir; Rotenberg, Eyal; Salmon, Yann; Tatarinov, Fedor; Yakir, Dan; Ruehr, Nadine K. (2021)
    Climate change will impact forest productivity worldwide. Forecasting the magnitude of such impact, with multiple environmental stressors changing simultaneously, is only possible with the help of process-based models. In order to assess their performance, such models require careful evaluation against measurements. However, direct comparison of model outputs against observational data is often not reliable, as models may provide the right answers due to the wrong reasons. This would severely hinder forecasting abilities under unprecedented climate conditions. Here, we present a methodology for model assessment, which supplements the traditional output-to-observation model validation. It evaluates model performance through its ability to reproduce observed seasonal changes of the most limiting environmental driver (MLED) for a given process, here daily gross primary productivity (GPP). We analyzed seasonal changes of the MLED for GPP in two contrasting pine forests, the Mediterranean Pinus halepensis Mill. Yatir (Israel) and the boreal Pinus sylvestris L. Hyytiala (Finland) from three years of eddy-covariance flux data. Then, we simulated the same period with a state-of-the-art process-based simulation model (LandscapeDNDC). Finally, we assessed if the model was able to reproduce both GPP observations and MLED seasonality. We found that the model reproduced the seasonality of GPP in both stands, but it was slightly overestimated without site-specific fine-tuning. Interestingly, although LandscapeDNDC properly captured the main MLED in Hyytiala (temperature) and in Yatir (soil water availability), it failed to reproduce high-temperature and high-vapor pressure limitations of GPP in Yatir during spring and summer. We deduced that the most likely reason for this divergence is an incomplete description of stomatal behavior. In summary, this study validates the MLED approach as a model evaluation tool, and opens up new possibilities for model improvement.
  • Saarinen, Ninni; Kankare, Ville; Pyorala, Jiri; Yrttimaa, Tuomas; Liang, Xinlian; Wulder, Michael A.; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppa, Juha; Vastaranta, Mikko (2019)
    Large and comprehensive datasets, traditionally based on destructive stem analysis or other labor-intensive approaches, are commonly considered as a necessity in developing stem-volume equations. The aim here was to investigate how a decreasing number of sample trees affects parametrizing an existing taper curve equation and resultant stem-volume estimates. Furthermore, the potential of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in producing taper curves was examined. A TLS-based taper curve was derived for 246 Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) from southern Finland to parametrize an existing taper curve equation. To assess sensitivity of the parametrization regarding sample size, the number of Scots pines included in the parametrization varied between full census and 1 Scots pine at a time. Root mean square error of stem-volume estimates remained = 46 Scots pines. Thus, it can be concluded that, with a rather small sample size, a taper curve equation can be re-parametrized for local conditions using point clouds from TLS to produce consistent stem-volume estimates.
  • Booyens, Wanda; Beukes, Johan P.; Van Zyl, Pieter G.; Ruiz-Jimenez, Jose; Kopperi, Matias; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Josipovic, Miroslav; Vakkari, Ville; Laakso, Lauri (2019)
    A recent paper reported GCxGC-TOFMS analysis used for the first time in southern Africa to tentatively characterise and semi-quantify 1000 organic compounds in aerosols at Welgegund - a regional background atmospheric monitoring station. Ambient polar organic aerosols characterised are further explored in terms of temporal variations, as well as the influence of meteorology and sources. No distinct seasonal pattern was observed for the total number of polar organic compounds tentatively characterised and their corresponding semi-quantified concentrations (sum of the normalised response factors, Sigma NRFs). However, the total number of polar organic compounds and Sigma NRFs between late spring and early autumn seemed relatively lower compared to the period from mid-autumn to mid-winter, while there was a period during late winter and early spring with significantly lower total number of polar organic compounds and Sigma NRFs. Relatively lower total number of polar organic compounds and corresponding Sigma NRFs were associated with fresher plumes from a source region relatively close to Welgegund. Meteorological parameters indicated that wet removal during late spring to early autumn also contributed to lower total numbers of polar organics and associated Sigma NRFs. Increased anticyclonic recirculation and more pronounced inversion layers contributed to higher total numbers of polar organic species and Sigma NRFs from mid-autumn to mid-winter, while the influence of regional biomass burning during this period was also evident. The period with significantly lower total number of polar organic compounds and Sigma NRFs was attributed to fresh open biomass burning plumes occurring within proximity of Welgegund, consisting mainly of volatile organic compounds and non-polar hydrocarbons. Multiple linear regression substantiated that the temporal variations in polar organic compounds were related to a combination of the factors investigated in this study.
  • Vesala, Risto; Kiheri, Heikki; Hobbie, Erik A.; van Dijk, Netty; Dise, Nancy; Larmola, Tuula (2021)
    Peatlands store one third of global soil carbon (C) and up to 15% of global soil nitrogen (N) but often have low plant nutrient availability owing to slow organic matter decomposition under acidic and waterlogged conditions. In rainwater-fed ombrotrophic peatlands, elevated atmospheric N deposition has increased N availability with potential consequences to ecosystem nutrient cycling. Here, we studied how 14 years of continuous N addition with either nitrate or ammonium had affected ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) shrubs at Whim Bog, Scotland. We examined whether enrichment has influenced foliar nutrient stoichiometry and assessed using N stable isotopes whether potential changes in plant nutrient constraints are linked with plant N uptake through ERM fungi versus direct plant uptake. High doses of ammonium alleviated N deficiency in Calluna vulgaris and Erica tetralix, whereas low doses of ammonium and nitrate improved plant phosphorus (P) nutrition, indicated by the lowered foliar N:P ratios. Root acid phosphatase activities correlated positively with foliar N:P ratios, suggesting enhanced P uptake as a result of improved N nutrition. Elevated foliar delta N-15 of fertilized shrubs suggested that ERM fungi were less important for N supply with N fertilization. Increases in N availability in peat porewater and in direct nonmycorrhizal N uptake likely have reduced plant nitrogen uptake via mycorrhizal pathways. As the mycorrhizal N uptake correlates with the reciprocal C supply from host plants to the soil, such reduction in ERM activity may affect peat microbial communities and even accelerate C loss via decreased ERM activity and enhanced saprotrophic activity. Our results thus introduce a previously unrecognized mechanism for how anthropogenic N pollution may affect nutrient and carbon cycling within peatland ecosystems. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Mattinen, Miika; Popov, Georgi; Vehkamäki, Marko; King, Peter J.; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Jalkanen, Pasi; Räisänen, Jyrki; Leskelä, Markku; Ritala, Mikko (2019)
    Semiconducting two-dimensional (2D) materials are studied intensively because of their promising performance in diverse applications from electronics to energy storage and catalysis. Recently, HfS2 and ZrS2 have emerged as potential rivals for the commonly studied 2D semiconductors such as MoS2 and WSe2, but their use is hindered by the difficulty of producing continuous films. Herein, we report the first atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes for HfS2 and ZrS2 using HfCl4 and ZrCl4 with H2S as the precursors. We demonstrate the deposition of uniform and continuous films on a range of substrates with accurately controlled thicknesses ranging from a few monolayers to tens of nanometers. The use of semiconductor industry-compatible precursors and temperatures (approximately 400 degrees C) enables facile upscaling of the process. The deposited HfS2 and ZrS2 films are crystalline, smooth, and stoichiometric with oxygen as the main impurity. As an important step toward applications of HfS2 and ZrS2, we show that their sensitivity toward oxidation can be overcome by minimizing the impurities in the reactor and by depositing a protective AlxSiyOz layer on the top without a vacuum break. Finally, we demonstrate HfS2 and ZrS2 photodetectors exhibiting good performance and stable operation in ambient conditions. Photoresponsivity comparable to thin films or even single flakes of HfS2 or ZrS2 deposited at much higher temperatures is achieved, although the response speed seems to be limited by photogating, as is common for 2D photodetectors. We expect the first ALD processes for HfS2 and ZrS2 to enable further exploration of these materials for various semiconductor applications.
  • Palviainen, Marjo; Aaltonen, Heidi; Laurén, Ari; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Ojala, Anne; Pumpanen, Jukka (2020)
    Biochar is charred material formed by the pyrolysis of organic matter. The addition of biochar to soil may offer a chance to mitigate climate change by increasing soil carbon stocks, improving soil fertility and enhancing plant growth. Vast majority of biochar studies are conducted in agricultural soils, and field experiments studying the effect of biochar on tree growth in boreal forests are lacking. We applied spruce biochar amendments of 5 and 10 Mg ha(-1) to the soil surface in young boreal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Southern Finland and studied the responses in tree growth and needle nitrogen (N) and N-15 concentrations during the first three years after treatment. The biochar amendment of 10 Mg ha(-1) increased the diameter growth of dominant trees significantly, on average by 1 mm year(-1), which corresponded to 25% increase compared to control during the three years study period. The positive growth responses were less pronounced in height than in diameter growth. The biochar amendment of 5 Mg ha(-1) increased the height growth of dominant trees by 0.16 m or 12% compared to the control during three years. Biochar amendments did not affect N and N-15 concentrations in needles. The results suggest that wood biochar amendment can be a climate-friendly method to increase tree biomass production in nutrient poor, xeric, young Scots pine forests.
  • Palviainen, Marjo; Aaltonen, Heidi; Laurén, Ari; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Ojala, Anne; Pumpanen, Jukka (2020)
    Biochar is charred material formed by the pyrolysis of organic matter. The addition of biochar to soil may offer a chance to mitigate climate change by increasing soil carbon stocks, improving soil fertility and enhancing plant growth. Vast majority of biochar studies are conducted in agricultural soils, and field experiments studying the effect of biochar on tree growth in boreal forests are lacking. We applied spruce biochar amendments of 5 and 10 Mg ha(-1) to the soil surface in young boreal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Southern Finland and studied the responses in tree growth and needle nitrogen (N) and N-15 concentrations during the first three years after treatment. The biochar amendment of 10 Mg ha(-1) increased the diameter growth of dominant trees significantly, on average by 1 mm year(-1), which corresponded to 25% increase compared to control during the three years study period. The positive growth responses were less pronounced in height than in diameter growth. The biochar amendment of 5 Mg ha(-1) increased the height growth of dominant trees by 0.16 m or 12% compared to the control during three years. Biochar amendments did not affect N and N-15 concentrations in needles. The results suggest that wood biochar amendment can be a climate-friendly method to increase tree biomass production in nutrient poor, xeric, young Scots pine forests.
  • Palviainen, Marjo; Aaltonen, Heidi; Laurén, Ari; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Ojala, Anne; Pumpanen, Jukka (2020)
    Biochar is charred material formed by the pyrolysis of organic matter. The addition of biochar to soil may offer a chance to mitigate climate change by increasing soil carbon stocks, improving soil fertility and enhancing plant growth. Vast majority of biochar studies are conducted in agricultural soils, and field experiments studying the effect of biochar on tree growth in boreal forests are lacking. We applied spruce biochar amendments of 5 and 10 Mg ha(-1) to the soil surface in young boreal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Southern Finland and studied the responses in tree growth and needle nitrogen (N) and N-15 concentrations during the first three years after treatment. The biochar amendment of 10 Mg ha(-1) increased the diameter growth of dominant trees significantly, on average by 1 mm year(-1), which corresponded to 25% increase compared to control during the three years study period. The positive growth responses were less pronounced in height than in diameter growth. The biochar amendment of 5 Mg ha(-1) increased the height growth of dominant trees by 0.16 m or 12% compared to the control during three years. Biochar amendments did not affect N and N-15 concentrations in needles. The results suggest that wood biochar amendment can be a climate-friendly method to increase tree biomass production in nutrient poor, xeric, young Scots pine forests.
  • Kinnunen, Niko; Laurén, Annamari (Ari); Pumpanen, Jukka; Nieminen, Tiina M.; Palviainen, Marjo (2021)
    A 96-h laboratory experiment was conducted to assess the potential of biochar as a water protection tool for acid sulfate soil runoff. Acid sulfate soils pose a risk to water bodies due to acid, metal-rich runoff, especially in drained peatland forests. New water protection methods, such as adsorption with biochar, are needed. We investigated the capability of spruce and birch biochar to adsorb metals and reduce acidity in the water. Water from an acid sulfate site was stirred with biochar, biochar with lime, and biochar with ash. We determined water Al, S, Fe, Cu, Co, Cd, Ni, and Zn concentrations periodically, as well as pH and total organic carbon at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The studied substances are considered the most abundant and environmentally harmful elements in the acid sulfate soils in Finland. Biochar surface characteristics were analyzed with FTIR spectroscopy. Concentration changes were used to parametrize adsorption kinetics models. Biochar adsorbed metals and increased pH, but lime and ash additives did not always improve the adsorption. Spruce biochar and ash addition had generally higher adsorption than birch biochar and lime addition. The adsorption was dominated by Al and Fe at lower pH, while increasing pH improved the adsorption of Cd and Zn. The results show that biochar can increase the water pH, as well as adsorb Al, Fe, Co, Cd, Ni, and Zn. Further work could include an actual-scale biochar reactor in a laboratory and field conditions.
  • Tison, J. -L.; Schwegmann, S.; Dieckmann, G.; Rintala, J. -M.; Meyer, H.; Moreau, S.; Vancoppenolle, M.; Nomura, D.; Engberg, S.; Blomster, L. J.; Hendrickx, S.; Uhlig, C.; Luhtanen, A. -M.; de Jong, J.; Janssens, J.; Carnat, G.; Zhou, J.; Delille, B. (2017)
    Sea ice is a dynamic biogeochemical reactor and a double interface actively interacting with both the atmosphere and the ocean. However, proper understanding of its annual impact on exchanges, and therefore potentially on the climate, notably suffer from the paucity of autumnal and winter data sets. Here we present the results of physical and biogeochemical investigations on winter Antarctic pack ice in the Weddell Sea (R. V. Polarstern AWECS cruise, June-August 2013) which are compared with those from two similar studies conducted in the area in 1986 and 1992. The winter 2013 was characterized by a warm sea ice cover due to the combined effects of deep snow and frequent warm cyclones events penetrating southward from the open Southern Ocean. These conditions were favorable to high ice permeability and cyclic events of brine movements within the sea ice cover (brine tubes), favoring relatively high chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations. We discuss the timing of this algal activity showing that arguments can be presented in favor of continued activity during the winter due to the specific physical conditions. Large-scale sea ice model simulations also suggest a context of increasingly deep snow, warm ice, and large brine fractions across the three observational years, despite the fact that the model is forced with a snowfall climatology. This lends support to the claim that more severe Antarctic sea ice conditions, characterized by a longer ice season, thicker, and more concentrated ice are sufficient to increase the snow depth and, somehow counterintuitively, to warm the ice.
  • Oinonen, Markku; Alenius, Teija; Arppe, Laura; Bocherens, Hervé; Etu-Sihvola, Heli; Helama, Samuli; Huhtamaa, Heli; Lahtinen, Maria; Mannermaa, Kristiina; Onkamo, Päivi; Palo, Jukka; Sajantila, Antti; Salo, Kati; Sundell, Tarja; Vanhanen, Santeri; Wessman, Anna (2020)
    Levanluhta is a unique archaeological site with the remains of nearly a hundred Iron Age individuals found from a water burial in Ostrobothnia, Finland. The strongest climatic downturn of the Common Era, resembling the great Fimbulvinter in Norse mythology, hit these people during the 6th century AD. This study establishes chronological, dietary, and livelihood synthesis on this population based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic and radiocarbon analyses on human remains, supported by multidisciplinary evidence. Extraordinarily broad stable isotopic distribution is observed, indicating three subgroups with distinct dietary habits spanning four centuries. This emphasizes the versatile livelihoods practiced at this boundary of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems. While the impact of the prolonged cold darkness of the 6th century was devastating for European communities relying on cultivation, the broad range of livelihoods provided resilience for the Levanluhta people to overcome the abrupt climatic decline.
  • Susiluoto, Jouni; Raivonen, Maarit; Backman, Leif; Laine, Marko; Makela, Jarmo; Peltola, Olli; Vesala, Timo; Aalto, Tuula (2018)
    Estimating methane (CH4) emissions from natural wetlands is complex, and the estimates contain large uncertainties. The models used for the task are typically heavily parameterized and the parameter values are not well known. In this study, we perform a Bayesian model calibration for a new wetland CH4 emission model to improve the quality of the predictions and to understand the limitations of such models. The detailed process model that we analyze contains descriptions for CH4 production from anaerobic respiration, CH4 oxidation, and gas transportation by diffusion, ebullition, and the aerenchyma cells of vascular plants. The processes are controlled by several tunable parameters. We use a hierarchical statistical model to describe the parameters and obtain the posterior distributions of the parameters and uncertainties in the processes with adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), importance resampling, and time series analysis techniques. For the estimation, the analysis utilizes measurement data from the Siikaneva flux measurement site in southern Finland. The uncertainties related to the parameters and the modeled processes are described quantitatively. At the process level, the flux measurement data are able to constrain the CH4 production processes, methane oxidation, and the different gas transport processes. The posterior covariance structures explain how the parameters and the processes are related. Additionally, the flux and flux component uncertain-ties are analyzed both at the annual and daily levels. The parameter posterior densities obtained provide information regarding importance of the different processes, which is also useful for development of wetland methane emission models other than the square root HelsinkI Model of MEthane buiLd- up and emIssion for peatlands (sqHIMMELI). The hierarchical modeling allows us to assess the effects of some of the parameters on an annual basis. The results of the calibration and the cross validation suggest that the early spring net primary production could be used to predict parameters affecting the annual methane production. Even though the calibration is specific to the Siikaneva site, the hierarchical modeling approach is well suited for larger-scale studies and the results of the estimation pave way for a regional or global- scale Bayesian calibration of wetland emission models.