Browsing by Subject "CARDIAC-ARREST"

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  • Kuisma, Markku; Salo, Ari; Puolakka, Jyrki; Nurmi, Jouni; Kirves, Hetti; Vayrynen, Taneli; Boyd, James (2017)
    Introduction: The delayed return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after cessation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), also known as the Lazarus phenomenon, is a rare event described in several case reports. This study aims to determine the incidence and the time of occurrence of the Lazarus phenomenon after cessation of out-of-hospital CPR. Methods: This prospective observational cohort study was conducted in the Helsinki Emergency Medical Service in Finland from 1 January 2011 through 31 December 2016. All out-of-hospital CPR attempts were carefully monitored for 10 min after the cessation of CPR in order to detect delayed ROSC. Results: Altogether, 2102 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests occurred during the six-year study period. CPR was attempted in 1376 (65.5%) cases. In 840 cases (61.0% of all attempts) CPR attempts were terminated on site. The Lazarus phenomenon occurred five times, with an incidence of 5.95/1000 (95% CI 2.10-14.30) in field-terminated CPR attempts. Time to delayed ROSC from the cessation of CPR varied from 3 to 8 min. Three of the five patients with delayed ROSC died at the scene within 2-15 min while two died later in hospital within 1.5 and 26 h, respectively. Conclusions: We observed that the Lazarus phenomenon is a real albeit rare event and can occur a few minutes after the cessation of out-of-hospital CPR. We suggest a 10-min monitoring period before diagnosing death. CPR guidelines should be updated to include information of the Lazarus phenomenon and appropriate monitoring for it. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Hoikka, Marko; Silfvast, Tom; Ala-Kokko, Tero I. (2018)
    Objectives: The prehospital research field has focused on studying patient survival in cardiac arrest, as well as acute coronary syndrome, stroke, and trauma. There is little known about the overall short-term mortality and its predictability in unselected prehospital patients. This study examines whether a prehospital National Early Warning Score (NEWS) predicts 1-day and 30-day mortalities. Methods: Data from all emergency medical service (EMS) situations were coupled to the mortality data obtained from the Causes of Death Registry during a six-month period in Northern Finland. NEWS values were calculated from first clinical parameters obtained on the scene and patients were categorized to the low, medium and high-risk groups accordingly. Sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and likelihood ratios (PLRs and NLRs) were calculated for 1-day and 30-day mortalities at the cut-off risks. Results: A total of 12,426 EMS calls were included in the study. The overall 1-day and 30-day mortalities were 1.5 and 4.3%, respectively. The 1-day mortality rate for NEWS values = 13 higher than 20%. The high-risk NEWS group had sensitivities for 1-day and 30-day mortalities 0.801 (CI 0.74-0.86) and 0.42 (CI 0.38-0.47), respectively. Conclusion: In prehospital environment, the high risk NEWS category was associated with 1-day mortality well above that of the medium and low risk NEWS categories. This effect was not as noticeable for 30-day mortality. The prehospital NEWS may be useful tool for recognising patients at early risk of death, allowing earlier interventions and responds to these patients.
  • Leopold, Valentine; Gayat, Etienne; Pirracchio, Romain; Spinar, Jindrich; Parenica, Jiri; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Lassus, Johan; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Champion, Sebastien; Zannad, Faiez; Valente, Serafina; Urban, Philip; Chua, Horng-Ruey; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Popovic, Batric; Ouweneel, Dagmar M.; Henriques, Jose P. S.; Simonis, Gregor; Levy, Bruno; Kimmoun, Antoine; Gaudard, Philippe; Basir, Mir Babar; Markota, Andrej; Adler, Christoph; Reuter, Hannes; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Chouihed, Tahar (2018)
    Catecholamines have been the mainstay of pharmacological treatment of cardiogenic shock (CS). Recently, use of epinephrine has been associated with detrimental outcomes. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the association between epinephrine use and short-term mortality in all-cause CS patients. We performed a meta-analysis of individual data with prespecified inclusion criteria: (1) patients in non-surgical CS treated with inotropes and/or vasopressors and (2) at least 15% of patients treated with epinephrine administrated alone or in association with other inotropes/vasopressors. The primary outcome was short-term mortality. Fourteen published cohorts and two unpublished data sets were included. We studied 2583 patients. Across all cohorts of patients, the incidence of epinephrine use was 37% (17-76%) and short-term mortality rate was 49% (21-69%). A positive correlation was found between percentages of epinephrine use and short-term mortality in the CS cohort. The risk of death was higher in epinephrine-treated CS patients (OR [CI] = 3.3 [2.8-3.9]) compared to patients treated with other drug regimens. Adjusted mortality risk remained striking in epinephrine-treated patients (n = 1227) (adjusted OR = 4.7 [3.4-6.4]). After propensity score matching, two sets of 338 matched patients were identified and epinephrine use remained associated with a strong detrimental impact on short-term mortality (OR = 4.2 [3.0-6.0]). In this very large cohort, epinephrine use for hemodynamic management of CS patients is associated with a threefold increase of risk of death.
  • Saarinen, Sini; Salo, Ari; Boyd, James; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Silfvast, Catharina; Virkkunen, Ilkka; Silfvast, Tom (2018)
    Patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with pulseless electrical activity (PEA) as initial cardiac rhythm are not always treated in intensive care units (ICUs): some are admitted to high dependency units with various level of care, others to ordinary wards. Aim of this study was to describe the factors determining level of hospital care after OHCA with PEA, post-resuscitation care and survival. Adult OHCA patients with PEA (n = 221), who were resuscitated in southern Finland between 2010 and 2013 were included, provided patient survived to hospital admission. The patients were divided into four groups according to the level of hospital care provided: ordinary ward and Level 1-3 ICUs. Differences in patient characteristics, post-resuscitation care and survival were compared between the groups. Most patients (62.4%) were treated at Level 2 ICUs. Longer time to ROSC and advanced age decreased admission rate to Level 2 or 3 post-resuscitation care, whereas good pre-arrest CPC (1-2) increased the admission rate to Level 2/3 ICUs independently. Treatment with targeted temperature management (TTM) (4.1%) or early coronary angiography (3.2%) were very rare. Prognostic decisions were made earlier in the lower treatment intensity groups (p <0.01). One-year survival rate was 24.0, 17.1% survived with good neurological outcome. Neurological outcome was better with more intensive care. After adjustment, level of care was not independent predictor for outcome: only return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) time, cardiac arrest cause and pre-arrest performance affected independently to 1-year survival, age and ROSC for neurologic outcome. PEA are usually admitted to Level 2 ICUs for post-resuscitation care in the capital area of Finland. Age, ROSC and pre-arrest CPC were independent predictors for level of post-resuscitation care. TTM and early CAG were rare and provided only for Level 3 ICU patients. Prognostication was earlier in lower level of care units. Good neurologic survival was more common with more intensive level of post-resuscitation care. After adjustment, level of care was not independent predictor for survival or neurologic outcome: only ROSC, cardiac arrest cause and pre-arrest performance predicted 1-year survival; age and ROSC neurologic outcome.
  • Kurola, Jouni; Paakkonen, Heikki; Kettunen, Tapio; Laakso, Juha-Pekka; Gorski, Jouko; Silfvast, Tom (2011)
  • Nelskylä, Annika I; Skrifvars, Markus; Ångerman, Susanne; Nurmi, Jouni (2022)
    Background: High oxygen levels may worsen cardiac arrest reperfusion injury. We determined the incidence of hyperoxia during and immediately after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation and identified factors associated with intra-arrest cerebral oxygenation measured with near-infrared Methods: A prospective observational study of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients treated by a physician-staffed helicopter unit. Collected data included intra-arrest brain regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) with NIRS, invasive blood pressures, end-tidal CO2 (etCO2) and arterial blood gas samples. Moderate and severe hyperoxia were defined as arterial oxygen partial pressure (paO2) 20.0-39.9 and 40 kPa, respectively. Intra-arrest factors correlated with the NIRS value, rSO2, were assessed with the Spearman's correlation test. Results: Of 80 recruited patients, 73 (91%) patients had rSO2 recorded during CPR, and 46 had an intra-arrest paO2 analysed. ROSC was achieved in 28 patients, of whom 20 had paO2 analysed. Moderate hyperoxia was seen in one patient during CPR and in four patients (20%, 95% CI 7-42%) after ROSC. None had severe hyperoxia during CPR, and one patient (5%, 95% 0-25%) immediately after ROSC. The rSO2 during CPR was correlated with intra-arrest systolic (r = 0.28, p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.32, p < 0.001) but not with paO2 (r = 0.13, p = 0.41), paCO2 (r = 0.18, p = 0.22) or etCO2 (r = 0.008, p = 0.9). Conclusion: Hyperoxia during or immediately after CPR is rare in patients treated by physician-staffed helicopter units. Cerebral oxygenation during CPR appears more dependent, albeit weakly, on hemodynamics than arterial oxygen concentration.
  • Vihonen, Hanna; Kuisma, Markku; Salo, Ari; Ångerman, Susanne; Pietiläinen, Kirsi; Nurmi, Jouni (2019)
    Background Hyperglycemia is common and associated with increased mortality after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Mechanisms behind ultra-acute hyperglycemia are not well known. We performed an explorative study to describe the changes in glucose metabolism mediators during the prehospital postresuscitation phase. Methods We included patients who were successfully resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in two physician-staffed units. Insulin, glucagon, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) were measured in prehospital and hospital admission samples. Additionally, interleukin-6 (IL-6), cortisol, and HbA1c were measured at hospital admission. Results Thirty patients participated in the study. Of those, 28 cases (71% without diabetes) had sufficient data for analysis. The median time interval between prehospital samples and hospital admission samples was 96 minutes (IQR 85-119). At the time of ROSC, the patients were hyperglycemic (11.2 mmol/l, IQR 8.8-15.7), with insulin and glucagon concentrations varying considerably, although mostly corresponding to fasting levels (10.1 mU/l, IQR 4.2-25.2 and 141 ng/l, IQR 105-240, respectively). GLP-1 increased 2- to 8-fold with elevation of IL-6. The median glucose change from prehospital to hospital admission was -2.2 mmol/l (IQR -3.6 to -0.2). No significant correlations between the change in plasma glucose levels and the changes in insulin (r = 0.30, p = 0.13), glucagon (r = 0.29, p = 0.17), or GLP-1 levels (r = 0.32, p = 0.15) or with IL-6 (r = (-0.07), p = 0.75), cortisol (r = 0.13, p = 0.52) or HbA1c levels (r = 0.34, p = 0.08) were observed. However, in patients who did not receive exogenous epinephrine during resuscitation, changes in blood glucose correlated with changes in insulin (r = 0.59, p = 0.04) and glucagon (r = 0.65, p = 0.05) levels, demonstrating that lowering glucose values was associated with a simultaneous lowering of insulin and glucagon levels. Conclusions Hyperglycemia is common immediately after OHCA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. No clear hormonal mechanisms were observed to be linked to changes in glucose levels during the postresuscitation phase in the whole cohort. However, in patients without exogenous epinephrine treatment, the correlations between glycemic and hormonal changes were more obvious. These results call for future studies examining the mechanisms of postresuscitation hyperglycemia and the metabolic effects of the global ischemic insult and medical treatment.
  • Suominen, Pertti K.; Vahatalo, Raisa (2012)
  • Jousi, Mille; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Nelskylä, Annika; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Schramko, Alexey; Nurmi, Jouni (2019)
    Introduction: Screening and correcting reversible causes of cardiac arrest (CA) are an essential part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Point-ofcare (POC) laboratory analyses are used for screening pre-arrest pathologies, such as electrolyte disorders and acid-base balance disturbances. The aims of this study were to compare the intraosseous (10), arterial and central venous POC values during CA and CPR and to see how the CPR values reflect the pre-arrest state. Methods: We performed an experimental study on 23 anaesthetised pigs. After induction of ventricular fibrillation (VF), we obtained POC samples from the 10 space, artery and central vein simultaneously at three consecutive time points. We observed the development of the values during CA and CPR and compared the CPR values to the pre-arrest values. Results: The 10, arterial and venous values changed differently from one another during the course of CA and CPR. Base excess and pH decreased in the venous and 10 samples during untreated VF, but in the arterial samples, this only occurred after the onset of CPR. The 10, arterial and venous potassium values were higher during CPR compared to the pre-arrest arterial values (mean elevations 4.4 mmol/l (SD 0.72), 3.3 mmol/l (0.78) and 2.8 mmol/l (0.94), respectively). Conclusions: A dynamic change occurs in the common laboratory values during CA and CPR. POC analyses of lactate, pH, sodium and calcium within 10 samples are not different from analyses of arterial or venous blood. Potassium values in 10, arterial and venous samples during CPR are higher than the pre-arrest arterial values.
  • Saarinen, Sini; Kamarainen, Antti; Silfvast, Tom; Yli-Hankala, Arvi; Virkkunen, Ilkka (2012)
  • Vanhatalo, Sampsa (2016)
  • Humaloja, Jaana; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Raj, Rahul; Wilkman, Erika; Pekkarinen, Pirkka T.; Bendel, Stepani; Reinikainen, Matti; Litonius, Erik (2021)
    Background In neurocritically ill patients, one early mechanism behind secondary brain injury is low systemic blood pressure resulting in inadequate cerebral perfusion and consequent hypoxia. Intuitively, higher partial pressures of arterial oxygen (PaO2) could be protective in case of inadequate cerebral circulation related to hemodynamic instability. Study purpose We examined whether the association between PaO2 and mortality is different in patients with low compared to normal and high mean arterial pressure (MAP) in patients after various types of brain injury. Methods We screened the Finnish Intensive Care Consortium database for mechanically ventilated adult (>= 18) brain injury patients treated in several tertiary intensive care units (ICUs) between 2003 and 2013. Admission diagnoses included traumatic brain injury, cardiac arrest, subarachnoid and intracranial hemorrhage, and acute ischemic stroke. The primary exposures of interest were PaO2 (recorded in connection with the lowest measured PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio) and the lowest MAP, recorded during the first 24 h in the ICU. PaO2 was grouped as follows: hypoxemia (<8.2 kPa, the lowest 10th percentile), normoxemia (8.2-18.3 kPa), and hyperoxemia (> 18.3 kPa, the highest 10th percentile), and MAP was divided into equally sized tertiles (<60, 60-68, and > 68 mmHg). The primary outcome was 1-year mortality. We tested the association between hyperoxemia, MAP, and mortality with a multivariable logistic regression model, including the PaO2, MAP, and interaction of PaO2*MAP, adjusting for age, admission diagnosis, premorbid physical performance, vasoactive use, intracranial pressure monitoring use, and disease severity. The relationship between predicted 1-year mortality and PaO2 was visualized with locally weighted scatterplot smoothing curves (Loess) for different MAP levels. Results From a total of 8290 patients, 3912 (47%) were dead at 1 year. PaO2 was not an independent predictor of mortality: the odds ratio (OR) for hyperoxemia was 1.16 (95% CI 0.85-1.59) and for hypoxemia 1.24 (95% CI 0.96-1.61) compared to normoxemia. Higher MAP predicted lower mortality: OR for MAP 60-68 mmHg was 0.73 (95% CI 0.64-0.84) and for MAP > 68 mmHg 0.80 (95% CI 0.69-0.92) compared to MAP <60 mmHg. The interaction term PaO2*MAP was nonsignificant. In Loess visualization, the relationship between PaO2 and predicted mortality appeared similar in all MAP tertiles. Conclusions During the first 24 h of ICU treatment in mechanically ventilated brain injured patients, the association between PaO2 and mortality was not different in patients with low compared to normal MAP.
  • Leinonen, Jaakko T.; Crotti, Lia; Djupsjobacka, Aurora; Castelletti, Silvia; Junna, Nella; Ghidoni, Alice; Tuiskula, Annukka M.; Spazzolini, Carla; Dagradi, Federica; Viitasalo, Matti; Kontula, Kimmo; Kotta, Maria-Christina; Widen, Elisabeth; Swan, Heikki; Schwartz, Peter J. (2018)
    Background: Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a major cause of sudden cardiac death. In some cases clinical investigations fail to identify the underlying cause and the event is classified as idiopathic (IVF). Since mutations in arrhythmia-associated genes frequently determine arrhythmia susceptibility, screening for disease-predisposing variants could improve IVF diagnostics. Methods and results: The study included 76 Finnish and Italian patients with a mean age of 31.2 years at the time of the VF event, collected between the years 1996-2016 and diagnosed with idiopathic, out-of-hospital VF. Using whole-exome sequencing (WES) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches, we aimed to identify genetic variants potentially contributing to the life-threatening arrhythmias of these patients. Combining the results from the two study populations, we identified pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants residing in the RYR2, CACNA1C and DSP genes in 7 patients (9%). Most of them(5, 71%) were found in the RYR2 gene, associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). These genetic findings prompted clinical investigations leading to disease reclassification. Additionally, in 9 patients (11.8%) we detected 10 novel or extremely rare (MAF <0.005%) variants that were classified as of unknown significance (VUS). Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that a subset of patients originally diagnosed with IVF may carry clinically-relevant variants in genes associated with cardiac channelopathies and cardiomyopathies. Although misclassification of other cardiac channelopathies as IVF appears rare, our findings indicate that the possibility of CPVT as the underlying disease entity should be carefully evaluated in IVF patients. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.