Browsing by Subject "CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS"

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  • Kanerva, Noora; Harald, Kennet; Männistö, Satu; Kaartinen, Niina E.; Maukonen, Mirkka; Haukkala, Ari; Jousilahti, Pekka (2018)
    Studies indicate that the healthy Nordic diet may improve heart health, but its relation to weight change is less clear. We studied the association between the adherence to the healthy Nordic diet and long-term changes in weight, BMI and waist circumference. Furthermore, the agreement between self-reported and measured body anthropometrics was examined. The population-based DIetary, Lifestyle and Genetic Determinants of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome Study in 2007 included 5024 Finns aged 25-75 years. The follow-up was conducted in 2014 (n 3735). One-third of the participants were invited to a health examination. The rest were sent measuring tape and written instructions along with questionnaires. The Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) was used to measure adherence to the healthy Nordic diet. Association of the baseline BSDS and changes in BSDS during the follow-up with changes in body anthropometrics were examined using linear regression analysis. The agreement between self-reported and nurse-measured anthropometrics was determined with Bland-Altman analysis. Intra-class correlation coefficients between self-reported and nurse-measured anthropometrics exceeded 0.95. The baseline BSDS associated with lower weight (beta = -0.056, P = 0.043) and BMI (beta = -0.021, P=0.031) over the follow-up. This association was especially evident among those who had increased their BSDS. In conclusion, both high initial and improved adherence to the healthy Nordic diet may promote long-term weight maintenance. The self-reported/measured anthropometrics were shown to have high agreement with nurse-measured values which adds the credibility of our results.
  • Jelenkovic, Aline; Rebato, Esther (2016)
    Background: Earlier menarche has been related to shorter height and greater obesity-related anthropometric dimensions and blood pressure in women. Boys and girls with earlier maternal menarcheal age (MMA) have shown greater height and body mass index (BMI) in childhood. Aim: To analyse associations of menarcheal age with their own and their children's anthropometric dimensions and blood pressure. Subjects and methods: The sample consisted of 493 women and their children (aged 2-19 years) from Greater Bilbao (Basque Country, Spain). For both generations there is information on 19 anthropometric dimensions, blood pressure and socio-demographic characteristics. Linear regressions adjusted for different covariates were used to analyse the associations. Results: Menarcheal age in women showed the greatest positive associations with iliospinal height and ectomorphy and negative associations with BMI, sum of six skin-folds, endomorphy and mesomorphy. Boys with earlier MMA had greater body heights and breadths, particularly iliospinal height and biacromial breadth (0.10z-score/year; p Conclusion: Children with earlier MMA tend to have greater anthropometric dimensions. Adolescent growth spurt might affect these relationships, at least in girls.
  • Karvonen, Risto; Sipola, Marika; Kiviniemi, Antti; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Eriksson, Johan G.; Tulppo, Mikko; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Kajantie, Eero (2019)
    Objective To evaluate cardiac autonomic function in adults born preterm. Study design We studied the association between prematurity and cardiac autonomic function using heart rate variability measurements in 600 adults (mean age of 23.3 years) from a geographically based cohort in Northern Finland. There were 117 young adults born early preterm (= 37 weeks, controls). Autonomic function was analyzed by calculating time and frequency domain heart rate variability measurements using linear regression. Results Compared with controls, the mean difference in root mean square of successive differences (indicating cardiac vagal activity) was -12.0% (95% CI -22.2%, -0.5%, adjusted for sex, age, source cohort, and season P = .04) for the early preterm group and -7.8% (-16.8%, 2.0%, P = .12) for the late preterm group. Mean differences with controls in low frequency power (indicating cardiac vagal activity, including some sympathetic- and baroreflex-mediated effects) were -13.6% (-26.7%, 1.8%, P = .08) for the early pretermgroup and -16.4% (-27.0%, -4.3%, P = .01) for the late preterm group. Mean differences in high frequency power (quantifying cardiac vagal modulation in respiratory frequency) were -19.2% (-36.6%, 2.9%, P = .09) for the early preterm group and -13.8% (-29.4%, 5.3%, P = .15) for the late preterm group. Differences were attenuated when controlled for body mass index and physical activity. Conclusions Our results suggest altered autonomic regulatory control in adults born preterm, including those born late preterm. Altered autonomic regulatory control may contribute to increased cardiovascular risk in adults born preterm.
  • Kuusi, Tuire; Haukka, Jari; Myllykangas, Liisa; Järvelä, Irma (2019)
    OBJECTIVE. Music practice and listening have been reported to have favorable effects on human health, but empirical data are largely missing about these effects. To obtain more information about the effect of exposure to music from early childhood, we examined the causes of death of professional musicians in the classical genre. METHODS: We used standardized mortality ratios (SMR) for Finnish performing artists (n=5,780) and church musicians (n=22,368) during 1981-2016. We examined deaths from cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and neurodegenerative and alcohol-related diseases. The diagnoses were based on the ICD-10, with data obtained from Statistics of Finland. RESULTS: Overall, SMR for all-cause mortality was 0.59 (95% CI 0.57-0.61) for church musicians and 0.75 (95% CI 0.70-0.80) for performing artists, suggesting a protective effect of music for health. In contrast, we found increased mortality in alcohol-related diseases among female performing artists (SMR 1.85, 95% CI 1.062.95) and in neurodegenerative diseases among male performing artists (1.46, 95% CI 1.13-1.84). Additionally, we found higher SMRs for female than male church musicians for cancers (SMRfemales 0.90, 95% CI 0.83-0.97; SMRmales 0.60, 95% CI 0.54-0.67) and cardiovascular diseases (SMRfemales 0.75, 95% CI 0.68-0.82; SMRmales 0.58, 95% CI 0.54-0.64). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the causes of death in performers differ from those in church musicians. Performing artists are not protected from neurodegenerative diseases or alcohol-related deaths. The findings call for further study on the life-long effects of music in musicians.
  • Seiluri, Tina; Lahti, Jouni Markku Mikael; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea (2011)
    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is known to have health benefits across population groups. However, less is known about changes over time in socioeconomic differences in leisure-time physical activity and the reasons for the changes. We hypothesised that class differences in leisure-time physical activity would widen over time due to declining physical activity among the lower occupational classes. We examined whether occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity change over time in a cohort of Finnish middle-aged women and men. We also examined whether a set of selected covariates could account for the observed changes. METHODS: The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort mail surveys; the respondents were 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki at baseline in 2000-2002 (n = 8960, response rate 67%). Follow-up questionnaires were sent to the baseline respondents in 2007 (n = 7332, response rate 83%). The outcome measure was leisure-time physical activity, including commuting, converted to metabolic equivalent tasks (MET). Socioeconomic position was measured by occupational class (professionals, semi-professionals, routine non-manual employees and manual workers). The covariates included baseline age, marital status, limiting long-lasting illness, common mental disorders, job strain, physical and mental health functioning, smoking, body mass index, and employment status at follow-up. Firstly the analyses focused on changes over time in age adjusted prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. Secondly, logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for covariates of changes in occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity. RESULTS: At baseline there were no occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity. Over the follow-up leisure-time physical activity increased among those in the higher classes and decreased among manual workers, suggesting the emergence of occupational class differences at follow-up. Women in routine non-manual and manual classes and men in the manual class tended to be more often physically inactive in their leisure-time (<14 MET hours/week) and to be less often active (>30 MET hours/week) than those in the top two classes. Adjustment for the covariates did not substantially affect the observed occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity emerged over the follow-up period among both women and men. Leisure-time physical activity needs to be promoted among ageing employees, especially among manual workers.
  • Puolakka, Elina; Pahkala, Katja; Laitinen, Tomi T.; Magnussen, Costan G.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Männistö, Satu; Palve, Kristiina S.; Tammelin, Tuija; Tossavainen, Päivi; Jokinen, Eero; Smith, Kylie J.; Laitinen, Tomi; Elovainio, Marko; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Ollii T.; Juonala, Markus (2018)
    Background: Differences in health behaviors partly explain the socioeconomic gap in cardiovascular health. We prospectively examined the association between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle factors in adulthood, and the difference of lifestyle factors according to childhood SES in multiple time points from childhood to adulthood. Methods and results: The sample comprised 3453 participants aged 3-18 years at baseline (1980) from the longitudinal Young Finns Study. The participants were followed up for 31 years (N = 1675-1930). SES in childhood was characterized as reported annual family income and classified on an 8-point scale. Diet, smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity were used as adult and life course lifestyle factors. Higher childhood SES predicted a healthier diet in adulthood in terms of lower consumption of meat (beta +/- SE -3.6 +/- 0.99, p <0.001), higher consumption of fish (1.1 +/- 0.5, p = 0.04) and higher diet score (0.14 +/- 0.044, p = 0.01). Childhood SES was also directly associated with physical activity index (0.059 +/- 0.023, p = 0.009) and inversely with the risk of being a smoker (RR 0.90 95%CI 0.85-0.95, p <0.001) and the amount of pack years (-0.47 +/- 0.18, p = 0.01). Life course level of smoking was significantly higher and physical activity index lower among those below the median childhood SES when compared with those above the median SES. Conclusions: These results show that childhood SES associates with several lifestyle factors 31 years later in adulthood. Therefore, attention could be paid to lifestyle behaviors of children of low SES families to promote cardiovascular health. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Kurki, Mitja I.; Saarentaus, Elmo Christian; Pietiläinen, Olli; Gormley, Padraigh; Lal, Dennis; Kerminen, Sini; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Hämäläinen, Eija; Rahikkala, Elisa; Keski-Filppula, Riikka; Rauhala, Merja; Korpi-Heikkila, Satu; Komulainen-Ebrahim, Jonna; Helander, Heli; Vieira, Päivi; Männikkö, Minna; Peltonen, Markku; Havulinna, Aki; Salomaa, Veikko; Pirinen, Matti; Suvisaari, Jaana; Moilanen, Jukka S.; Körkkö, Jarmo; Kuismin, Outi; Daly, Mark; Palotie, Aarno (2019)
    The contribution of de novo variants in severe intellectual disability (ID) has been extensively studied whereas the genetics of mild ID has been less characterized. To elucidate the genetics of milder ID we studied 442 ID patients enriched for mild ID (>50%) from a population isolate of Finland. Using exome sequencing, we show that rare damaging variants in known ID genes are observed significantly more often in severe (27%) than in mild ID (13%) patients. We further observe a significant enrichment of functional variants in genes not yet associated with ID (OR: 2.1). We show that a common variant polygenic risk significantly contributes to ID. The heritability explained by polygenic risk score is the highest for educational attainment (EDU) in mild ID (2.2%) but lower for more severe ID (0.6%). Finally, we identify a Finland enriched homozygote variant in the CRADD ID associated gene.
  • Koli, Raika; Kohler, Klaus; Tonteri, Elina; Peltonen, Juha; Tikkanen, Heikki; Fogelholm, Mikael (2015)
    Background: Several studies have shown that cocoa and cocoa-containing foods have the potential to lower blood pressure and improve endothelial function. Most of the studies reporting the beneficial effects of dark chocolate on blood pressure have been short ( Design: This was a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial involving 22 adults (8 women, 14 men), aged 33-64 y, BMI 27.7 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2) with mild hypertension. During the intervention period (8-wks) the participants reduced the intake of habitual snacks and replaced them with dark chocolate (49 g/day). In the control period, they only reduced the snacks without any added chocolate. Data (blood lipid profile, glucose, insulin, 24 h blood pressure) was collected in the beginning and end of both periods (intervention and control), and some variables also in the run-in and run-out periods (weight, body fat percentage, blood pressure, arterial stiffness index, diet and physical activity). Results: Daily consumption of dark chocolate had no effects on 24 h blood pressure, resting blood pressure (mean +/- SD, pre 142 +/- 11.5/89 +/- 4 mmHg vs. post 142 +/- 14.2/88 +/- 9.4 mmHg in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively) or arterial stiffness (mean +/- SD, pre 7.68 +/- 0.88 vs. post 7.76 +/- 0.89). Weight was reduced by 1.0 +/- 2.2 kg during the control (reduced snack only) period, but was unchanged while eating chocolate (p <0.027 between the treatments). Conclusion: The data collected in this study indicates that inclusion of dark chocolate daily in the diet had no significant effects on blood pressure or other cardiovascular risk factors during a reduced snack period.
  • Pervjakova, N.; Kukushkina, V.; Haller, T.; Kasela, S.; Joensuu, A.; Kristiansson, K.; Annilo, T.; Perola, M.; Salomaa, V.; Jousilahti, P.; Metspalu, A.; Magi, R. (2018)
    The aim of the study was to explore the parent-of-origin effects (POEs) on a range of human nuclear magnetic resonance metabolites. Materials & methods: We search for POEs in 14,815 unrelated individuals from Estonian and Finnish cohorts using POE method for the genotype data imputed with 1000 G reference panel and 82 nuclear magnetic resonance metabolites. Results: Meta-analysis revealed the evidence of POE for the variant rs1412727 in PTPRD gene for the metabolite: triglycerides in medium very low-density lipoprotein. No POEs were detected for genetic variants that were previously known to have main effect on circulating metabolites. Conclusion: We demonstrated possibility to detect POEs for human metabolites, but the POEs are weak, and therefore it is hard to detect those using currently available sample sizes.
  • Hassan, Shabbeer; Surakka, Ida; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Salomaa, Veikko; Palotie, Aarno; Wessman, Maija; Tukiainen, Taru; Pirinen, Matti; Palta, Priit; Ripatti, Samuli (2021)
    Previous research has shown that using population-specific reference panels has a significant effect on downstream population genomic analyses like haplotype phasing, genotype imputation, and association, especially in the context of population isolates. Here, we developed a high-resolution recombination rate mapping at 10 and 50 kb scale using high-coverage (20-30x) whole-genome sequenced data of 55 family trios from Finland and compared it to recombination rates of non-Finnish Europeans (NFE). We tested the downstream effects of the population-specific recombination rates in statistical phasing and genotype imputation in Finns as compared to the same analyses performed by using the NFE-based recombination rates. We found that Finnish recombination rates have a moderately high correlation (Spearman's rho = 0.67-0.79) with NFE, although on average (across all autosomal chromosomes), Finnish rates (2.268 +/- 0.4209 cM/Mb) are 12-14% lower than NFE (2.641 +/- 0.5032 cM/Mb). Finnish recombination map was found to have no significant effect in haplotype phasing accuracy (switch error rates similar to 2%) and average imputation concordance rates (97-98% for common, 92-96% for low frequency and 78-90% for rare variants). Our results suggest that haplotype phasing and genotype imputation mostly depend on population-specific contexts like appropriate reference panels and their sample size, but not on population-specific recombination maps. Even though recombination rate estimates had some differences between the Finnish and NFE populations, haplotyping and imputation had not been noticeably affected by the recombination map used. Therefore, the currently available HapMap recombination maps seem robust for population-specific phasing and imputation pipelines, even in the context of relatively isolated populations like Finland.
  • Kvehaugen, Anne Stine; Melien, Oyvind; Holmen, Oddgeir L.; Laivuori, Hannele; Dechend, Ralf; Staff, Anne Cathrine (2014)
  • Hovi, Petteri; Kajantie, Eero; Soininen, Pasi; Kangas, Antti J.; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Andersson, Sture; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Wehkalampi, Karoliina (2013)
  • Wurtz, Peter; Cook, Sarah; Wang, Qin; Tiainen, Mika; Tynkkynen, Tuulia; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Laitinen, Jaana; Viikari, Jorma; Kahonen, Mika; Lehtimaki, Terho; Perola, Markus; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Mannisto, Satu; Salomaa, Veikko; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Raitakari, Olli T.; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Leon, David A. (2016)
    Background: High alcohol consumption is a major cause of morbidity, yet alcohol is associated with both favourable and adverse effects on cardiometabolic risk markers. We aimed to characterize the associations of usual alcohol consumption with a comprehensive systemic metabolite profile in young adults. Methods: Cross-sectional associations of alcohol intake with 86 metabolic measures were assessed for 9778 individuals from three population-based cohorts from Finland (age 24-45 years, 52% women). Metabolic changes associated with change in alcohol intake during 6-year follow-up were further examined for 1466 individuals. Alcohol intake was assessed by questionnaires. Circulating lipids, fatty acids and metabolites were quantified by high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics and biochemical assays. Results: Increased alcohol intake was associated with cardiometabolic risk markers across multiple metabolic pathways, including higher lipid concentrations in HDL subclasses and smaller LDL particle size, increased proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids and decreased proportion of omega-6 fatty acids, lower concentrations of glutamine and citrate (P<0.001 for 56 metabolic measures). Many metabolic biomarkers displayed U-shaped associations with alcohol consumption. Results were coherent for men and women, consistent across the three cohorts and similar if adjusting for body mass index, smoking and physical activity. The metabolic changes accompanying change in alcohol intake during follow-up resembled the cross-sectional association pattern (R-2 = 0.83, slope = 0.7260.04). Conclusions: Alcohol consumption is associated with a complex metabolic signature, including aberrations in multiple biomarkers for elevated cardiometabolic risk. The metabolic signature tracks with long-term changes in alcohol consumption. These results elucidate the double-edged effects of alcohol on cardiovascular risk.
  • Massy, Ziad A.; Caskey, Fergus J.; Finne, Patrik; Harambat, Jerome; Jager, Kitty J.; Nagler, Evi; Stengel, Benedicte; Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Vanholder, Raymond; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Bruchfeld, Annette; Capasso, Giovambattista; Fliser, Danilo; Fouque, Denis; Goumenos, Dimitrios; Soler, Maria Jose; Rychlik, Ivan; Spasovski, Goce; Stevens, Kathryn; Wanner, Christoph; Zoccali, Carmine (2019)
    The strengths and the limitations of research activities currently present in Europe are explored in order to outline how to proceed in the near future. Epidemiological and clinical research and public policy in Europe are generally considered to be comprehensive and successful, and the European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) is playing a key role in the field of nephrology research. The Nephrology and Public Policy Committee (NPPC) aims to improve the current situation and translation into public policy by planning eight research topics to be supported in the coming 5 years by ERA-EDTA.
  • Lallukka, Susanna; Luukkonen, Panu K.; Zhou, You; Isokuortti, Elina; Leivonen, Marja; Juuti, Anne; Hakkarainen, Antti; Orho-Melander, Marju; Lundbom, Nina; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Lassila, Riitta; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele (2017)
    Increased liver fat may be caused by insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation or by the common I148M variant in PNPLA3 at rs738409, which lacks both of these features. We hypothesised that obesity/insulin resistance rather than liver fat increases circulating coagulation factor activities. We measured plasma prothrombin time (PT, Owren method), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), activities of several coagulation factors, VWF:RCo and fibrinogen, and D-dimer concentration in 92 subjects divided into groups based on insulin sensitivity [insulin-resistant ('IR') versus insulin-sensitive ('IS')] and PNPLA3 genotype (PNPLA3(148MM/MI) vs PNPLA3(148II)). Liver fat content (H-1-MRS) was similarly increased in 'IR' (13 +/- 1%) and PNPLA3(148MM/MI) (12 +/- 2%) as compared to 'IS' (6 +/- 1%, p
  • EAS Familial Hypercholestero; EAS Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (2018)
    Background and aims: Management of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) may vary across different settings due to factors related to population characteristics, practice, resources and/or policies. We conducted a survey among the worldwide network of EAS FHSC Lead Investigators to provide an overview of FH status in different countries. Methods: Lead Investigators from countries formally involved in the EAS FHSC by mid-May 2018 were invited to provide a brief report on FH status in their countries, including available information, programmes, initiatives, and management. Results: 63 countries provided reports. Data on FH prevalence are lacking in most countries. Where available, data tend to align with recent estimates, suggesting a higher frequency than that traditionally considered. Low rates of FH detection are reported across all regions. National registries and education programmes to improve FH awareness/knowledge are a recognised priority, but funding is often lacking. In most countries, diagnosis primarily relies on the Dutch Lipid Clinics Network criteria. Although available in many countries, genetic testing is not widely implemented (frequent cost issues). There are only a few national official government programmes for FH. Under-treatment is an issue. FH therapy is not universally reimbursed. PCSK9-inhibitors are available in similar to 2/3 countries. Lipoprotein-apheresis is offered in similar to 60% countries, although access is limited. Conclusions: FH is a recognised public health concern. Management varies widely across countries, with overall suboptimal identification and under-treatment. Efforts and initiatives to improve FH knowledge and management are underway, including development of national registries, but support, particularly from health authorities, and better funding are greatly needed.
  • Taddei, Cristina; Zhou, Bin; Bixby, Honor; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Danaei, Goodarz; Jackson, Rod T.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Sophiea, Marisa K.; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Iurilli, Maria Laura Caminia; Martinez, Andrea Rodriguez; Asghari, Golaleh; Dhana, Klodian; Gulayin, Pablo; Kakarmath, Sujay; Santero, Marilina; Voortman, Trudy; Riley, Leanne M.; Cowan, Melanie J.; Savin, Stefan; Bennett, James E.; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Cifkova, Renata; Giampaoli, Simona; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Khang, Young-Ho; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Laxmaiah, Avula; Margozzini, Paula; Mathur, Prashant; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Zhao, Dong; Aadahl, Mette; Abarca-Gomez, Leandra; Rahim, Hanan Abdul; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin; Adams, Robert J.; Agdeppa, Imelda A.; Aghazadeh-Attari, Javad; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Agyemang, Charles; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Ahmadi, Ali; Ahmadi, Naser; Ahmed, Soheir H.; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Ajlouni, Kamel; Alarouj, Monira; AlBuhairan, Fadia; AlDhukair, Shahla; Ali, Mohamed M.; Alkandari, Abdullah; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Aly, Eman; Amarapurkar, Deepak N.; Amouyel, Philippe; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Araujo, Joana; Ariansen, Inger; Aris, Tahir; Arku, Raphael E.; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Aryal, Krishna K.; Aspelund, Thor; Assuncao, Maria Cecilia F.; Auvinen, Juha; Avdicova, Maria; Azevedo, Ana; Azizi, Fereidoun; Azmin, Mehrdad; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed; Banach, Maciej; Bandosz, Piotr; Banegas, Jose R.; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barcelo, Alberto; Barkat, Amina; Bata, Iqbal; Batieha, Anwar M.; Batyrbek, Assembekov; Baur, Louise A.; Beaglehole, Robert; Belavendra, Antonisamy; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Benet, Mikhail; Benn, Marianne; Berkinbayev, Salim; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Bernotiene, Gailute; Bettiol, Heloisa; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Bi, Yufang; Bienek, Asako; Bikbov, Mukharram; Bista, Bihungum; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bjertness, Espen; Bjertness, Marius B.; Bjorkelund, Cecilia; Bloch, Katia; Blokstra, Anneke; Bo, Simona; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boggia, Jose G.; Boissonnet, Carlos P.; Bonaccio, Marialaura; Bongard, Vanina; Borchini, Rossana; Borghs, Herman; Bovet, Pascal; Brajkovich, Imperia; Breckenkamp, Juergen; Brenner, Hermann; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Bruno, Graziella; Bugge, Anna; Busch, Markus A.; de Leon, Antonio Cabrera; Cacciottolo, Joseph; Can, Gunay; Candido, Ana Paula C.; Capanzana, Mario; Capuano, Eduardo; Capuano, Vincenzo; Cardoso, Viviane C.; Carvalho, Joana; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Censi, Laura; Chadjigeorgiou, Charalambos A.; Chamukuttan, Snehalatha; Chaturvedi, Nish; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Fangfang; Chen, Shuohua; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cheraghian, Bahman; Chetrit, Angela; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Cho, Belong; Cho, Yumi; Chudek, Jerzy; Claessens, Frank; Clarke, Janine; Clays, Els; Concin, Hans; Confortin, Susana C.; Cooper, Cyrus; Costanzo, Simona; Cottel, Dominique; Cowell, Chris; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Csilla, Semanova; Cui, Liufu; Cureau, Felipe; D'Arrigo, Graziella; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Dallongeville, Jean; Damasceno, Albertino; Dankner, Rachel; Dantoft, Thomas M.; Dauchet, Luc; Davletov, Kairat; De Backer, Guy; De Bacquer, Dirk; de Gaetano, Giovanni; De Henauw, Stefaan; de Oliveira, Paula Duarte; De Ridder, David; De Smedt, Delphine; Deepa, Mohan; Deev, Alexander D.; Dehghan, Abbas; Delisle, Helene; Dennison, Elaine; Deschamps, Valerie; Dhimal, Meghnath; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.; Dika, Zivka; Djalalinia, Shirin; Dobson, Annette J.; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Donoso, Silvana P.; Doring, Angela; Dorobantu, Maria; Dragano, Nico; Drygas, Wojciech; Du, Yong; Duante, Charmaine A.; Duda, Rosemary B.; Dzerve, Vilnis; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Eddie, Ricky; Eftekhar, Ebrahim; Eggertsen, Robert; Eghtesad, Sareh; Eiben, Gabriele; Ekelund, Ulf; El Ati, Jalila; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise; Eliasen, Marie; Elosua, Roberto; Erasmus, Rajiv T.; Erbel, Raimund; Erem, Cihangir; Eriksen, Louise; Eriksson, Johan G.; Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge; Eslami, Saeid; Esmaeili, Ali; Evans, Alun; Faeh, David; Fall, Caroline H.; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Farjam, Mojtaba; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.; Ferguson, Trevor S.; Fernandez-Berges, Daniel; Ferrante, Daniel; Ferrari, Marika; Ferreccio, Catterina; Ferrieres, Jean; Foger, Bernhard; Foo, Leng Huat; Forslund, Ann-Sofie; Forsner, Maria; Fouad, Heba M.; Francis, Damian K.; Franco, Maria do Carmo; Franco, Oscar H.; Frontera, Guillermo; Fujita, Yuki; Fumihiko, Matsuda; Furusawa, Takuro; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Galvano, Fabio; Gao, Jingli; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manoli; Garnett, Sarah P.; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Gasull, Magda; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Ghanbari, Ali; Ghasemi, Erfan; Gheorghe-Fronea, Oana-Florentina; Ghimire, Anup; Gianfagna, Francesco; Gill, Tiffany K.; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Gironella, Glen; Giwercman, Aleksander; Goltzman, David; Goncalves, Helen; Gonzalez-Chica, David A.; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Gonzalez-Rivas, Juan P.; Gonzalez-Villalpando, Clicerio; Gonzalez-Villalpando, Maria-Elena; Gonzalez, Angel R.; Gottrand, Frederic; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Gregor, Ronald D.; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Grontved, Anders; Grosso, Giuseppe; Gruden, Gabriella; Gu, Dongfeng; Guallar-Castillon, Pilar; Guan, Ong Peng; Gudmundsson, Elias F.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guerrero, Ramiro; Guessous, Idris; Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutierrez, Laura; Gutzwiller, Felix; Ha, Seongjun; Hadaegh, Farzad; Haghshenas, Rosa; Hakimi, Hamid; Hambleton, Ian R.; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Hantunen, Sari; Kumar, Rachakulla Hari; Hashemi-Shahri, Seyed Mohammad; Hata, Jun; Haugsgjerd, Teresa; Hayes, Alison J.; He, Jiang; He, Yuna; Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth; Henriques, Ana; Herrala, Sauli; Heshmat, Ramin; Hill, Allan G.; Ho, Sai Yin; Ho, Suzanne C.; Hobbs, Michael; Hofman, Albert; Homayounfar, Reza; Hopman, Wilma M.; Horimoto, Andrea R. V. R.; Hormiga, Claudia M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Houti, Leila; Howitt, Christina; Htay, Thein Thein; Htet, Aung Soe; Htike, Maung Maung Than; Huerta, Jose Maria; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani; Huisman, Martijn; Hunsberger, Monica L.; Husseini, Abdullatif S.; Huybrechts, Inge; Hwalla, Nahla; Iacoviello, Licia; Iannone, Anna G.; Ibrahim, Mohsen M.; Wong, Norazizah Ibrahim; Iglesia, Iris; Ikeda, Nayu; Ikram, M. Arfan; Iotova, Violeta; Irazola, Vilma E.; Ishida, Takafumi; Islam, Muhammad; Ismail, Aziz Al-Safi; Iwasaki, Masanori; Jacobs, Jeremy M.; Jaddou, Hashem Y.; Jafar, Tazeen; James, Kenneth; Jamrozik, Konrad; Janszky, Imre; Janus, Edward; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jasienska, Grazyna; Jelakovic, Ana; Jelakovic, Bojan; Jennings, Garry; Jensen, Gorm B.; Jeong, Seung-lyeal; Jha, Anjani Kumar; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Jimenez, Ramon O.; Jockel, Karl-Heinz; Joffres, Michel; Jokelainen, Jari J.; Jonas, Jost B.; Jorgensen, Torben; Joshi, Pradeep; Joukar, Farahnaz; Jozwiak, Jacek; Juolevi, Anne; Kafatos, Anthony; Kajantie, Eero O.; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Kamstrup, Pia R.; Karki, Khem B.; Katz, Joanne; Kauhanen, Jussi; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Kavousi, Maryam; Kazakbaeva, Gyulli; Keil, Ulrich; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Kelishadi, Roya; Keramati, Maryam; Kerimkulova, Alina; Kersting, Mathilde; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalili, Davood; Khateeb, Mohammad; Kheradmand, Motahareh; Khosravi, Alireza; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Kiechl, Stefan; Killewo, Japhet; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Jeongseon; Kim, Yeon-Yong; Klumbiene, Jurate; Knoflach, Michael; Ko, Stephanie; Kohler, Hans-Peter; Kohler, Iliana; Kolle, Elin; Kolsteren, Patrick; Konig, Jurgen; Korpelainen, Raija; PaulKorrovits,; Kos, Jelena; Koskinen, Seppo; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Kriemler, Susi; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Krokstad, Steiner; Kromhout, Daan; Kujala, Urho M.; Kurjata, Pawel; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Laamiri, Fatima Zahra; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lachat, Carl; Laid, Youcef; Lam, Tai Hing; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Lanska, Vera; Lappas, Georg; Larijani, Bagher; Latt, Tint Swe; Laugsand, Lars E.; Lazo-Porras, Maria; Lee, Jeannette; Lee, Jeonghee; Lehmann, Nils; Lehtimaki, Terho; Levitt, Naomi S.; Li, Yanping; Lilly, Christa L.; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lima-Costa, M. Fernanda; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lin, Xu; Lin, Yi-Ting; Lind, Lars; Linneberg, Allan; Lissner, Lauren; Liu, Jing; Loit, Helle-Mai; Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Lopez, Tania; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lozano, Jose Eugenio; Luksiene, Dalia; Lundqvist, Annamari; Lundqvist, Robert; Lunet, Nuno; Ma, Guansheng; Machado-Coelho, George L. L.; Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; Machi, Suka; Madar, Ahmed A.; Maggi, Stefania; Magliano, Dianna J.; Magriplis, Emmanuella; Mahasampath, Gowri; Maire, Bernard; Makdisse, Marcia; Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Reza Malekzadeh,; Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna; Manios, Yannis; Mann, Jim; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Manzato, Enzo; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Martorell, Reynaldo; Mascarenhas, Luis P.; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Matsha, Tandi E.; Mavrogianni, Christina; McFarlane, Shelly R.; McGarvey, Stephen T.; McLachlan, Stela; McLean, Rachael M.; McLean, Scott B.; McNulty, Breige A.; Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia; Mehdipour, Parinaz; Mehlig, Kirsten; Mehrparvar, AmirHoushang; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Meisinger, Christa; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Menon, Geetha R.; Merat, Shahin; Mereke, Alibek; Meshram, Indrapal I.; Metcalf, Patricia; Meyer, Haakon E.; Mi, Jie; Michels, Nathalie; Miller, Jody C.; Minderico, Claudia S.; Mini, G. K.; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Miranda, J. Jaime; Mirjalili, Mohammad Reza; Mirrakhimov, Erkin; Modesti, Pietro A.; Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi; Mohajer, Bahram; Mohamed, MostafaK; Mohammad, Kazem; Mohammadi, Zahra; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Mohammadpourhodki, Reza; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mohanna, Salim; MohdYusoff, Muhammad Fadhli; Mohebbi, Iraj; Mohebi, Farnam; Moitry, Marie; Mollehave, Line T.; Mller, Niels C.; Molnar, Denes; Momenan, Amirabbas; Mondo, Charles K.; Monterrubio-Flores, Eric; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Morejon, Alain; Moreno, Luis A.; Morgan, Karen; Morin, Suzanne N.; Moschonis, George; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Mostafa, Aya; Mota, Jorge; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel; Motta, Jorge; Msyamboza, Kelias P.; Muiesan, Maria L.; Muller-Nurasyid, Martina; Mursu, Jaakko; Mustafa, Norlaila; Nabipour, Iraj; Naderimagham, Shohreh; Nagel, Gabriele; Naidu, Balkish M.; Najafi, Farid; Nakamura, Harunobu; Nang, Ei Ei K.; Nangia, Vinay B.; Nauck, Matthias; Neal, William A.; Nejatizadeh, Azim; Nenko, Ilona; Nervi, Flavio; Nguyen, Nguyen D.; Quang Ngoc Nguyen,; Nieto-Martinez, Ramfis E.; Nihal, Thomas; Niiranen, Teemu J.; Ning, Guang; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Noale, Marianna; Noboa, Oscar A.; Noto, Davide; Al Nsour, Mohannad; Nuhoglu, Irfan; O'Neill, Terence W.; O'Reilly, Dermot; Ochoa-Aviles, Angelica M.; Oh, Kyungwon; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro; Olafsson, Orn; Olie, Valerie; Oliveira, Isabel O.; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Onat, Altan; Ong, SokKing; Ordunez, Pedro; Ornelas, Rui; Ortiz, Pedro J.; Osmond, Clive; Ostojic, Sergej M.; Ostovar, Afshin; Otero, Johanna A.; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Paccaud, Fred Michel; Pahomova, Elena; Pajak, Andrzej; Palmieri, Luigi; Pan, Wen-Harn; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Panza, Francesco; Parnell, Winsome R.; Patel, Nikhil D.; Peer, Nasheeta; Peixoto, Sergio Viana; Peltonen, Markku; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Peters, Annette; Petersmann, Astrid; Petkeviciene, Janina; Peykari, Niloofar; Son Thai Pham,; Pichardo, Rafael N.; Pigeot, Iris; Pilav, Aida; Pilotto, Lorenza; Piwonska, Aleksandra; Pizarro, Andreia N.; Plans-Rubio, Pedro; Plata, Silvia; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Porta, Miquel; Portegies, Marileen L. P.; Poudyal, Anil; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Price, Jacqueline F.; Providencia, Rui; Puder, Jardena J.; Puhakka, Soile E.; Punab, Margus; Qorbani, Mostafa; Tran Quoc Bao,; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Rahimikazerooni, Salar; Raitakari, Olli; Rao, Sudha Ramachandra; Ramachandran, Ambady; Ramos, Elisabete; Ramos, Rafel; Rampal, Lekhraj; Rampal, Sanjay; Redon, Josep; Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.; Revilla, Luis; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Ribeiro, Robespierre; Richter, Adrian; Rigo, Fernando; de Wit, Tobias F. Rinke; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Rodriguez-Perez, Maria del Cristo; Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A.; Roggenbuck, Ulla; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Romaguera, Dora; Romeo, Elisabetta L.; Rosengren, Annika; Roy, Joel G. R.; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca Sandra; Russo, Paola; Rust, Petra; Rutkowski, Marcin; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Sadjadi, Alireza; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Safiri, Saeid; Saidi, Olfa; Saki, Nader; Salanave, Benoit; Salmeron, Diego; Salomaa, Veikko; Salonen, Jukka T.; Salvetti, Massimo; Sanchez-Abanto, Jose; Sans, Susana; Santaliestra-Pasias, Alba M.; Santos, Diana A.; Santos, MariaPaula; Santos, Rute; Saramies, Jouko L.; Sardinha, Luis B.; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Savva, Savvas C.; Sawada, Norie; Sbaraini, Mariana; Scazufca, Marcia; Schaan, Beatriz D.; Schargrodsky, Herman; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Schipf, Sabine; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Schottker, Ben; Schramm, Sara; Sebert, Sylvain; Sein, Aye Aye; Sen, Abhijit; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servais, Jennifer; Shakeri, Ramin; Shalnova, Svetlana A.; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Sharma, Sanjib K.; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Shayanrad, Amaneh; Shi, Zumin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shimizu-Furusawa, Hana; Shin, Dong Wook; Shin, Youchan; Shirani, Majid; Shiri, Rahman; Shrestha, Namuna; Si-Ramlee, Khairil; Siani, Alfonso; Siantar, Rosalynn; Sibai, Abla M.; Santos Silva, Diego Augusto; Simon, Mary; Simons, Judith; Simons, Leon A.; Sjostrom, Michael; Skaaby, Tea; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw; Smeeth, Liam; Snijder, Marieke B.; Soderberg, Stefan; Soemantri, Agustinus; Sofat, Reecha; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Sonestedt, Emily; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Jerome, Charles Sossa; Soumare, Aicha; Sozmen, Kaan; Sparrenberger, Karen; Staessen, Jan A.; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Stavreski, Bill; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Stehle, Peter; Stein, Aryeh D.; Stessman, Jochanan; Stevanovic, Ranko; Stieber, Jutta; Stockl, Doris; Stokwiszewski, Jakub; Stronks, Karien; Strufaldi, Maria Wany; Suarez-Medina, Ramon; Sun, Chien-An; Sundstrom, Johan; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Sy, Rody G.; Sylva, Rene Charles; Szklo, Moyses; Tai, E. Shyong; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Tan, EngJoo; Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B.; Taylor, Anne; Taylor, Julie; Tell, Grethe S.; Tello, Tania; Thankappan, K. R.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Thuesen, Betina H.; Toft, Ulla; Tolonen, Hanna K.; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Topbas, Murat; Topor-Madry, Roman; Tormo, Maria Jose; Tornaritis, Michael J.; Torrent, Maties; Torres-Collado, Laura; Traissac, Pierre; Trinh, Oanh T. H.; Truthmann, Julia; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Tzourio, Christophe; Ueda, Peter; Ugel, Eunice; Ulmer, Hanno; Unal, Belgin; Uusitalo, Hannu M. T.; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Valvi, Damaskini; van Dam, RobM; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Van Herck, Koen; Hoang Van Minh,; Rossem, Lenievan; Van Schoor, Natasja M.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Vanuzzo, Diego; Varbo, Anette; Varona-Perez, Patricia; Vasan, Senthil K.; Vatten, Lars; Vega, Tomas; Veidebaum, Toomas; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Venero-Fernandez, Silvia J.; Veronesi, Giovanni; MoniqueVerschuren, W. M.; Victora, Cesar G.; Vidiawati, Dhanasari; Viet, Lucie; Villalpando, Salvador; Vioque, Jesus; Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Vlasoff, Tiina; Vollenweider, Peter; Voutilainen, Ari; Wade, Alisha N.; Wagner, Aline; Walton, Janette; Bebakar, Wan Mohamad Wan; WanMohamud, Wan Nazaimoon; Wang, Ming-Dong; Wang, Ningli; Wang, Qian; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Ying-Wei; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Wedderkopp, Niels; Wei, Wenbin; Whincup, Peter H.; Widhalm, Kurt; Widyahening, Indah S.; Wiecek, Andrzej; Wijga, Alet H.; Wilks, Rainford J.; Willeit, Johann; Willeit, Peter; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Wong-McClure, Roy A.; Wong, Andrew; Wong, Tien Yin; Woo, Jean; Woodward, Mark; Wu, Frederick C.; Wu, Shouling; Xu, Haiquan; Xu, Liang; Yan, Weili; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yasuharu, Tabara; Ye, Xingwang; Yeow, Toh Peng; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.; Yoosefi, Moein; Yoshihara, Akihiro; You, San-Lin; Younger-Coleman, Novie O.; Yusoff, Ahmad Faudzi; Zainuddin, Ahmad A.; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Zali, Mohammad Reza; Zamani, Farhad; Zambon, Sabina; Zampelas, Antonis; KoZaw, Ko; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Vrkic, Tajana Zeljkovic; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Zhao, Wenhua; Zhen, Shiqi; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zholdin, Bekbolat; Zhussupov, Baurzhan; Zoghlami, Nada; Cisneros, Julio Zuniga; Gregg, Edward W.; Ezzati, Majid (2020)
    High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries(1,2). However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world(3) and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health(4,5). However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol-which is a marker of cardiovascular riskchanged from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million-4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.
  • Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Hovi, Petteri; Andersson, Sture; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Strang-Karlsson, Sonja; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Mäkitie, Outi; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kajantie, Eero (2011)
  • Seppa, Satu; Tenhola, Sirpa; Voutilainen, Raimo (2018)
    Context: Elevated IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) concentrations are associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adults. Objective: To determine if serum IL-1Ra and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels are associated with markers of reduced insulin sensitivity (IS) and serum lipids in 12-year-old children. Design and Participants: Of 191 children (n = 109 girls), 78 were categorized as having had birth weight and length appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 69 were small for gestational age, and 44 were AGA and from preeclamptic pregnancies. Serum markers of low-grade inflammation, IS, and lipids were measured. Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) was calculated. Results: Mean serum IL-1Ra levels did not differ between the sexes or among the gestational categories. Children in the highest IL-1Ra tertile had lower QUICKI, IGF-binding protein-1, SHBG, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values; and higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference to height ratio (WHtR), and serum insulin, hs-CRP, leptin, and triglyceride concentrations than those in the lowest IL-1Ra tertile. Logistic regression analysis showed higher serum hs-CRP and leptin levels, and WHtR were associated with high serum IL-1Ra levels. IL-1Ra concentration could be used to discriminate the children with lowest IS (area under the curve, 0.68; P <0.001); hs-CRP level could not. Conclusion: Children with the highest IL-1Ra levels had lower IS, higher hs-CRP levels and BMI, and a less favorable lipid profile than those with the lowest IL-1Ra levels, suggesting that high IL-1Ra concentrations may be associated with increased CVD risk in 12-year-old children. Copyright (C) 2018 Endocrine Society