Browsing by Subject "CARRIAGE"

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  • Grönthal, Thomas; Ollilainen, Matti; Eklund, Marjut; Piiparinen, Heli; Gindonis, Veera; Junnila, Jouni; Saijonmaa-Koulumies, Leena; Liimatainen, Riitta; Rantala, Merja (2015)
    Background: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) and Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are common multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in dogs. In 2012-2013 three dogs of the Guide Dog School of the Finnish Federation of the Visually Impaired were found to be MRSP positive. Guide dogs have regular contact with each other during their first year of life and prolonged contact when in training. Since dogs are placed in different parts of Finland after training, there is a risk for national spread of MDR bacteria. In this study the prevalence of MRSP and MRSA, as well as the risk factors for MRSP were determined in the Finnish guide dog population. MRSP isolates were investigated using molecular methods and compared to the earlier isolates. Results: Out of 132 tested dogs 4 were MRSP positive thus giving the prevalence estimate of 3% (95% CI: 1-8%) for MRSP in the target population. MRSA was not detected (prevalence estimate 0%, 95% CI: 0-3%). Risk factors associated with MRSP were being a breeding bitch (OR = 8.4; 95% CI: 1.1-64.1, P = 0.012), the number of veterinary visits (OR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.0-1.5, P = 0.025) and number of antimicrobial courses (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.0-2.55; P = 0.035). Identified MRSP isolates belonged to five different sequence types (ST45, 71, 402, 403 and 404). All ST71 isolates carried SCCmec II-III, while the SCCmec type of the ST45 and ST402 (a single locus variant of ST45) isolates were non-typeable with the method used. Conclusions: MRSP and MRSA had low prevalence in the studied dog population despite the close contact between dogs, and the MRSP population was heterogenic. Antimicrobial therapy and veterinary visits are risk factors for MRSP even among a small case group.
  • Lahtinen, Perttu; Mattila, Eero; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Tillonen, Jyrki; Teittinen, Matti; Nevalainen, Pasi; Salminen, Seppo; Satokari, Reetta; Arkkila, Perttu (2017)
    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI). Knowledge of the safety and efficacy of FMT treatment in immune deficient patients is scarce. FMT has been suggested as a potential method for an increasing number of new indications besides rCDI. Among our FMT-treated rCDI patients, we reviewed those with major comorbidities: two human immunodeficiency virus patients, six haemodialysis patients, two kidney transplant patients, two liver transplant patients and a patient with chronic lymphatic leukaemia. We also reviewed those treated with FMT for indications other than rCDI: Salmonella carriage (two patients), trimethylaminuria (two patients), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO; one patient), and lymphocytic colitis (one patient), as well as a common variable immunodeficiency patient with chronic norovirus infection and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) carriage. Of the thirteen rCDI patients treated with FMT, eleven cleared the CDI. The observed adverse events were not directly attributable to FMT. Concerning the special indications, both Salmonellas and ESBL-producing E. coli were eradicated. One trimethylaminuria patient and one SIBO-patient reported a reduction of symptoms. Three patients did not experience a benefit from FMT: chronic norovirus, lymphocytic colitis and the other fish malodour syndrome. There were no reported side effects in this group. FMT appeared to be safe and effective for immunocompromised patients with rCDI. FMT showed promise for the eradication of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, but further research is warranted.
  • StaphTrav Network; Nurjadi, D.; Fleck, R.; Kantele, A.; Zanger, P. (2019)
    Objectives: Recently, following import by travel and migration, epidemic community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has caused nosocomial outbreaks in Europe, sometimes with a fatal outcome. We describe clinico-epidemiological characteristics of CA-MRSA detected by the European Network for the Surveillance of imported S. aureus ( from May 2011 to November 2016. Methods: Sentinel surveillance at 13 travel clinics enrolling patients with travel-associated skin and soft-tissue infection (SSTI) and analysing lesion and nose swabs at one central laboratory. Results: A total of 564 independent case-patients with SSTI were enrolled and had 374 (67%) S. aureus-positive lesions, of which 14% (51/374) were MRSA. The majority of CA-MRSA isolates from SSTI were Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-positive (43/51, 84%). The risk of methicillin-resistance in imported S. aureus varied by travel region (p Conclusions: Travel-associated CA-MRSA SSTI is a transmissible condition that leads to medical consultations and colonization of the infected host. (c) 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kajova, Mikael; Khawaja, Tamim; Kangas, Jonas; Mäkinen, Hilda; Kantele, Anu (2021)
    Background: While 20–80% of regular visitors to (sub)tropical regions become colonised by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE), those hospitalised abroad often also carry other multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria on return; the rates are presumed to be highest for interhospital transfers. Aim: This observational study assessed MDR bacterial colonisation among patients transferred directly from hospitals abroad to Helsinki University Hospital. We investigated predisposing factors, clinical infections and associated fatalities. Methods: Data were derived from screening and from diagnostic samples collected between 2010 and 2019. Risk factors of colonisation were identified by multivariable analysis. Microbiologically verified symptomatic infections and infection-related mortality were recorded during post-transfer hospitalisation. Results: Colonisation rates proved highest for transfers from Asia (69/96; 71.9%) and lowest for those within Europe (99/524; 18.9%). Of all 698 patients, 208 (29.8%) were colonised; among those, 163 (78.4%) carried ESBL-PE, 28 (13.5%) MDR Acinetobacter species, 25 (12.0%) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 25 (12.0%) vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, 14 (6.7%) carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and 12 (5.8%) MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 46 strains tested carbapenemase gene-positive. In multivariable analysis, geographical region, intensive care unit (ICU) treatment and antibiotic use abroad proved to be risk factors for colonisation. Clinical MDR infections, two of them fatal (1.0%), were recorded for 22 of 208 (10.6%) MDR carriers. Conclusions: Colonisation by MDR bacteria was common among patients transferred from foreign hospitals. Region of hospitalisation, ICU treatment and antibiotic use were identified as predisposing factors. Within 30 days after transfer, MDR colonisation manifested as clinical infection in more than 10% of the carriers.
  • Verkola, Marie; Pietola, Eeva; Järvinen, Asko; Lindqvist, Kristian; Kinnunen, Paula M.; Heikinheimo, Annamari (2019)
    The occurrence of multidrug-resistant zoonotic bacteria in animals has been increasing worldwide. Working in close contact with livestock increases the risk of carriage of these bacteria. We investigated the occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL/pAmpC-PE) and livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in Finnish veterinarians (n = 320). In addition to microbiological samples, background information was collected. Bacterial whole genome sequencing was performed to deduce sequence types (STs), spa types and resistance genes of the isolates. In total, 3.0% (9/297) of the veterinarians carried ESBL producing Escherichia coli, with one ESBL producing E. coli isolate producing also AmpC. Seven different STs, sequences of several different plasmid groups as well as several different bla(ESBL/pAmpC )genes existed in different combinations. No carbapenemase or colistin resistance genes were detected. MRSA was detected in 0.3% (1/320) of the samples. The strain belonged to LA-MRSA clonal complex (CC) 398 (ST398, spa type 011, lacking Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes). In conclusion, this study shows low carriage of multidrug-resistant zoonotic bacteria in Finnish veterinarians. However, finding LA-MRSA for the first time in a sample from a veterinarian in a country with prudent use of animal antimicrobials and regarding the recent rise of LA-MRSA on Finnish pig farms, a strong recommendation to protect people working in close contact with animals carrying LA-MRSA CC398 is given. Further studies are needed to explain why the prevalence of LA-MRSA in veterinarians is lower in Finland than in other European countries.
  • Ruotsalainen, Pilvi; Penttinen, Reetta; Mattila, Sari; Jalasvuori, Matti (2019)
    ABSTRACTThe possibility to modify gut bacterial flora has become an important goal, and various approaches are used to achieve desirable communities. However, the genetic engineering of existing microbes in the gut, which are already compatible with the rest of the community and host immune system, has not received much attention. Here, we discuss and experimentally evaluate the possibility to use modified and mobilizable CRISPR-Cas9-endocing plasmid as a tool to induce changes in bacterial communities. This plasmid system (briefly midbiotic) is delivered from bacterial vector into target bacteria via conjugation. Compared to, for example, bacteriophage-based applications, the benefits of conjugative plasmids include their independence of any particular receptor(s) on host bacteria and their relative immunity to bacterial defense mechanisms (such as restriction-modification systems) due to the synthesis of the complementary strand with host-specific epigenetic modifications. We show that conjugative plasmid in association with a mobilizable antibiotic resistance gene targeting CRISPR-plasmid efficiently causes ESBL-positive transconjugants to lose their resistance, and multiple gene types can be targeted simultaneously by introducing several CRISPR RNA encoding segments into the transferred plasmids. In the rare cases where the midbiotic plasmids failed to resensitize bacteria to antibiotics, the CRISPR spacer(s) and their adjacent repeats or larger regions were found to be lost. Results also revealed potential caveats in the design of conjugative engineering systems as well as workarounds to minimize these risks.
  • Hirvonen, J. J.; Matero, Pirjo; Siebert, C.; Kauppila, J.; Vuento, R.; Tuokko, H.; Boisset, S. (2017)
    Background A novel portable platform for nucleic acid amplification enables rapid detection of diarrhoea causing toxigenic Clostridium difficile directly from faeces, even in resource-limited settings. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of the new commercial molecular test system. Methods One thousand one hundred and sixty faecal samples from patients suspected of having Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) were analysed using the Orion GenRead C. difficile test system (Orion Diagnostica Oy, Espoo, Finland) and comparative methods in three teaching hospital laboratories in Finland and France. The precision of the Orion GenRead C. difficile test system was evaluated in a reproducibility study with a set of blind-coded samples. The test system is based on a new isothermal amplification technology (Strand Invasion Based Amplification, SIBA (R)) and detection of the tcdB gene of C. difficile. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and the overall agreement according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. Findings The overall agreement of the Orion GenRead C. difficile test when compared to the comparative methods in routine use in the participating laboratories was between 96.7% and 98.8%. In the reproducibility study; the total percent agreement between three laboratories was 99.8%. Interpretation The identification of toxigenic C. difficile from faeces with the light-weight portable Orion GenRead test system was highly sensitive and specific, and the results were reproducible in the participating laboratories. This platform could enable fast and accurate molecular pathogen detection even in resource-limited or point-of-care settings.
  • Paju, Susanna; Oittinen, Juha; Haapala, Henna; Asikainen, Sirkka; Paavonen, Jorma; Pussinen, Pirkko J. (2017)
    In this observational and prospective study, we investigated if microbiological and serological markers of periodontitis associated with conception in 256 non-pregnant women (Mage = 29.2 years; range 19-42 years). Clinical oral and gynecological examinations were performed, major periodontal pathogens in the saliva were detected, and serum and saliva antibodies against major periodontal pathogens were analyzed. The follow-up period for becoming pregnant was 12 months. Porphyromonas gingivalis was significantly (p = 0.032) more frequently detected in the saliva among those who did not become pregnant (8.3%) than among those who became pregnant (2.1%). The median levels of salivary P. gingivalis immunoglobulin A (IgA; p = 0.006) and IgG (p = 0.007) antibodies were higher among those who did not become pregnant compared to those who became pregnant. Hazard ratios (HR) for not becoming pregnant were HR = 3.75 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-13.9; p = 0.048) if the subject was polymerase chain reaction-positive for P. gingivalis with high salivary antibodies against it, and HR = 1.62 (95% CI 1.03-2.54; p = 0.035) if she had high levels of serum P. gingivalis IgA and signs of periodontal infection. P. gingivalis associated with no success in getting pregnant.