Browsing by Subject "CATALYTIC MECHANISM"

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  • Sharma, Vivek; Jambrina, Pablo G.; Kaukonen, Markus; Rosta, Edina; Rich, Peter R. (2017)
    Proton pumping A-type cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) terminates the respiratory chains of mitochondria and many bacteria. Three possible proton transfer pathways (D, K, and H channels) have been identified based on structural, functional, and mutational data. Whereas the D channel provides the route for all pumped protons in bacterial A-type CcOs, studies of bovine mitochondrial CcO have led to suggestions that its H channel instead provides this route. Here, we have studied H-channel function by performing atomistic molecular dynamics simulations on the entire, as well as core, structure of bovine CcO in a lipid-solvent environment. The majority of residues in the H channel do not undergo large conformational fluctuations. Its upper and middle regions have adequate hydration and H-bonding residues to form potential proton-conducting channels, and Asp51 exhibits conformational fluctuations that have been observed crystallographically. In contrast, throughout the simulations, we do not observe transient water networks that could support proton transfer from the N phase toward heme a via neutral His413, regardless of a labile H bond between Ser382 and the hydroxyethylfarnesyl group of heme a. In fact, the region around His413 only became sufficiently hydrated when His413 was fixed in its protonated imidazolium state, but its calculated pK(a) is too low for this to provide the means to create a proton transfer pathway. Our simulations show that the electric dipole moment of residues around heme a changes with the redox state, hence suggesting that the H channel could play a more general role as a dielectric well.
  • Elovaara, Heli; Huusko, Teija; Maksimow, Mikael; Elima, Kati; Yegutkin, Gennady G.; Skurnik, Mikael; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Siitonen, Anja; McPherson, Michael J.; Salmi, Marko; Jalkanen, Sirpa (2015)
    Escherichia coli amine oxidase (ECAO), encoded by the tynA gene, catalyzes the oxidative deamination of aromatic amines into aldehydes through a well-established mechanism, but its exact biological role is unknown. We investigated the role of ECAO by screening environmental and human isolates for tynA and characterizing a tynA-deletion strain using microarray analysis and biochemical studies. The presence of tynA did not correlate with pathogenicity. In tynA+ Escherichia coli strains, ECAO enabled bacterial growth in phenylethylamine, and the resultant H2O2 was released into the growth medium. Some aminoglycoside antibiotics inhibited the enzymatic activity of ECAO, which could affect the growth of tynA+ bacteria. Our results suggest that tynA is a reserve gene used under stringent environmental conditions in which ECAO may, due to its production of H2O2, provide a growth advantage over other bacteria that are unable to manage high levels of this oxidant. In addition, ECAO, which resembles the human homolog hAOC3, is able to process an unknown substrate on human leukocytes.