Browsing by Subject "CATHETERIZATION"

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  • Tapio, Heidi; Argüelles Capilla, David; Gracia-Calvo, Luis A.; Raekallio, Marja (2017)
    Objective: To describe a modified technique for permanent translocation of the common carotid artery (CCA) to a subcutaneous position in standing horses. Study Design: Experimental study. Animals: Healthy adult Standardbred and Warmblood horses (n = 8). Methods: Surgery was performed with the horses standing under sedation and with local anesthesia. A combination of previously described techniques was used modifying the approach and closure of the incision. The right CCA was approached through a linear skin incision dorsal and parallel to the jugular vein and through the brachiocephalicus and omohyoideus muscles. The artery was dissected free of its sheath and elevated to the skin incision with Penrose drains. The brachiocephalicus muscle was sutured in two layers underneath the artery leaving it in a subcutaneous position. The horses were allowed to heal for 3 weeks prior to catheterization of the artery. Results: The transposed CCA was successfully used for repeated catheterization in six of eight horses for a period of 10 weeks. None of the horses had intraoperative complications. Two horses developed mild peri-incisional edema that resolved spontaneously. Right-sided laryngeal hemiplegia was observed endoscopically in two horses postoperatively. Two horses developed complications (surgical site infection and excessive periarterial fibrosis) that compromised the patency of the CCA and precluded catheterization. Conclusion: Permanent translocation of the CCA in standing horses was successful in six out of eight horses. Upper airway endoscopy postoperatively may be warranted as laryngeal hemiplegia may ensue.
  • Yun, Jinhyeon; Björkman, Stefan; Pöytäkangas, Merja; Peltoniemi, Olli (2017)
    In reproductive physiology research, experimental animals are often subjected to stressful procedures, including blood sampling and biopsy. In this present study, presence of pain or distress induced by four different procedures was examined using a measurement of salivary cortisol levels and activity observations in sows. The treatments were: 1) PAL: The ovary was palpated through the rectum without snaring, 2) TUB: transvaginal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the ovary was conducted without snaring, 3) SNA: a soft rope snare was placed around the maxilla, 4) CAT: A soft rope snare was placed around the maxilla, and an intravenous catheter was inserted through the ear vein of the sows. Activities, social cohesion and other pain-related behaviour, and salivary cortisol concentrations were recorded. Salivary cortisol concentrations in CAT sows increased in response to the procedure (P < 0.05), whereas the other treatments did not trigger a significant response. The CAT sows had higher cortisol concentrations than the other groups for 10 min after initiation of the procedures (P < 0.01), and they maintained higher cortisol levels than the PAL and TUB groups 15 min post-treatment (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the CAT sows showed the highest frequency of head shaking (P < 0.001) and trembling behaviour (P < 0.05) during the 1 h post-treatment. Summarizing, the catheterization procedure might induce a short-term pain or stress response during and after the procedure in terms of pain-related behaviour and salivary cortisol status. We suggest that TUB might not cause appreciable pain or distress.