Browsing by Subject "CATS"

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  • Grönthal, Thomas; Eklund, Marjut; Thomson, Katariina; Piiparinen, Heli; Sironen, Tarja; Rantala, Merja (2017)
    Objectives: To investigate antimicrobial susceptibility in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and the occurrence of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP), to explore the molecular structure of the MRSP population and to analyse risk factors for MRSP. Methods: Susceptibility data for clinical S. pseudintermedius isolates in 2011-15 were analysed using WHONET. All MRSP isolates in 2010-14 (n = 362) were typed using PFGE. Representative isolates (n = 87) of clusters were analysed using MLST and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. Risk factors were analysed using logistic regression. Results: Of the clinical S. pseudintermedius (n-1958; 98% from dogs), 14% were MRSP. Resistance to other antimicrobials varied between 12% and 39%. No trends were observed over time. Among clinical specimens (from infection sites) and screening specimens (from potential carriers), respectively, 2.5% (267/10813) and 9% (211/2434) revealed MRSP. MLST revealed 42 different STs, including 19 new ones. Clonal complexes 71, 45 and 258 were the most common, but the MRSP population diversified over the years. A clinical S. pseudintermedius isolate was more likely to be MRSP if the patient was on antimicrobials at the time of sampling or was male. The presence of MRSP in screening specimens was more likely if the patient was on multiple antimicrobials at the time of sampling. Specimens from private clinics (versus the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Helsinki) had a higher likelihood of MRSP in both analyses. Conclusions: Resistance to antimicrobials among S. pseudintermedius in Finland is high, emphasizing the importance of infection control measures and susceptibility testing prior to therapy. The diverse MRSP population indicates non-clonal spread.
  • Jokinen, T. S.; Tiira, K.; Metsähonkala, L.; Seppala, E. H.; Hielm-Bjorkman, A.; Lohi, H.; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O. (2015)
    BackgroundLagotto Romagnolo (LR) dogs with benign juvenile epilepsy syndrome often experience spontaneous remission of seizures. The long-term outcome in these dogs currently is unknown. In humans, behavioral and psychiatric comorbidities have been reported in pediatric and adult-onset epilepsies. Hypothesis/ObjectivesThe objectives of this study were to investigate possible neurobehavioral comorbidities in LR with a history of benign familial juvenile epilepsy (BFJE) and to assess the occurrence of seizures after the remission of seizures in puppyhood. AnimalsA total of 25 LR with a history of BFJE and 91 control dogs of the same breed. MethodsOwners of the LR dogs in the BFJE and control groups completed an online questionnaire about each dog's activity, impulsivity, and inattention. Principal component analysis (PCA) served to extract behavioral factors from the data. We then compared the scores of these factors between the 2 groups in a retrospective case-control study. We also interviewed all dog owners in the BFJE group by telephone to inquire specifically about possible seizures or other neurological problems after remission of seizures as a puppy. ResultsLagotto Romagnolo dogs with BFJE showed significantly higher scores on the factors Inattention and Excitability/Impulsivity than did the control group (P=.003; P=.021, respectively). Only 1 of the 25 BFJE LR exhibited seizures after remission of epilepsy in puppyhood. Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceAlthough the long-term seizure outcome in BFJE LR seems to be good, the dogs exhibit behavioral abnormalities resembling attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in humans, thus suggesting neurobehavioral comorbidities with epilepsy.
  • Candido, Marcus Vinicius; Syrjä, Pernilla; Kilpinen, Susanne; Spillmann, Thomas (2018)
    Background: Gastric carcinoma (GC) is a rather rare pathological finding in dogs, with the exception of some breeds which seem predisposed. The etiopathogenesis is largely unknown in dogs, whereas in humans GC often develops from gastric mucosal metaplasia and dysplasia. This study investigates whether dogs of certain breeds are more often subject to gastroduodenoscopy (GDS), and diagnosed with GC, mucosal metaplasia or dysplasia. A retrospective clinical database search was performed at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the University of Helsinki, Finland. The following inclusion criteria were applied to estimate relative risk for metaplasia/dysplasia and GC: dogs from pure breeds with at least five individuals subject to GDS with histopathology of gastric biopsies. Results: Between 2006 and 2016, from a total of 54945 canine patients presented, 423 dogs underwent GDS. Inclusion criteria were met in 180 dogs of 20 different pure breeds. Eight dogs had GCs (mean age = 9.8 +/- 1.7 years): Belgian Tervuren (n = 4), Collie (n = 2), Golden Retriever (n = 1) and Jack Russel Terrier (n = 1). Fourteen dogs of eight breeds had gastric mucosal metaplasia or dysplasia. A log-binomial statistical model revealed that dogs in the following breeds had a significantly higher probability to undergo GDS than the others in the study population: Australian Terrier, Belgian Tervuren, Cairn Terrier, Collie and Siberian Husky. Belgian Tervuren was found at higher risk to be diagnosed with GC [RR = 19 (5.7-63.9; P <0.0001)], as well as mucosal metaplasia/dysplasia [RR (7.6; 2.95-19.58; P <0.0001)], as compared to the other breeds included. Shetland Sheepdog had an increased RR (5.83; 1.75-19.45; P = 0.0041) for metaplasia. Conclusions: The results indicate a very low incidence of GC in dogs. The Belgian Tervuren, however, appears as predisposed. The histopathologic descriptions of mucosal changes such as metaplasia and dysplasia were also rare, but were more frequent in the Belgian Tervuren. Previous reports of these changes in dogs are very scarce, but they might be presumably related to GC in dogs, as they are in humans. Future research should investigate the possible role of metaplasia and dysplasia in the development of GC in dogs, especially those of predisposed breeds.
  • Grönthal, Thomas; Ollilainen, Matti; Eklund, Marjut; Piiparinen, Heli; Gindonis, Veera; Junnila, Jouni; Saijonmaa-Koulumies, Leena; Liimatainen, Riitta; Rantala, Merja (2015)
    Background: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) and Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are common multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in dogs. In 2012-2013 three dogs of the Guide Dog School of the Finnish Federation of the Visually Impaired were found to be MRSP positive. Guide dogs have regular contact with each other during their first year of life and prolonged contact when in training. Since dogs are placed in different parts of Finland after training, there is a risk for national spread of MDR bacteria. In this study the prevalence of MRSP and MRSA, as well as the risk factors for MRSP were determined in the Finnish guide dog population. MRSP isolates were investigated using molecular methods and compared to the earlier isolates. Results: Out of 132 tested dogs 4 were MRSP positive thus giving the prevalence estimate of 3% (95% CI: 1-8%) for MRSP in the target population. MRSA was not detected (prevalence estimate 0%, 95% CI: 0-3%). Risk factors associated with MRSP were being a breeding bitch (OR = 8.4; 95% CI: 1.1-64.1, P = 0.012), the number of veterinary visits (OR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.0-1.5, P = 0.025) and number of antimicrobial courses (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.0-2.55; P = 0.035). Identified MRSP isolates belonged to five different sequence types (ST45, 71, 402, 403 and 404). All ST71 isolates carried SCCmec II-III, while the SCCmec type of the ST45 and ST402 (a single locus variant of ST45) isolates were non-typeable with the method used. Conclusions: MRSP and MRSA had low prevalence in the studied dog population despite the close contact between dogs, and the MRSP population was heterogenic. Antimicrobial therapy and veterinary visits are risk factors for MRSP even among a small case group.
  • Grönthal, Thomas; Moodley, Arshnee; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Junnila, Jouni; Guardabassi, Luca; Thomson, Katariina; Rantala, Merja (2014)
  • Kaimio, Mirja; Saijonmaa-Koulumies, Leena; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi (2017)
    Background: American Cocker Spaniels are overrepresented among breeds that require surgery as a treatment of end-stage otitis externa. However, the prevalence of otitis externa (OE) in this breed remains unknown. We reviewed the year 2010 medical records of 55 private veterinary clinics in Finland to determine the prevalence of OE in American Cocker Spaniels compared with English Cocker and English and Welsh Springer Spaniels. An American Cocker Spaniel owner questionnaire was designed to identify potential risk factors for end-stage OE. Results: From the medical records of 98,736 dogs, the prevalence of OE was highest in Welsh Springer Spaniels (149 out of 468, 31.8%, [95% confidence interval 27.6-36.0]), followed by American Cocker (89/329, 27.0%, [22.2-31.7]), English Springer (96/491, 19.6%, [16.1-23.1]) and English Cocker Spaniels (231/1467, 15.7%, [13.8-17.6]). The mean number of OE episodes in ear-diseased dogs and the number of ear surgeries were highest in American Cocker Spaniels. Owner questionnaires were received for 151 American Cocker Spaniels, 85 (56%) of which had suffered from OE. In 47% (40/85) of these dogs, OE occurred without concurrent skin lesions, 46% (33/72) displayed the first signs of OE before 1 year of age. In 24% (20/85) of the dogs, the signs of OE recurred within 1 month or continued despite treatment, 16% (14/85) required surgery (n = 11) or were euthanized (n = 5; 2 of the operated dogs and 3 others) due to severe OE. The onset of OE before the age of 1 year significantly increased the risk (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.1-13.6) of end-stage OE. Conclusions: The prevalence of OE in American Cocker Spaniels in Finland was higher than previously reported in Cocker Spaniels, but the highest prevalence of OE was found in Welsh Springer Spaniels. Compared to the other Spaniels, OE was more often recurrent and more frequently surgically managed in American Cocker Spaniels. Based on the questionnaire, early onset (<1 year) of OE increased the risk of end-stage OE. In American Cocker Spaniels, OE requires an intensive approach from the first treatment, and prevention of recurrence should be emphasised. The causes and treatment of OE in this breed warrant further study.
  • Holopainen, Saila; Rautala, Elina; Lilja-Maula, Liisa; Lohi, Hannes; Rajamaki, Minna M.; Lappalainen, Anu K. (2019)
    Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic, progressive interstitial lung disease particularly prevalent in West Highland White Terriers. In the present prospective pilot study, we evaluated the feasibility of modified VetMousetrap (TM) device in high resolution CT to detect idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in West Highland White Terriers. Twelve awake West Highland White Terriers with canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 24 clinically healthy West Highland White Terriers were scanned using a helical dual slice scanner utilizing VetMousetrap (TM) device without or with minimal chemical restraint with butorphanol. Three evaluators blindly assessed the images for image quality and the presence of canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis related imaging findings such as ground glass opacity and reticular opacities. Additionally, the attenuation of the lung was quantified with ImageJ software using histogram analysis of density over the lung fields. Computed tomography was successfully completed and motion artifact ranked in statistical analysis barely noticeable to mild in all dogs. The agreement between imaging findings and clinical status was very good with overall kappa value 0.91 and percentage of agreement of 94%. There was also very good intraobserver (kappa(range) = 0.79-0.91) and interobserver agreement (kappa = 0.94). Moderate to severe ground glass opacity was present in all affected dogs. In the ImageJ analysis, a significant difference in lung attenuation between the study groups was observed. We conclude that modified VetMousetrap (TM) device is applicable in diagnosing canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in awake West Highland White Terriers avoiding anesthetic risk in these often severely hypoxic patients.