Browsing by Subject "CAVITY"

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  • Almangush, Alhadi; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Hagström, Jaana; Haglund, Caj; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Nieminen, Pentti; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Salo, Tuula; Leivo, Ilmo (2020)
    BackgroundCell-in-cell structures (caused by cell cannibalistic activity) have been related to prognosis of many cancers. This is the first multi-institutional study to assess the prognostic impact of cell-in-cell structures in a large cohort of early oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (OTSCC).MethodsA total of 308 cases from five Finnish University Hospitals and from the A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, SAo Paulo, Brazil, were included in this study. Cell-in-cell structures were evaluated on surgical postoperative sections that stained with hematoxylin and eosin staining.ResultsWe found that cell-in-cell structures associated with cancer-related mortality in univariable analysis with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.99 (95%CI 1.52-5.88; P=0.001). This association was confirmed in multivariable analysis (HR 2.22, 95%CI 1.12-4.44; P=0.024). In addition, statistically significant associations were observed between the cell-in-cell structures and other adverse histopathologic characteristics including deep invasion (P<0.001), high index of tumor budding (P=0.007), worst pattern of invasion (P<0.001), perineural invasion (P=0.01), and stroma-rich pattern (P=0.001).ConclusionsOur findings demonstrate a significant relationship between cell-in-cell formation and aggressive characteristics of early OTSCC. Cell-in-cell structures have a distinct impact as a novel prognostic indicator in early OTSCC and they can be easily assessed during routine pathology practice.
  • Saat, R.; Mahmood, G.; Laulajainen-Hongisto, A.; Lempinen, Laura; Aarnisalo, A. A.; Jero, J.; Markkola, Antti Thor Olavi (2016)
    To compare MR imaging features in patients with incidental mastoid T2-hyperintensity with those of clinical acute mastoiditis, to ascertain characteristic differences between them. MR images of 35 adult and paediatric patients with clinical acute mastoiditis and 34 consecutive age-matched controls without relevant middle ear pathology and with incidental T2-hyperintensity that covered >= 50 % of the mastoid were retrospectively analysed with regard to signal, diffusion, and enhancement characteristics, and presence of complications. Incidental mastoid T2-hyperintensity that covered >= 50 % of the mastoid volume was found in 4.6 % of reviewed MR scans (n = 2341), and associated significantly (p <0.05) less with the involvement of the tympanic cavity (38 % vs. 74 %) and mastoid antrum (56 % vs. 80 %), hypointense-to-CSF signal intensity on T2 FSE (6 % vs. 86 %), intramastoid diffusion restriction (0 % vs. 62 %), intense intramastoid enhancement (0 % vs. 51 %), periosteal enhancement (3 % vs. 69 %), perimastoid dural enhancement 3 % vs. 43 %), bone destruction (0 % vs 49 %), intratemporal abscess or cholesteatoma (0 % vs. 24 %), labyrinth involvement (0 % vs. 14 %), and extracranial abscesses (0 % vs. 20 %). Hypointense-to-CSF signal intensity on T2WI, restricted diffusion, intense intramastoid enhancement among other MR imaging characteristics favoured an acute mastoiditis diagnosis over clinically non-relevant incidental mastoid pathology. Intramastoid T2-hyperintensity alone is not a reliable sign for acute mastoiditis. In acute mastoiditis, intramastoid T2-weighted signal intensity is usually hypointense to CSF. Diffusion restriction and intense intramastoid enhancement are absent in incidental mastoid effusion. An ADC value >= 1.72 x 10 (-3) mm (2) /s contradicts the AM diagnosis.
  • Musrati, Ahmed Ali; Tervahartiala, Taina; Gursoy, Mervi; Kononen, Eija; Fteita, Dareen; Sorsa, Timo; Uitto, Veli-Jukka; Gursoy, Ulvi Kahraman (2016)
    Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of HNP-1 on the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -8 and -9 secretions of two oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines (UT-SCC-43A and UT-SCC-43B). Design: In all experiments, the two OSCC cell lines were incubated with graded concentrations (0,1, 5, and 10 mu g/ml) of HNP-1 for 24 and 48 h. Cell viability was measured using a colorimetric proliferation test and cell death was analyzed with a colorimetric cytotoxicity detection kit. Enzyme activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was detected by using gelatin zymography, and molecular weight forms of MMP-8 were determined by Western-blot and a densitometric quantitation method. Results: Both cell lines showed a significant increase in LDH toxicity at 24 h (UT-SCC-43A: p = 0.005 & UT-SCC-43B: p = 0.014). Reduced gelatinolytic activities of proMMP-2 were detected in UT-SCC-43B cell line after 24 and 48 h of incubation with HNP-1 (1 mu g/ml: p <0.001, 5 mu g/ml: p <0.001, and 1011g/ml: p = 0.0225). MMP-8 levels of both cell lines decreased at 200-250 kDa after 24 h of incubation, while after 48 h only UT-SCC-43B decreased at 45-50 kDa. Conclusions: Our results indicate that HNP-1 suppresses the secretion of MMP-2,-8, and -9 in OSCC cell lines. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Almahmoudi, Rabeia; Salem, Abdelhakim; Murshid, Sakhr; Dourado, Mauricio Rocha; Apu, Ehsanul Hoque; Salo, Tuula; Al-Samadi, Ahmed (2019)
    We recently showed that extracellular interleukin-17F (IL-17F) correlates with better disease-specific survival in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) patients. However, the underlying mechanisms of such effect remain obscure. Here, we used qRT-PCR to assess the expression of IL-17F and its receptors (IL-17RA and IL-17RC) in two OTSCC cell lines (HSC-3 and SCC-25) and in normal human oral keratinocytes (HOKs). IL-17F effects on cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were studied using a live-imaging IncuCyte system, and a Caspase-3/7 reagent was used for testing apoptosis. 3D tumor spheroids were utilized to assess the impact of IL-17F on invasion with or without cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Tube-formation assays were used to examine the effects of IL-17F on angiogenesis using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). OTSCC cells express low levels of IL-17F, IL-17RA, and IL-17RC mRNA compared with HOKs. IL-17F inhibited cell proliferation and random migration of highly invasive HSC-3 cells. CAFs promoted OTSCC invasion in tumor spheroids, whereas IL-17F eliminated such effect. IL-17F suppressed HUVEC tube formation in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, we suggest that IL-17F counteracts the pro-tumorigenic activity in OTSCC. Due to its downregulation in tumor cells and inhibitory activity in in vitro cancer models, targeting IL-17F or its regulatory pathways could lead to promising immunotherapeutic strategies against OTSCC.
  • Pakkala, Timo; Tiainen, Juha; Pakkala, Heikki; Piha, Markus; Kouki, Jari (2020)
    Woodpeckers are important species in forest ecosystems because they make tree cavities that are microhabitats for several other taxa. However, even in boreal areas where most tree cavities are made by wood-peckers, the properties of woodpeckers' nest trees and cavities are poorly known. We studied nest tree characteristics of the Grey-headed Woodpecker (Picus cams) in a 170-km(2) forest-dominated area in southern Finland during 1987-2019. The data included 76 nest trees with 80 nest cavities in five different tree species. During the study period, 44% of all nesting attempts were in old cavities. Nests were found in four forest types, but the proportions of nest tree species differed between them. In all, aspen (Populus tremula) with 70% of nest trees, and with 71% of nest cavities was the dominant cavity tree species. Most nest trees (85%) were dead or decaying, and most cavities (70%) were excavated at visible trunk injury spots. The mean diameter of a nest tree at breast height (DBH) was 37.2 cm and the mean height of a cavity hole was 7.8 m; these were significantly positively correlated. The results highlight the importance of large aspens as nest cavity sites for the species. Conservation and retention of groups of large aspens in main habitats, including clear-cuts, are important for continuous availability of nest trees. This applies particularly to managed boreal forest landscapes where scarcity of suitable trees may be a limiting factor for the species.
  • Pakkala, Timo; Tiainen, Juha; Pakkala, Heikki; Piha, Markus; Kouki, Jari (2019)
    Tree cavities, and especially cavities made by woodpeckers, are important microhabitats in forest ecosystems. However, the properties of woodpecker nest trees and cavities are poorly known even in boreal areas where most tree cavities are made by woodpeckers. We studied the nest tree characteristics of the Lesser Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos minor) in a 170-km(2) forest-dominated area in southern Finland during 1987-2018. The data included 97 nest trees with 106 nest cavities in five deciduous tree species. During the study period, more than one nest cavity (2-3) was excavated in 7% of all cavity trees. Nests were found in three forest types, but the proportions of nest tree species differed between them. Birch (Betula spp.) was the most common nest tree species with 40% of nests. Nest trees were either dead (79%) or decaying (21%), and the majority (69%) had a broken top. The mean diameter at breast height (DBH) of a nest tree was 24.7 cm and the mean height of a cavity hole was 3.3 m; size and height were significantly positively correlated. The mean ratio of cavity height in relation to the respective nest tree height was 0.49, and did not depend on the nest tree condition. The results highlight the importance of dead and decaying deciduous trees as nest cavity sites for this small woodpecker species. Provision of suitable cavity trees during forest management is important to maintain breeding and cavity building opportunities for the Lesser Spotted Woodpecker in managed forests.
  • Pakkala, Timo; Tiainen, Juha; Piha, Markus; Kouki, Jari (2018)
    The Three-toed Woodpecker Picoides tridactylus is a mature and old-growth forest specialist but how the species uses trees for nesting in its breeding sites and whether cavity trees are a critical habitat feature is poorly known. We studied the nest tree characteristics of the species in a 170-km(2) area in southern Finland during 1987-2016. The data included 538 nest trees of eight different species and 665 nest cavities in 86 territory areas. Norway spruce Picea abler was the predominant nest tree comprising 71% of all nest trees. Proportionally, deciduous nest trees were more common in moist forests on mineral soils and conifer nest trees more common in spruce swamps. The majority of nest trees (85%) were dead or decaying trees; higher numbers of dead deciduous nest trees were recorded than dead conifer trees. The mean diameter of a nest tree at diameter at breast height (DBH) was 29.4 cm and the mean height of a cavity hole was 5.1 m; size and height were significantly positively correlated. The proportion of deciduous nest trees was significantly higher (45%) in natural forests compared with other areas subjected to variable amounts of forest management, where the respective proportion was only 9-17%. In addition, cavity holes were significantly higher in natural forests than in managed ones. In general, the results highlight the substantial flexibility in nest tree use but also the importance of large dead and decaying trees (including deciduous trees) as nest cavity sites for the species. Spruce swamps can be considered as key nesting habitats in managed forest landscapes.
  • Almangush, Alhadi; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Mäkinen, Laura K.; Kauppila, Joonas H.; Pukkila, Matti; Hagström, Jaana; Laranne, Jussi; Soini, Ylermi; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Grenman, Reidar; Haglund, Caj; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Salo, Tuula; Leivo, Ilmo (2018)
    One of the main changes in the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) for staging of oral cancer is the inclusion of depth of invasion (DOI) in the T category. However, cancers in different oral subsites have variable behavior, with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) being the most aggressive one even at early stage. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of this new T category in homogenous cohort of early OTSCC. Therefore, we analyzed a large cohort of patients with a small (ae4 cm) OTSCC to demonstrate the differences in T stage between the AJCC 7th and 8th editions. A total of 311 early-stage cases (AJCC 7th) of OTSCC were analyzed. We used 5 mm and 10 mm DOI for upstaging from T1 to T2 and from T2 to T3 respectively, as in the AJCC 8th. We further reclassified the cases according to our own proposal suggesting 2 mm to upstage to T2 and 4 mm to upstage to T3. According to AJCC 7th, there were no significant differences in the survival analysis. When we applied the 8th edition, many cases were upstaged to T3 and thus associated with worse disease-specific survival (HR 2.37, 95% CI 1.12-4.99) and disease-free survival (HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.09-4.08). Based on our proposal, T3 cases were associated with even worse disease-specific survival (HR 4.19, 95% CI 2.27-7.74). The 8th edition provides better survival prediction for OTSCC than the 7th and can be further optimized by lowering the DOI cutoffs.
  • Almangush, Alhadi; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Triantafyllou, Asterios; de Bree, Remco; Strojan, Primoz; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Hernandez-Prera, Juan C.; Suarez, Carlos; Kowalski, Luiz P.; Ferlito, Alfio; Leivo, Ilmo (2020)
    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common malignancy of the head and neck region. OSCC has a relatively low survival rate and the incidence of the disease is increasing in some geographic areas. Staging and grading of OSCC are established prerequisites for management, as they influence risk stratification and are the first step toward personalized treatment. The current AJCC/UICC TNM staging (8th edition, 2017) of OSCC has included significant modifications through the incorporation of depth of invasion in the T stage and extracapsular spread/extranodal extension in the N stage. Further modifications for AJCC 8 have been suggested. On the other hand, the World Health Organization (WHO) classification (4th edition, 2017) still endorses a simple, differentiation-based histopathologic grading system of OSCC (despite its low prognostic value) and ignores factors such as tumor growth pattern and dissociation, stromal reactions (desmoplasia, local immune response), and tumor-stroma ratio. The various controversies and possible developments of the current staging and grading criteria of OSCC are briefly discussed in this update together with possible applications of artificial intelligence in the context of screening and risk stratification.
  • Chen, W.; Metsala, M.; Vaittinen, O.; Halonen, L. (2014)