Browsing by Subject "CELL-SURFACE"

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  • Psychiat Genomics Consortium; BUPGEN; 23andMe Res Team; Grove, Jakob; Ripke, Stephan; Als, Thomas D.; Palotie, Aarno; Daly, Mark J. (2019)
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable and heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental phenotypes diagnosed in more than 1% of children. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ASD susceptibility, but to date no individual variants have been robustly associated with ASD. With a marked sample-size increase from a unique Danish population resource, we report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 18,381 individuals with ASD and 27,969 controls that identified five genome-wide-significant loci. Leveraging GWAS results from three phenotypes with significantly overlapping genetic architectures (schizophrenia, major depression, and educational attainment), we identified seven additional loci shared with other traits at equally strict significance levels. Dissecting the polygenic architecture, we found both quantitative and qualitative polygenic heterogeneity across ASD subtypes. These results highlight biological insights, particularly relating to neuronal function and corticogenesis, and establish that GWAS performed at scale will be much more productive in the near term in ASD.
  • Lundmark, Anna; Johannsen, Gunnar; Eriksson, Kaja; Kats, Anna; Jansson, Leif; Tervahartiala, Taina; Rathnayake, Nilminie; Akerman, Sigvard; Klinge, Bjorn; Sorsa, Timo; Yucel-Lindberg, Tulay (2017)
    Aim: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by irreversible destruction of tooth-supporting tissue including alveolar bone. We recently reported mucin 4 ( MUC4) and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) as highly associated with periodontitis in gingival tissue biopsies. The aim of this study was to further investigate the levels of MUC4 and MMP7 in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples of patients with periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Saliva and GCF samples were collected from periodontitis patients and healthy controls. The levels of MUC4, MMP7, and total protein concentrations were analysed using ELISA or Bradford assay. Results: MUC4 levels were significantly lower in saliva and GCF from periodontitis patients relative to healthy controls. MMP7 levels were significantly higher in saliva and GCF from periodontitis patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that MUC4 was significantly associated with periodontitis after adjusting for age and smoking habits and, moreover, that the combination of MUC4 and MMP7 accurately discriminated periodontitis from healthy controls. Conclusions: MUC4 and MMP7 may be utilized as possible novel biomarkers for periodontitis.
  • Frohnmeyer, Esther Gesine; Deptula, Paulina; Nyman, Tuula Anneli; Laine, Pia Kati Sofia; Vihinen, Anja Helena; Paulin, Lars Göran; Auvinen, Petri Olli Viljami; Jokitalo, Eija Sofia; Piironen, Vieno Irene; Varmanen, Pekka Kristian; Savijoki, Kirsi Kristiina (2018)
    This study compared the secretomes (proteins exported out of the cell) of Propionibacterium freudenreichii of different origin to identify plausible adaptation factors. Phylosecretomics indicated strain-specific variation in secretion of adhesins/invasins (SlpA, InlA), cell-wall hydrolysing (NlpC60 peptidase, transglycosylase), protective (RpfB) and moonlighting (DnaK, GroEL, GaPDH, IDH, ENO, ClpB) enzymes and/or proteins. Detailed secretome comparison suggested that one of the cereal strains (JS14) released a tip fimbrillin (FimB) in to the extracellular milieu, which was in line with the electron microscopy and genomic analyses, indicating the lack of surface-associated fimbrial-like structures, predicting a mutated type-2 fimbrial gene cluster (fimB-fimA-srtC2) and production of anchorless FimB. Instead, the cereal strain produced high amounts of SlpB that tentatively mediated adherent growth on hydrophilic surface and adherence to hydrophobic material. One of the dairy strains (JS22), producing non-covalently bound surface-proteins (LspA, ClpB, AraI) and releasing SlpA and InlA into the culture medium, was found to form clumps under physiological conditions. The JS22 strain lacked SlpB and displayed a non-clumping and biofilm-forming phenotype only under conditions of increased ionic strength (300mM NaCl). However, this strain cultured under the same conditions was not adherent to hydrophobic support, which supports the contributory role of SlpB in mediating hydrophobic interactions. Thus, this study reports significant secretome variation in P.freudenreichii and suggests that strain-specific differences in protein export, modification and protein-protein interactions have been the driving forces behind the adaptation of this bacterial species.
  • Legrand, Cyril; Saleppico, Roberto; Sticht, Jana; Lolicato, Fabio; Müller, Hans-Michael; Wegehingel, Sabine; Dimou, Eleni; Steringer, Julia P.; Ewers, Helge; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Freund, Christian; Nickel, Walter (2020)
    FGF2 is a tumor cell survival factor that is exported from cells by an ER/Golgi-independent secretory pathway. This unconventional mechanism of protein secretion is based on direct translocation of FGF2 across the plasma membrane. The Na,K-ATPase has previously been shown to play a role in this process, however, the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. Here, we define structural elements that are critical for a direct physical interaction between FGF2 and the α1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase. In intact cells, corresponding FGF2 mutant forms were impaired regarding both recruitment at the inner plasma membrane leaflet and secretion. Ouabain, a drug that inhibits both the Na,K-ATPase and FGF2 secretion, was found to impair the interaction of FGF2 with the Na,K-ATPase in cells. Our findings reveal the Na,K-ATPase as the initial recruitment factor for FGF2 at the inner plasma membrane leaflet being required for efficient membrane translocation of FGF2 to cell surfaces.
  • Acosta, Alicia Jurado; Rysä, Jaana; Szabo, Zoltan; Moilanen, Anne-Mari; Komati, Hiba; Nemer, Mona; Ruskoaho, Heikki (2017)
    The phenylephrine-induced complex-1 (PEX1) transcription factor, also known as zinc-finger protein 260 (Zfp260), is an effector of endothelin-1 and alpha(1)-adrenergic signaling in cardiac hypertrophy. However, the role of PEX1 in transcriptional regulation of myocardial remodeling remains largely unknown. In the present study, we used PEX1 gain- and loss-of-function to examine the effects of PEX1 on left ventricular remodeling. Adenoviral constructs expressing PEX1, antisense PEX1, or LacZ were delivered by local injection into the anterior wall of the left ventricle in Sprague-Dawley rats. PEX1 overexpression led to induction of hypertrophic gene program and increased fibrosis. In agreement with this, the expression of genes involved in the fibrotic process, such as collagens I and III, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), fibronectin-1, transforming growth factor beta-1 and connective tissue growth factor, were significantly up-regulated following PEX1 overexpression, whereas silencing of PEX1 significantly inhibited the expression of pro-fibrotic genes and increased left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening. In vitro luciferase reporter assays showed that PEX1 regulates the expression of MMP-9 by activating promoter. Furthermore, PEX1 gain- and loss-of-function experiments in rat neonatal cardiac fibroblasts and myocytes revealed that MMP-9 gene expression was affected by PEX1 predominantly in fibroblasts. Our results indicate that PEX1 is involved in regulating cardiac fibrosis and extracellular matrix turnover, particularly fibroblasts being responsible for the fibrosis-associated changes in gene expression. Furthermore, PEX1 activation of the MMP-9 promoter triggers the pro-fibrotic response directed by PEX1.