Browsing by Subject "CELLULAR UPTAKE"

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  • Gulumkar, Vijay; Äärelä, Antti; Moisio, Olli; Rahkila, Jani; Tähtinen, Ville; Leimu, Laura; Korsoff, Niko; Korhonen, Heidi; Poijärvi-Virta, Päivi; Mikkola, Satu; Nesati, Victor; Vuorimaa-Laukkanen, Elina; Viitala, Tapani; Yliperttula, Marjo; Roivainen, Anne; Virta, Pasi (2021)
    An azide-functionalized 12-armed Buckminster fullerene has been monosubstituted in organic media with a substoichiometric amount of cyclooctyne-modified oligonucleo-tides. Exposing the intermediate products then to the same reaction (i. e., strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition, SPAAC) with an excess of slightly different oligonucleotide constituents in an aqueous medium yields molecularly defined monofunctionalized spherical nucleic acids (SNAs). This procedure offers a controlled synthesis scheme in which one oligonucleotide arm can be functionalized with labels or other conjugate groups (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid, DOTA, and Alexa-488 demonstrated), whereas the rest of the 11 arms can be left unmodified or modified by other conjugate groups in order to decorate the SNAs' outer sphere. Extra attention has been paid to the homogeneity and authenticity of the C60-azide scaffold used for the assembly of full-armed SNAs.
  • Torrieri, Giulia; Fontana, Flavia; Figueiredo, Patricia; Liu, Zehua; Almeida Ferreira, Monica; Talman, Virpi; Martins, João Pedro; Fusciello, Manlio; Moslova, Karina; Teesalu, Tambet; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Hirvonen, Jouni; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Balasubramanian, Vimalkumar; Santos, Hélder A. (2020)
    The advent of nanomedicine has recently started to innovate the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, in particular myocardial infarction. Although current approaches are very promising, there is still an urgent need for advanced targeting strategies. In this work, the exploitation of macrophage recruitment is proposed as a novel and synergistic approach to improve the addressability of the infarcted myocardium achieved by current peptide-based heart targeting strategies. For this purpose, an acetalated dextran-based nanosystem is designed and successfully functionalized with two different peptides, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and linTT1, which target, respectively, cardiac cells and macrophages associated with atherosclerotic plaques. The biocompatibility of the nanocarrier is screened on both macrophage cell lines and primary macrophages, showing high safety, in particular after functionalization of the nanoparticles' surface. Furthermore, the system shows higher association versus uptake ratio towards M2-like macrophages (approximately 2-fold and 6-fold increase in murine and human primary M2-like macrophages, respectively, compared to M1-like). Overall, the results demonstrate that the nanosystem has potential to exploit the "hitchhike" effect on M2-like macrophages and potentially improve, in a dual targeting strategy, the ability of the ANP peptide to target infarcted heart.
  • Morimoto, Nobuyuki; Takei, Riho; Wakamura, Masaru; Oishi, Yoshifumi; Nakayama, Masafumi; Suzuki, Makoto; Yamamoto, Masaya; Winnik, Francoise M. (2018)
    Mitochondrial targeting and entry, two crucial steps in fighting severe diseases resulting from mitochondria dysfunction, pose important challenges in current nanomedicine. Cell-penetrating peptides or targeting groups, such as Rhodamine-B (Rho), are known to localize in mitochondria, but little is known on how to enhance their effectiveness through structural properties of polymeric carriers. To address this issue, we prepared 8 copolymers of 3-dimethyl(methacryloyloxyethyl) ammonium propane sulfonate and poly(ethyleneglycol) methacrylate, p(DMAPS-ran-PEGMA) (molecular weight, 18.0 <M-n <74.0 kg/mol) with two different endgroups. We labeled them with Rho groups attached along the chain or on one of the two endgroups (alpha or omega). From studies by flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy of the copolymers internalization in HeLa cells in the absence and presence of pharmacological inhibitors, we established that the polymers cross the cell membrane foremost by translocation and also by endocytosis, primarily clathrin-dependent endocytosis. The most effective mitochondrial entry was achieved by copolymers of M-n <30.0 kg/mol, lightly grafted with PEG chains (<5 mol %) labeled with Rho in the omega-position. Our findings may be generalized to the uptake and mitochondrial targeting of prodrugs and imaging agents with a similar polymeric scaffold.
  • Yong, Tuying; Zhang, Xiaoqiong; Bie, Nana; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhang, Xuting; Li, Fuying; Hakeem, Abdul; Hu, Jun; Gan, Lu; Santos, Hélder A.; Yang, Xiangliang (2019)
    Developing biomimetic nanoparticles without loss of the integrity of proteins remains a major challenge in cancer chemotherapy. Here, we develop a biocompatible tumor-cell-exocytosed exosome-biomimetic porous silicon nanoparticles (PSiNPs) as drug carrier for targeted cancer chemotherapy. Exosome-sheathed doxorubicin-loaded PSiNPs (DOX@E-PSiNPs), generated by exocytosis of the endocytosed DOX-loaded PSiNPs from tumor cells, exhibit enhanced tumor accumulation, extravasation from blood vessels and penetration into deep tumor parenchyma following intravenous administration. In addition, DOX@E-PSiNPs, regardless of their origin, possess significant cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in both bulk cancer cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs). These properties endow DOX@E-PSiNPs with great in vivo enrichment in total tumor cells and side population cells with features of CSCs, resulting in anticancer activity and CSCs reduction in subcutaneous, orthotopic and metastatic tumor models. These results provide a proof-of-concept for the use of exosome-biomimetic nanoparticles exocytosed from tumor cells as a promising drug carrier for efficient cancer chemotherapy.