Browsing by Subject "CERVICAL-CANCER"

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  • Vahteristo, Maija; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Anttila, Ahti; Sarkeala, Tytti (2022)
    Objective. Primary HPV screening programmes for cervical cancer have been implemented in many European countries using a cytology triage. Nonetheless, the optimal cytology triage strategy for minimizing the harms and maximizing the benefits is yet unclear. We identified key characteristics of different algorithms for HPV screening with cytology triage.Methods. Using the Finnish randomized HPV screening trial data, we formulated five post-hoc algorithms for HPV screening with a cytology triage, one for HPV screening without a triage and one for cytology screening. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, colposcopy referral rate and cumulative sensitivity for CIN II + s detected during the first and second screening rounds of the trial were calculated for all algorithms.Results. In the first screening round, direct referral of HPV positives to colposcopy led to the highest sensitivity (94%) accompanied by the lowest specificity (93%). Following HPV positives up with one repeat screen showed 86% sensitivity and 97% specificity. The corresponding figures with two repeat screens were 84% and 98%. In HPV algorithms, where cytology negative HPV positive individuals had no follow-up, the sensitivities were 65-82% and the specificities 98-99%. The Cytology algorithm had a low sensitivity (69%) with a high specificity (99%). Compared to the first round, the second-round sensitivities were lower and specificities similar or higher.Conclusions. The best balance between sensitivity and specificity was achieved by an HPV algorithm with two repeated follow-up tests. However, all HPV algorithms with cytology triage increased colposcopy volume more than the cytology algorithm and thus provoked overdiagnosis.(c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Wolf, Maija; Korja, Miikka; Karhu, Ritva; Edgren, Henrik; Kilpinen, Sami; Ojala, Kalle; Mousses, Spyro; Kallioniemi, Anne; Haapasalo, Hannu (2010)
    Neuroblastoma has successfully served as a model system for the identification of neuroectoderm-derived oncogenes. However, in spite of various efforts, only a few clinically useful prognostic markers have been found. Here, we present a framework, which integrates DNA, RNA and tissue data to identify and prioritize genetic events that represent clinically relevant new therapeutic targets and prognostic biomarkers for neuroblastoma.
  • Louvanto, Karolina; Eriksson, Tiina; Gray, Penelope; Apter, Dan; Baussano, Iacopo; Bly, Anne; Harjula, Katja; Heikkila, Kaisa; Hokkanen, Mari; Huhtinen, Leila; Ikonen, Marja; Karttunen, Heidi; Nummela, Mervi; Soderlund-Strand, Anna; Veivo, Ulla; Dillner, Joakim; Elfstöm, Miriam; Nieminen, Pekka; Lehtinen, Matti (2020)
    Less frequent cervical cancer screening in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinated birth cohorts could produce considerable savings without increasing cervical cancer incidence and loss of life-years. We report here the baseline findings and interim results of safety and accuracy of infrequent screening among HPV16/18 vaccinated females. The entire 1992-1994 birth-cohorts (30,139 females) were invited to a community-randomized HPV16/18-vaccination trial. A total of 9,482 female trial participants received HPV16/18-vaccination in 2007-2009 at age of 13-15. At age 22, 4,273 (45%) of these females consented to attend a randomized trial on frequent (ages 22/25/28; Arm 1: 2,073 females) vs. infrequent screening (age 28; Arm 2: 2,200 females) in 2014-2017. Females (1,329), who had got HPV16/18 vaccination at age 18 comprised the safety Arm 3. Baseline prevalence and incidence of HPV16/18 and other high-risk HPV types were: 0.5% (53/1,000 follow-up years, 10(4)) and 25% (2,530/10(4)) in the frequently screened Arm 1; 0.2% (23/10(4)) and 24% (2,413/10(4)) in the infrequently screened Arm 2; and 3.1% (304/10(4)) and 23% (2,284/10(4)) in the safety Arm 3. Corresponding prevalence of HSIL/ASC-H and of any abnormal cytological findings were: 0.3 and 4.2% (Arm 1), 0.4 and 5.3% (Arm 2) and 0.3 and 4.7% (Arm 3). Equally rare HSIL/CIN3 findings in the infrequently screened safety Arm A3 (0.4%) and in the frequently screened Arm 1 (0.4%) indicate no safety concerns on infrequent screening despite the up to 10 times higher HPV16/18 baseline prevalence and incidence in the former.
  • Lehtinen, Matti; Apter, Dan; Baussano, Iacopo; Eriksson, Tiina; Natunen, Kari; Paavonen, Jorma; Vanska, Simopekka; Bi, Dan; David, Marie-Pierre; Datta, Sanjoy; Struyf, Frank; Jenkins, David; Pukkala, Eero; Garnett, Geoff; Dubin, Gary (2015)
  • Prusty, Bhupesh K.; Siegl, Christine; Hauck, Petra; Hain, Johannes; Korhonen, Suvi J.; Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Puolakkainen, Mirja; Rudel, Thomas (2013)
  • Gray, Penelope; Palmroth, Johanna; Luostarinen, Tapio; Apter, Dan; Dubin, Gary; Garnett, Geoff; Eriksson, Tiina; Natunen, Kari; Merikukka, Marko; Pimenoff, Ville; Soderlund-Strand, Anna; Vanska, Simopekka; Paavonen, Jorma; Pukkala, Eero; Dillner, Joakim; Lehtinen, Matti (2018)
    Efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines promises to control HPV infections. However, HPV vaccination programs may lay bare an ecological niche for non-vaccine HPV types. We evaluated type-replacement by HPV type and vaccination strategy in a community-randomized trial executed in HPV vaccination naive population. Thirty-three communities were randomized to gender-neutral vaccination with AS04-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine (Arm A), HPV vaccination of girls and hepatitis B-virus (HBV) vaccination of boys (Arm B) and gender-neutral HBV vaccination (Arm C). Resident 1992-95 born boys (40,852) and girls (39,420) were invited. 11,662 boys and 20,513 girls were vaccinated with 20-30% and 45-48% coverage, respectively. HPV typing of 11,396 cervicovaginal samples was performed by high throughput PCR. Prevalence ratios (PR) between arms and ranked order of HPV types and odds ratio (OR) for having multiple HPV types in HPV16 or 18/45 positive individuals were calculated. The ranked order of HPV types did not significantly differ between arms or birth cohorts. For the non-HPV vaccinated 1992-1993 birth cohorts increased PR, between the gender-neutral intervention versus control arms for HPV39 (PRA 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-3.02) and HPV51 (PRA 1.56, 95% CI 1.11-2.19) were observed. In the gender-neutral arm, increased clustering between HPV39 and the vaccine-covered HPV types 16 or 18/45 (ORA16 = 5.1, ORA18/45 = 11.4) was observed in the non-HPV vaccinated 1994-1995 birth cohorts. Comparable clustering was seen between HPV51 and HPV16 or HPV18/45 (ORB16 = 4.7, ORB18/45 = 4.3), in the girls-only arm. In conclusion, definitively consistent postvaccination patterns of HPV type-replacement were not observed. Future occurrence of HPV39 and HPV51 warrant investigation.
  • Zhang, Luyao; Hemminki, Otto; Chen, Tianhui; Zheng, Guoqiao; Försti, Asta; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari (2019)
    Data on familial risks in penile and vulvar/vaginal cancers and in second primary cancers (SPCs) following these cancers are limited. We used the Swedish Family-Cancer Database from years 1958 through 2015 to identify 3641 penile and 8856 vulvar/vaginal cancers and to calculate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for these cancers according to site-specific cancer in family members; additionally risk for SPCs was calculated. The familial RR for concordant (same) penile cancer was 3.22 (1.34-7.74), and it was 2.72 (1.69-4.39) for vulvar/vaginal cancer; RRs were increased for vulvar/vaginal cancer in families of anal cancer patients. RR for second penile cancer after penile cancers was 11.68 (7.95-17.18), while that for concordant vulvar/vaginal cancer was 9.03 (7.31-11.15). SPCs were diagnosed in 16.8% of penile cancer patients and in them 45.9% of deaths were caused by SPC (other than penile cancer). In vulvar/vaginal cancer patients with SPC, 36.4% of deaths were due to SPC. The results showed that these genital cancers might run in families and as SPCs are associated with human papilloma virus and smoking related cancers. Risk for these genital and anal SPCs are high and a follow-up plan should be agreed at diagnosis of these cancers.
  • Global Burden Dis Canc Collaborat (2018)
    IMPORTANCE The increasing burden due to cancer and other noncommunicable diseases poses a threat to human development, which has resulted in global political commitments reflected in the Sustainable Development Goals as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan on Non-Communicable Diseases. To determine if these commitments have resulted in improved cancer control, quantitative assessments of the cancer burden are required. OBJECTIVE To assess the burden for 29 cancer groups over time to provide a framework for policy discussion, resource allocation, and research focus. EVIDENCE REVIEW Cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were evaluated for 195 countries and territories by age and sex using the Global Burden of Disease study estimation methods. Levels and trends were analyzed over time, as well as by the Sociodemographic Index (SDI). Changes in incident cases were categorized by changes due to epidemiological vs demographic transition. FINDINGS In 2016, there were 17.2 million cancer cases worldwide and 8.9 million deaths. Cancer cases increased by 28% between 2006 and 2016. The smallest increase was seen in high SDI countries. Globally, population aging contributed 17%; population growth, 12%; and changes in age-specific rates, -1% to this change. The most common incident cancer globally for men was prostate cancer (1.4 million cases). The leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs was tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer (1.2 million deaths and 25.4 million DALYs). For women, the most common incident cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs was breast cancer (1.7 million incident cases, 535 000 deaths, and 14.9 million DALYs). In 2016, cancer caused 213.2 million DALYs globally for both sexes combined. Between 2006 and 2016, the average annual age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers combined increased in 130 of 195 countries or territories, and the average annual age-standardized death rates decreased within that timeframe in 143 of 195 countries or territories. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Large disparities exist between countries in cancer incidence, deaths, and associated disability. Scaling up cancer prevention and ensuring universal access to cancer care are required for health equity and to fulfill the global commitments for noncommunicable disease and cancer control.
  • Paaso, Anna; Koskimaa, Hanna-Mari; Welters, Marij J. P.; Kero, Katja; Rautava, Jaana; Syrjänen, Kari; van Der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Syrjänen, Stina (2021)
    Objectives: Natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the head and neck region is poorly understood, and their impact on collective HPV-specific immunity is not known. Materials and methods: In this study, we have performed a systematic analysis of HPV16-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in 21 women with known oral and genital HPV DNA status and HPV serology (Ab) based on 6-year follow-up data. These women being a subgroup from the Finnish Family HPV Study were recalled for blood sampling to be tested for their CMI-responses to HPV16 E2, E6, and E7 peptides. Results: The results showed that HPV16 E2-specific lymphocyte proliferation was more prevalent in women who tested HPV16 DNA negative in oral mucosa and were either HPV16 seropositive or negative than in HPV16 DNA+/Ab+ women (p = 0.046 and p = 0.035). In addition, the HPV16 DNA-/Ab- women most often displayed E6-specific proliferation (p = 0.020). Proportional cytokine profiles indicated that oral HPV16-negative women were characterized by prominent IFN-gamma and IL-5 secretion not found in women with persisting oral HPV16 (p = 0.014 and p = 0.040, respectively). Conclusions: Our results indicate that the naturally arising immune response induced by oral HPV infections displays a mixed Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine profile while women with persisting oral HPV16 might have an impaired HPV16-specific CMI, shifted partly toward a Th2 profile, similarly as seen earlier among patients with high-grade genital HPV lesions. Thus, the lack of HPV 16 E2 and E6 specific T memory cells and Th2 cytokines might also predispose women for persistent oral HPV16 infection which might be related to the risk of cancer.
  • Mikkola, Tiina; Almahmoudi, Rabeia; Salo, Tuula; Al-Samadi, Ahmed (2022)
    Background Interleukin (IL)-17 family is a group of six cytokines that plays a central role in inflammatory processes and participates in cancer progression. Interleukin-17A has been shown to have mainly a protumorigenic role, but the other members of the IL-17 family, including IL-17F, have received less attention. Methods We applied systematic review guidelines to study the role of IL-17F, protein and mRNA expression, polymorphisms, and functions, in cancer. We carried out a systematic search in PubMed, Ovid Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane libraries, yielding 79 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Results The findings indicated that IL-17F has both anti- and protumorigenic roles, which depend on cancer type and the molecular form and location of IL-17F. As an example, the presence of IL-17F protein in tumor tissue and patient serum has a protective role in oral and pancreatic cancers, whereas it is protumorigenic in prostate and bladder cancers. These effects are proposed to be based on multiple mechanisms, such as inhibition of angiogenesis, vasculogenic mimicry and cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and aggravating the inflammatory process. No solid evidence emerged for the correlation between IL-17F polymorphisms and cancer incidence or patients' prognosis. Conclusion IL-17F is a multifaceted cytokine. There is a clear demand for more well-designed studies of IL-17F to elucidate its molecular mechanisms in different types of cancer. The studies presented in this article examined a variety of different designs, study populations and primary/secondary outcomes, which unfortunately reduces the value of direct interstudy comparisons.