Browsing by Subject "CHAMBER"

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  • Kuula, Joel; Mäkelä, Timo; Aurela, Minna; Teinilä, Kimmo; Varjonen, Samu; González, Óscar; Timonen, Hilkka (2020)
    Low-cost particulate matter (PM) sensors have been under investigation as it has been hypothesized that the use of low-cost and easy-to-use sensors could allow cost-efficient extension of the currently sparse measurement coverage. While the majority of the existing literature highlights that low-cost sensors can indeed be a valuable addition to the list of commonly used measurement tools, it often reiterates that the risk of sensor misuse is still high and that the data obtained from the sensors are only representative of the specific site and its ambient conditions. This implies that there are underlying reasons for inaccuracies in sensor measurements that have yet to be characterized. The objective of this study is to investigate the particle-size selectivity of low-cost sensors. Evaluated sensors were Plantower PMS5003, Nova SDS011, Sensirion SPS30, Sharp GP2Y1010AU0F, Shinyei PPD42NS, and Omron B5W-LD0101. The investigation of size selectivity was carried out in the laboratory using a novel reference aerosol generation system capable of steadily producing monodisperse particles of different sizes (from similar to 0.55 to 8.4 mu m) on-line. The results of the study show that none of the low-cost sensors adhered to the detection ranges declared by the manufacturers; moreover, cursory comparison to a mid-cost aerosol size spectrometer (Grimm 1.108, 2020) indicates that the sensors can only achieve independent responses for one or two size bins, whereas the spectrometer can sufficiently characterize particles with 15 different size bins. These observations provide insight into and evidence of the notion that particle-size selectivity has an essential role in the analysis of the sources of errors in sensors.
  • Stolzenburg, Dominik; Fischer, Lukas; Vogel, Alexander L.; Heinritzi, Martin; Schervish, Meredith; Simon, Mario; Wagner, Andrea C.; Dada, Lubna; Ahonen, Lauri R.; Amorim, Antonio; Baccarini, Andrea; Bauer, Paulus S.; Baumgartner, Bernhard; Bergen, Anton; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Mazon, Stephany Buenrostro; Chen, Dexian; Dias, Antnio; Draper, Danielle C.; Duplissy, Jonathan; El Haddad, Imad; Finkenzeller, Henning; Frege, Carla; Fuchs, Claudia; Garmash, Olga; Gordon, Hamish; He, Xucheng; Helm, Johanna; Hofbauer, Victoria; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Kim, Changhyuk; Kirkby, Jasper; Kontkanen, Jenni; Kuerten, Andreas; Lampilahti, Janne; Lawler, Michael; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Mai, Huajun; Mathot, Serge; Mentler, Bernhard; Molteni, Ugo; Nie, Wei; Nieminen, Tuomo; Nowak, John B.; Ojdanic, Andrea; Onnela, Antti; Passananti, Monica; Petäjä, Tuukka; Quélever, Lauriane L. J.; Rissanen, Matti P.; Sarnela, Nina; Schallhart, Simon; Tauber, Christian; Tome, Antonio; Wagner, Robert; Wang, Mingyi; Weitz, Lena; Wimmer, Daniela; Xiao, Mao; Yan, Chao; Ye, Penglin; Zha, Qiaozhi; Baltensperger, Urs; Curtius, Joachim; Dommen, Josef; Flagan, Richard C.; Kulmala, Markku; Smith, James N.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Hansel, Armin; Donahue, Neil M.; Winkler, Paul M. (2018)
    Nucleation and growth of aerosol particles from atmospheric vapors constitutes a major source of global cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The fraction of newly formed particles that reaches CCN sizes is highly sensitive to particle growth rates, especially for particle sizes <10 nm, where coagulation losses to larger aerosol particles are greatest. Recent results show that some oxidation products from biogenic volatile organic compounds are major contributors to particle formation and initial growth. However, whether oxidized organics contribute to particle growth over the broad span of tropospheric temperatures remains an open question, and quantitative mass balance for organic growth has yet to be demonstrated at any temperature. Here, in experiments performed under atmospheric conditions in the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), we show that rapid growth of organic particles occurs over the range from -25 degrees C to 25 degrees C. The lower extent of autoxidation at reduced temperatures is compensated by the decreased volatility of all oxidized molecules. This is confirmed by particle-phase composition measurements, showing enhanced uptake of relatively less oxygenated products at cold temperatures. We can reproduce the measured growth rates using an aerosol growth model based entirely on the experimentally measured gas-phase spectra of oxidized organic molecules obtained from two complementary mass spectrometers. We show that the growth rates are sensitive to particle curvature, explaining widespread atmospheric observations that particle growth rates increase in the single-digit-nanometer size range. Our results demonstrate that organic vapors can contribute to particle growth over a wide range of tropospheric temperatures from molecular cluster sizes onward.
  • Vainio, Elisa; Peltola, Olli; Kasurinen, Ville; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Pihlatie, Mari (2021)
    Boreal forest soils are globally an important sink for methane (CH4), while these soils are also capable of emitting CH4 under favourable conditions. Soil wetness is a well-known driver of CH4 flux, and the wetness can be estimated with several terrain indices developed for the purpose. The aim of this study was to quantify the spatial variability of the forest floor CH4 flux with a topography-based upscaling method connecting the flux with its driving factors. We conducted spatially extensive forest floor CH4 flux and soil moisture measurements, complemented by ground vegetation classification, in a boreal pine forest. We then modelled the soil moisture with a random forest model using digital-elevation-model-derived topographic indices, based on which we upscaled the forest floor CH4 flux. The modelling was performed for two seasons: May–July and August–October. Additionally, we evaluated the number of flux measurement points needed to get an accurate estimate of the flux at the whole study site merely by averaging. Our results demonstrate high spatial heterogeneity in the forest floor CH4 flux resulting from the soil moisture variability as well as from the related ground vegetation. The mean measured CH4 flux at the sample points was −5.07 µmol m−2 h−1 in May–July and −8.67 µmol m−2 h−1 in August–October, while the modelled flux for the whole area was −7.42 and −9.91 µmol m−2 h−1 for the two seasons, respectively. The spatial variability in the soil moisture and consequently in the CH4 flux was higher in the early summer (modelled range from −12.3 to 6.19 µmol m−2 h−1) compared to the autumn period (range from −14.6 to −2.12 µmol m−2 h−1), and overall the CH4 uptake rate was higher in autumn compared to early summer. In the early summer there were patches emitting high amounts of CH4; however, these wet patches got drier and smaller in size towards the autumn, changing their dynamics to CH4 uptake. The mean values of the measured and modelled CH4 fluxes for the sample point locations were similar, indicating that the model was able to reproduce the results. For the whole site, upscaling predicted stronger CH4 uptake compared to simply averaging over the sample points. The results highlight the small-scale spatial variability of the boreal forest floor CH4 flux and the importance of soil chamber placement in order to obtain spatially representative CH4 flux results. To predict the CH4 fluxes over large areas more reliably, the locations of the sample points should be selected based on the spatial variability of the driving parameters, in addition to linking the measured fluxes with the parameters.