Browsing by Subject "CHEMOTHERAPY"

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  • Poikonen-Saksela, Paula; Kolokotroni, Eleni; Vehmanen, Leena; Mattson, Johanna; Stamatakos, Georgios; Huovinen, Riikka; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Blomqvist, Carl; Saarto, Tiina (2022)
    We aimed to (a) investigate the interplay between depression, symptoms and level of functioning, and (b) understand the paths through which they influence health related quality of life (QOL) during the first year of rehabilitation period of early breast cancer. A network analysis method was used. The population consisted of 487 women aged 35-68 years, who had recently completed adjuvant chemotherapy or started endocrine therapy for early breast cancer. At baseline and at the first year from randomization QOL, symptomatology and functioning by the EORTC QLQ-C30 and BR-23 questionnaires, and depression by the Finnish version of Beck's 13-item depression scale, were collected. The multivariate interplay between the related scales was analysed via regularized partial correlation networks (graphical LASSO). The median global quality of life (gQoL) at baseline was 69.9 +/- 19.0 (16.7-100) and improved to 74.9 +/- 19.0 (0-100) after 1 year. Scales related to mental health (emotional functioning, cognitive functioning, depression, insomnia, body image, future perspective) were clustered together at both time points. Fatigue was mediated through a different route, having the strongest connection with physical functioning and no direct connection with depression. Multiple paths existed connecting symptoms and functioning types with gQoL. Factors with the strongest connections to gQoL included: social functioning, depression and fatigue at baseline; emotional functioning and fatigue at month 12. Overall, the most important nodes were depression, gQoL and fatigue. The graphical LASSO network analysis revealed that scales related to fatigue and emotional health had the strongest associations to the EORTC QLQ-C30 gQoL score. When we plan interventions for patients with impaired QOL it is important to consider both psychological support and interventions that improve fatigue and physical function like exercise.
  • Sundquist, Fredrik; Georgantzi, Kleopatra; Jarvis, Kirsten Brunsvig; Brok, Jesper; Koskenvuo, Minna; Rascon, Jelena; van Noesel, Max; Grybaeck, Per; Nilsson, Joachim; Braat, Arthur; Sundin, Mikael; Wessman, Sandra; Herold, Nikolas; Hjorth, Lars; Kogner, Per; Granberg, Dan; Gaze, Mark; Stenman, Jakob (2022)
    Background:& nbsp;Half the children with high-risk neuroblastoma die with widespread metastases. Molecular radiotherapy is an attractive systemic treatment for this relatively radiosensitive tumor. I-131-mIBG is the most widely used form in current use, but is not universally effective. Clinical trials of (177)Lutetium DOTATATE have so far had disappointing results, possibly because the administered activity was too low, and the courses were spread over too long a period of time, for a rapidly proliferating tumor. We have devised an alternative administration schedule to overcome these limitations. This involves two high-activity administrations of single agent Lu-177-DOTATATE given 2 weeks apart, prescribed as a personalized whole body radiation absorbed dose, rather than a fixed administered activity. "A phase II trial of (177)Lutetium-DOTATATE in children with primary refractory or relapsed high-risk neuroblastoma - LuDO-N " (EudraCT No: 2020-004445-36, Identifier: NCT04903899) evaluates this new dosing schedule.& nbsp;Methods:& nbsp;The LuDO-N trial is a phase II, open label, multi-center, single arm, two stage design clinical trial. Children aged 18 months to 18 years are eligible. The trial is conducted by the Nordic Society for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO) and it has been endorsed by SIOPEN (). The Karolinska University Hospital, is the sponsor of the LuDO-N trial, which is conducted in collaboration with Advanced Accelerator Applications, a Novartis company. All Scandinavian countries, Lithuania and the Netherlands participate in the trial and the UK has voiced an interest in joining in 2022.& nbsp;Results:& nbsp;The pediatric use of the Investigational Medicinal Product (IMP) Lu-177-DOTATATE, as well as non-IMPs SomaKit TOC (R) (Ga-68-DOTATOC) and LysaKare (R) amino acid solution for renal protection, have been approved for pediatric use, within the LuDO-N Trial by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). The trial is currently recruiting. Recruitment is estimated to be finalized within 3-5 years.& nbsp;Discussion:& nbsp;In this paper we present the protocol of the LuDO-N Trial. The rationale and design of the trial are discussed in relation to other ongoing, or planned trials with similar objectives. Further, we discuss the rapid development of targeted radiopharmaceutical therapy and the future perspectives for developing novel therapies for high-risk neuroblastoma and other pediatric solid tumors.
  • Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A.; da Costa, Alexandre Andre B. A.; Gulhan, Doga; Lee, Elizabeth K.; Cheng, Su-Chun; Hendrickson, Andrea E. Wahner; Kochupurakkal, Bose; Kolin, David L.; Kohn, Elise C.; Liu, Joyce F.; Stover, Elizabeth H.; Curtis, Jennifer; Tayob, Nabihah; Polak, Madeline; Chowdhury, Dipanjan; Matulonis, Ursula A.; Färkkilä, Anniina; D'Andrea, Alan D.; Shapiro, Geoffrey (2021)
    In a trial of patients with high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), addition of the ATR inhibitor berzosertib to gemcitabine improved progression free survival (PFS) compared to gemcitabine alone but biomarkers predictive of treatment are lacking. Here we report a candidate biomarker of response to gemcitabine versus combined gemcitabine and ATR inhibitor therapy in HGSOC ovarian cancer. Patients with replication stress (RS)-high tumors (n = 27), defined as harboring at least one genomic RS alteration related to loss of RB pathway regulation and/or oncogene-induced replication stress achieve significantly prolonged PFS (HR = 0.38, 90% CI, 0.17-0.86) on gemcitabine monotherapy compared to those with tumors without such alterations (defined as RS-low, n = 30). However, addition of berzosertib to gemcitabine benefits only patients with RS-low tumors (gemcitabine/berzosertib HR 0.34, 90% CI, 0.13-0.86) and not patients with RS-high tumors (HR 1.11, 90% CI, 0.47-2.62). Our findings support the notion that the exacerbation of RS by gemcitabine monotherapy is adequate for lethality in RS-high tumors. Conversely, for RS-low tumors addition of berzosertib-mediated ATR inhibition to gemcitabine is necessary for lethality to occur. Independent prospective validation of this biomarker is required. A randomized phase 2 study recently showed that the addition of ATR inhibitor berzosertib to gemcitabine improved PFS compared to gemcitabine alone in patients with ovarian cancer. In this preplanned exploratory study, the authors demonstrate that a genomic biomarker of replication-stress is associated with outcome to gemcitabine alone and may predict which patients benefit from addition of the ATR inhibitor berzosertib.
  • Kasanen, Henna; Hernberg, Micaela; Mäkelä, Siru; Brück, Oscar; Juteau, Susanna; Kohtamäki, Laura; Ilander, Mette; Mustjoki, Satu; Kreutzman, Anna (2020)
    Anti-PD1 treatment has improved the survival of metastatic melanoma patients, yet it is unknown which patients benefit from the treatment. In this exploratory study, we aimed to understand the effects of anti-PD1 therapy on the patients' immune system and discover the characteristics that would result in successful treatment. We collected peripheral blood (PB) samples from 17 immuno-oncology-naive metastatic melanoma patients before and after 1 and 3 months of anti-PD1 therapy. In addition, matching tumor biopsies at the time of diagnosis were collected for tissue microarray. The complete blood counts, PB immunophenotype, serum cytokine profiles, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were analyzed and correlated with the clinical data. Patients were categorized based on their disease control into responders (complete response, partial response, stable disease > 6 months, N = 11) and non-responders (progressive disease, stable disease
  • Sobral-Leite, Marcelo; Wesseling, Jelle; Smit, Vincent T. H. B. M.; Nevanlinna, Heli; van Miltenburg, Martine H.; Sanders, Joyce; Hofland, Ingrid; Blows, Fiona M.; Coulson, Penny; Patrycja, Gazinska; Schellens, Jan H. M.; Fagerholm, Rainer; Heikkila, Paivi; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Provenzano, Elena; Ali, Hamid Raza; Figueroa, Jonine; Sherman, Mark; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine; Visscher, Daniel; Brenner, Hermann; Butterbach, Katja; Arndt, Volker; Holleczek, Bernd; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W. M.; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; van de Water, Bob; Broeks, Annegien; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; de Graauw, Marjo; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; kConFab-AOCS Investigators (2015)
    Background: Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a protein related with the carcinogenesis process and metastasis formation in many tumors. However, little is known about the prognostic value of ANXA1 in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between ANXA1 expression, BRCA1/2 germline carriership, specific tumor subtypes and survival in breast cancer patients. Methods: Clinical-pathological information and follow-up data were collected from nine breast cancer studies from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) (n = 5,752) and from one study of familial breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations (n = 107). ANXA1 expression was scored based on the percentage of immunohistochemical staining in tumor cells. Survival analyses were performed using a multivariable Cox model. Results: The frequency of ANXA1 positive tumors was higher in familial breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations than in BCAC patients, with 48.6 % versus 12.4 %, respectively; P <0.0001. ANXA1 was also highly expressed in BCAC tumors that were poorly differentiated, triple negative, EGFR-CK5/6 positive or had developed in patients at a young age. In the first 5 years of follow-up, patients with ANXA1 positive tumors had a worse breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) than ANXA1 negative (HRadj = 1.35; 95 % CI = 1.05-1.73), but the association weakened after 10 years (HRadj = 1.13; 95 % CI = 0.91-1.40). ANXA1 was a significant independent predictor of survival in HER2+ patients (10-years BCSS: HRadj = 1.70; 95 % CI = 1.17-2.45). Conclusions: ANXA1 is overexpressed in familial breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations and correlated with poor prognosis features: triple negative and poorly differentiated tumors. ANXA1 might be a biomarker candidate for breast cancer survival prediction in high risk groups such as HER2+ cases.
  • Vahermo, Mikko; Krogerus, Sara; Nasereddin, Abdelmajeed; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Jaffe, Charles L.; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Moreira, Vânia M. (2016)
    Derivatives of dehydroabietic acid bearing different amino acids scaffolds have potent antiprotozoal activity against Leishmania donovani and Trypanosoma cruzi, with good to high selectivity, and can therefore be regarded as good models for further development into new drugs to fight leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. Several of the tested compounds were able to kill parasites residing inside cells, with IC50 values ranging from 2.3 to 9 mu M (L. donovani) and 1.4 to 5.8 mu M (T. cruzi), reflecting their ability to fight these infections at the relevant stage responsible for disease. One of the compounds, bearing a 3-pyridyl-Dalanine side chain, was 1.5-fold more potent against T. cruzi amastigotes residing in L6 cells than the reference compound benznidazole.
  • Garofalo, M.; Saari, H.; Somersalo, P.; Crescenti, D.; Kuryk, L.; Aksela, L.; Capasso, C.; Madetoja, M.; Koskinen, K.; Oksanen, T.; Mäkitie, A.; Jalasvuori, M.; Cerullo, V.; Ciana, P.; Yliperttula, M. (2018)
    Standard of care for cancer is commonly a combination of surgery with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. However, in some advanced cancer patients this approach might still remaininefficient and may cause many side effects, including severe complications and even death. Oncolytic viruses exhibit different anti-cancer mechanisms compared with conventional therapies, allowing the possibility for improved effect in cancer therapy. Chemotherapeutics combined with oncolytic viruses exhibit stronger cytotoxic responses and oncolysis. Here, we have investigated the systemic delivery of the oncolytic adenovirus and paclitaxel encapsulated in extracellular vesicles (EV) formulation that, in vitro, significantly increased the transduction ratio and the infectious titer when compared with the virus and paclitaxel alone. We demonstrated that the obtained EV formulation reduced the in vivo tumor growth in animal xenograft model of human lung cancer. Indeed, we found that combined treatment of oncolytic adenovirus and paclitaxel encapsulated in EV has enhanced anticancer effects both in vitro and in vivo in lung cancer models. Transcriptomic comparison carried out on the explanted xenografts from the different treatment groups revealed that only 5.3% of the differentially expressed genes were overlapping indicating that a de novo genetic program is triggered by the presence of the encapsulated paclitaxel: this novel genetic program might be responsible of the observed enhanced antitumor effect. Our work provides a promising approach combining anticancer drugs and viral therapies by intravenous EV delivery as a strategy for the lung cancer treatment.
  • Kuryk, Lukasz; Moller, Anne-Sophie W.; Garofalo, Mariangela; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Pesonen, Sari; Alemany, Ramon; Jaderberg, Magnus (2018)
    Oncolytic adenoviral immunotherapy activates the innate immune system with subsequent induction of adaptive tumor-specific immune responses to fight cancer. Hence, oncolytic viruses do not only eradicate cancer cells by direct lysis, but also generate antitumor immune response, allowing for long-lasting cancer control and tumor reduction. Their therapeutic effect can be further enhanced by arming the oncolytic adenovirus with costimulatory transgenes and/or coadministration with other antitumor therapies. ONCOS-102 has already been found to be well tolerated and efficacious against some types of treatment-refractory tumors, including mesothelin-positive ovarian cancer (NCT01598129). It induced local and systemic CD8+ T-cell immunity and upregulated programmed death ligand 1. These results strongly advocate the use of ONCOS-102 in combination with other therapeutic strategies in advanced and refractory tumors, especially those expressing the mesothelin antigen. The in vivo work presented herein describes the ability of the oncolytic adenovirus ONCOS-102 to induce mesothelin-specific T-cells after the administration of the virus in bagg albino (BALB/c) mice with mesothelin-positive tumors. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of the interferon-gamma the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay to detect the induction of T-cells recognizing mesothelin, hexon, and E1A antigens in ONCOS-102treated mesothelioma-bearing BALB/c mice. Thus, the ELISPOT assay could be useful to monitor the progress of therapy with ONCOS-102.
  • Trabulo, Carolina; Lopes, Joana; Dias, David da Silva; Gramaca, Joao; Fernandes, Isabel; Gameiro, Rita; Pina, Idilia; Mäkitie, Antti; Ottery, Faith; Ravasco, Paula (2022)
    BackgroundNutritional status in patients with cancer has a determining role in the evolution of the disease and tolerance to treatments. Severity of undernutrition impacts morbidity and mortality in cancer patients and can limit patient response to the optimal therapies if nutritional issues are not appropriately addressed and managed. Despite the importance of malnutrition for the clinical evolution of oncology patients, there is not yet a universally accepted standard method for evaluating malnutrition in such patients. The aim of this study was to stratify the nutritional status of inpatients at an Oncology Department. MethodsThis is an observational study with 561 cancer patients, assessed at admission to a Medical Oncology Department from November 2016 to February 2020. All patients were considered eligible. Non-compliant and/or comatose patients were excluded. Nutritional status was assessed using the PG-SGA, BMI classified with the WHO criteria, and calculation of the percentage of weight loss in the previous 3-6 months. ResultsA total of 561 patients (303 F: 258 M; mean age 65 +/- 13 years) were included. One-third of the patients, n=191/561 (34%), lost 6% of their weight in the month prior to admission and 297/561 (53%) patients lost 10.2% of weight in the previous 6 months. Mean BMI was 24.1 +/- 5.8 kg/m(2); N = 280/561 (50%) patients had regular BMI according to the WHO criteria. N = 331/561 (59%) patients reported eating less in the month prior to admission. N = 303/561 (54%) had moderate/severe deficits of muscle and adipose compartments. The PG-SGA identified 499/561 (89%) patients as moderately/severely malnourished, of which 466/561 (83%) patients scored >= 9 points, meeting criteria for a critical need for nutritional support. Fifteen percent of patients scored >4 points, indicating a need for directed therapy for symptom control and only 1% scored
  • Andre, T.; Vernerey, D.; Im, S. A.; Bodoky, G.; Buzzoni, R.; Reingold, S.; Rivera, F.; McKendrick, J.; Scheithauer, W.; Ravit, G.; Fountzilas, G.; Yong, W. P.; Isaacs, R.; Österlund, P.; Liang, J. T.; Creemers, G. J.; Rakez, M.; Van Cutsem, E.; Cunningham, D.; Tabernero, J.; de Gramont, A. (2020)
    Background: The bevacizumab-Avastin (R) adjuVANT (AVANT) study did not meet its primary end point of improving disease-free survival (DFS) with the addition of bevacizumab to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in stage III colon cancer (CC). We report here the long-term survival results (S-AVANT). Patients and methods: Patients with curatively resected stage III CC were randomly assigned to FOLFOX4, FOLFOX4-bevacizumab, or XELOX-bevacizumab. Results: A total of 2867 patients were randomized: FOLFOX4: n = 955, FOLFOX4-bevacizumab: n = 960, XELOX-bevacizumab: n = 952. With a median of 6.73 years follow-up (interquartile range 5.51-10.54), 672 patients died, of whom 198 (20.7%), 250 (26.0%), and 224 (23.5%) were in the FOLFOX4, FOLFOX4-bevacizumab, and XELOX-bevacizumab arms, respectively. The 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 74.6%, 67.2%, and 69.9%, (P = 0.003) and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 73.2%, 68.5%, and 71.0% (P = 0.174), respectively. OS and DFS hazard ratios were 1.29 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.55; P = 0.008] and 1.16 (95% CI 0.99-1.37; P = 0.063) for FOLFOX4-bevacizumab versus FOLFOX4 and 1.15 (95% CI 0.95-1.39; P = 0.147) and 1.1 (95% CI 0.93 -1.29; P = 0.269) for XELOX-bevacizumab versus FOLFOX4, respectively. CC-related deaths (n = 542) occurred in 157 (79.3%) patients receiving FOLFOX4, 205 (82.0%) receiving FOLFOX4-bevacizumab, and 180 (80.4%) receiving XELOX-bevacizumab (P = 0.764), while non-CC-related deaths occurred in 41 (20.7%), 45 (18.0%), and 44 (19.6%) patients, respectively. Cardiovascular-related and sudden deaths during treatment or follow-up were reported in 13 (6.6%), 17 (6.8%), and 14 (6.3%) patients, in the FOLFOX4, FOLFOX4-bevacizuamb, and XELOX-bevacizumab arms, respectively (P = 0.789). Treatment arm, sex, age, histological differentiation, performance status, T/N stages, and localization of primary tumor were independent prognostic factors of OS in stage III. Conclusions: S-AVANT confirms the initial AVANT report. No benefit of the bevacizumab addition to FOLFOX4 adjuvant therapy in patients with stage III CC was observed in terms of DFS with a negative effect in OS, without increase in non-CC related deaths.
  • Koski, Anniina; Bramante, Simona; Kipar, Anja; Oksanen, Minna; Juhila, Juuso; Vassilev, Lotta; Joensuu, Timo; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli (2015)
    In clinical trials with oncolytic adenoviruses, there has been no mortality associated with treatment vectors. Likewise, in the Advanced Therapy Access Program (ATAP), where 290 patients were treated with 10 different viruses, no vector-related mortality was observed. However, as the patient population who received adenovirus treatments in ATAP represented heavily pretreated patients, often with very advanced disease, some patients died relatively soon after receiving their virus treatment mandating autopsy to investigate cause of death. Eleven such autopsies were performed and confirmed disease progression as the cause of death in each case. The regulatory requirement for investigating the safety of advanced therapy medical products presented a unique opportunity to study tissue samples collected as a routine part of the autopsies. Oncolytic adenoviral DNA was recovered in a wide range of tissues, including injected and noninjected tumors and various normal tissues, demonstrating the ability of the vector to disseminate through the vascular route. Furthermore, we recovered and cultured viable virus from samples of noninjected brain metastases of an intravenously treated patient, confirming that oncolytic adenovirus can reach tumors through the intravascular route. Data presented here give mechanistic insight into mode of action and biodistribution of oncolytic adenoviruses in cancer patients.
  • Wirtz, Ralph M.; Sihto, Harri; Isola, Jorma; Heikkila, Paivi; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Auvinen, Paivi; Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, Taina; Jyrkkio, Sirkku; Lakis, Sotiris; Schlombs, Kornelia; Laible, Mark; Weber, Stefan; Eidt, Sebastian; Sahin, Ugur; Joensuu, Heikki (2016)
    The biological subtype of breast cancer influences the selection of systemic therapy. Distinction between luminal A and B cancers depends on consistent assessment of Ki-67, but substantial intra-observer and inter-observer variability exists when immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used. We compared RT-qPCR with IHC in the assessment of Ki-67 and other standard factors used in breast cancer subtyping. RNA was extracted from archival breast tumour tissue of 769 women randomly assigned to the FinHer trial. Cancer ESR1, PGR, ERBB2 and MKI67 mRNA content was quantitated with an RT-qPCR assay. Local pathologists assessed ER, PgR and Ki-67 expression using IHC. HER2 amplification was identified with chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) centrally. The results were correlated with distant disease-free survival (DDFS) and overall survival (OS). qPCR-based and IHC-based assessments of ER and PgR showed good concordance. Both low tumour MKI67 mRNA (RT-qPCR) and Ki-67 protein (IHC) levels were prognostic for favourable DDFS [hazard ratio (HR) 0.42, 95 % CI 0.25-0.71, P = 0.001; and HR 0.56, 0.37-0.84, P = 0.005, respectively] and OS. In multivariable analyses, cancer MKI67 mRNA content had independent influence on DDFS (adjusted HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.29-0.89, P = 0.019) while Ki-67 protein expression had not any influence (P = 0.266) whereas both assessments influenced independently OS. Luminal B patients treated with docetaxel-FEC had more favourable DDFS and OS than those treated with vinorelbine-FEC when the subtype was defined by RT-qPCR (for DDFS, HR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.29-0.94, P = 0.031), but not when defined using IHC. Breast cancer subtypes approximated with RT-qPCR and IHC show good concordance, but cancer MKI67 mRNA content correlated slightly better with DDFS than Ki-67 expression. The findings based on MKI67 mRNA content suggest that patients with luminal B cancer benefit more from docetaxel-FEC than from vinorelbine-FEC.
  • Tharmalingam, Melissa D.; Matilionyte, Gabriele; Wallace, William H. B.; Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Oliver, Elizabeth; Goriely, Anne; Lane, Sheila; Guo, Jingtao; Cairns, Bradley; Jorgensen, Anne; Allen, Caroline M.; Lopes, Federica; Anderson, Richard A.; Spears, Norah; Mitchell, Rod T. (2020)
    Background Clinical studies indicate chemotherapy agents used in childhood cancer treatment regimens may impact future fertility. However, effects of individual agents on prepubertal human testis, necessary to identify later risk, have not been determined. The study aimed to investigate the impact of cisplatin, commonly used in childhood cancer, on immature (foetal and prepubertal) human testicular tissues. Comparison was made with carboplatin, which is used as an alternative to cisplatin in order to reduce toxicity in healthy tissues. Methods We developed an organotypic culture system combined with xenografting to determine the effect of clinically-relevant exposure to platinum-based chemotherapeutics on human testis. Human foetal and prepubertal testicular tissues were cultured and exposed to cisplatin, carboplatin or vehicle for 24 h, followed by 24-240 h in culture or long-term xenografting. Survival, proliferation and apoptosis of prepubertal germ stem cell populations (gonocytes and spermatogonia), critical for sperm production in adulthood, were quantified. Results Cisplatin exposure resulted in a significant reduction in the total number of germ cells (- 44%, p <0.0001) in human foetal testis, which involved an initial loss of gonocytes followed by a significant reduction in spermatogonia. This coincided with a reduction (- 70%, p <0.05) in germ cell proliferation. Cisplatin exposure resulted in similar effects on total germ cell number (including spermatogonial stem cells) in prepubertal human testicular tissues, demonstrating direct relevance to childhood cancer patients. Xenografting of cisplatin-exposed human foetal testicular tissue demonstrated that germ cell loss (- 42%, p <0.01) persisted at 12 weeks. Comparison between exposures to human-relevant concentrations of cisplatin and carboplatin revealed a very similar degree of germ cell loss at 240 h post-exposure. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of direct effects of chemotherapy exposure on germ cell populations in human foetal and prepubertal testis, demonstrating platinum-induced loss of all germ cell populations, and similar effects of cisplatin or carboplatin. Furthermore, these experimental approaches can be used to determine the effects of established and novel cancer therapies on the developing testis that will inform fertility counselling and development of strategies to preserve fertility in children with cancer.
  • Routila, Johannes; Qiao, Xi; Weltner, Jere; Rantala, Juha K.; Carpen, Timo; Hagström, Jaana; Mäkitie, Antti; Leivo, Ilmo; Ruuskanen, Miia; Söderlund, Jenni; Rintala, Marjut; Hietanen, Sakari; Irjala, Heikki; Minn, Heikki; Westermarck, Jukka; Ventelä, Sami (2022)
    Objectives: Cisplatin is combined with radiotherapy for advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). While providing a beneficial effect on survival, it also causes side effects and thus is an important target when considering treatment de-escalation. Currently, there are no biomarkers to predict its patientselective therapeutic utility. In this study, we examined the role of the stem cell factor OCT4 as a potential biomarker to help clinicians stratify HNSCC patients between radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. Materials and methods: OCT4 immunohistochemical staining of a population-validated tissue microarray (PV-TMA) (n = 166) representative of a standard HNSCC patients was carried out, and 5-year survival was analyzed. The results were validated using ex vivo drug sensitivity analysis of HNSCC tumor samples, and further crossvalidated in independent oropharyngeal (n = 118), nasopharyngeal (n = 170), and vulvar carcinoma (n = 95) clinical datasets. In vitro, genetically modified, patient-derived HNSCC cells were used. Results: OCT4 expression in HNSCC tumors was associated with radioresistance. However, combination therapy with cisplatin was found to overcome this radioresistance in OCT4-expressing HNSCC tumors. The results were validated by using several independent patient cohorts. Furthermore, CRISPRa-based OCT4 overexpression in the HNSCC cell line resulted in apoptosis resistance, and cisplatin was found to downregulate OCT4 protein expression in vitro. Ex vivo drug sensitivity analysis of HNSCC tumors confirmed the association between OCT4 expression and cisplatin sensitivity. Conclusion: This study introduces OCT4 immunohistochemistry as a simple and cost-effective diagnostic approach for clinical practice to identify HNSCC patients benefitting from radiosensitization by cisplatin using either full or reduced dosing.
  • Helanterä, I.; Janes, R.; Anttila, V-J (2018)
    Background: Influenza A(H1N1) causes serious complications in immunocompromised patients. The efficacy of seasonal vaccination in these patients has been questioned. Aim: To describe two outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1) in immunocompromised patients. Methods: Two outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1) occurred in our institution: on the kidney transplant ward in 2014 including patients early after kidney or simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation, and on the oncology ward in 2016 including patients receiving chemotherapy for malignant tumours. Factors leading to these outbreaks and the clinical efficacy of seasonal influenza vaccination were analysed. Findings: Altogether 86 patients were exposed to influenza A(H1N1) during the outbreaks, among whom the seasonal influenza vaccination status was unknown in 10. Only three out of 38 vaccinated patients were infected with influenza A(H1N1), compared with 20 out of 38 unvaccinated patients (P = 0.02). The death of one out of 38 vaccinated patients was associated with influenza, compared with seven out of 38 unvaccinated patients (P = 0.06). Shared factors behind the two outbreaks included outdated facilities not designed for the treatment of immunosuppressed patients. Vaccination coverage among patients was low, between 40% and 70% despite vaccination being offered to all patients free of charge. Vaccination coverage of healthcare workers on the transplant ward was low (46%), but, despite high coverage on the oncology ward (92%), the outbreak occurred. Conclusion: Seasonal influenza vaccination was clinically effective with both a reduced risk of influenza infection and a trend towards reduced mortality in these immunocompromised patients. Several possible causes were identified behind these two outbreaks, requiring continuous awareness in healthcare professionals to prevent further outbreaks. (C) 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Liesto, Sanna; Sipilä, Reetta; Hietanen, Marja; Kalso, Eija (2022)
    Many patients return to cognitively demanding work after breast cancer treatments. This makes treatment-related cognitive decline an important research topic. Psychological resilience, cognitive reserve and better perceived general health may work as protective factors against cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to analyse whether these factors are associated with cognitive function among such women. Data from 384 breast cancer survivors who underwent neuropsychological examination at follow-up 4-9 years after surgery were used. The neurocognitive domain variable Learning and Memory was computed from Wechsler Memory Scale-III subtests Learning and Delayed Recall. Another variable, Attention, Processing speed and Executive function, was computed from semantic and verbal fluency tests, Trail Making Test A and B, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test-IV subtest Coding. Psychological resilience was measured with Resilience Scale-14, and perceived general health with RAND-36 subitem General Health. Results: showed that levels of cognitive performance and general health were statistically higher than population average. Resilience and general health in separate models were associated with Attention, Processing speed and Executive function (beta = 0.14, p = 0.01; beta = 0.13, p = 0.03, respectively). When added simultaneously in the same model, resilience was significant (beta = 0.13, p = 0.04), but general health was not. These associations were nonsignificant after controlling for confounding factors. Learning and Memory was not associated with resilience or general health. Future research should focus on longitudinal studies identifying patients at a high risk of developing cognitive decline after breast cancer treatments and on preventive and therapeutic approaches.
  • Varmavuo, Ville; Silvennoinen, Raija; Anttila, Pekka; Saily, Marjaana; Sankelo, Marja; Putkonen, Mervi; Ahonen, Jouni; Mahlamaki, Eija; Mantymaa, Pentti; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta; Remes, Kari; Jantunen, Esa (2016)
    Upfront autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard therapy for younger multiple myeloma (MM) patients. MM patients usually undergo stem cell mobilization with cyclophosphamide (CY) followed by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), or with G-CSF alone. A limited number of randomized studies are available comparing costs of different mobilization strategies. Eighty transplant-eligible patients aged up to 70 years with untreated MM were included in this prospective study. The patients were treated with RVD induction for three 21-day cycles and randomized 1: 1 at inclusion into one of the two mobilization arms CY 2 g/m(2) + G-CSF [arm A] vs. G-CSF alone [arm B]. Plerixafor was given according to a specific algorithm if needed. Sixty-nine patients who received mobilization followed by blood graft collection were included in the cost analysis. The median total costs of the mobilization phase were significantly higher in arm A than in arm B (3855 (sic) vs. 772 (sic), p
  • Murtojärvi, Mika; Halkola, Anni S.; Airola, Antti; Laajala, Teemu D.; Mirtti, Tuomas; Aittokallio, Tero; Pahikkala, Tapio (2020)
    Introduction Predictive survival modeling offers systematic tools for clinical decision-making and individualized tailoring of treatment strategies to improve patient outcomes while reducing overall healthcare costs. In 2015, a number of machine learning and statistical models were benchmarked in the DREAM 9.5 Prostate Cancer Challenge, based on open clinical trial data for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, applying these models into clinical practice poses a practical challenge due to the inclusion of a large number of model variables, some of which are not routinely monitored or are expensive to measure. Objectives To develop cost-specified variable selection algorithms for constructing cost-effective prognostic models of overall survival that still preserve sufficient model performance for clinical decision making. Methods Penalized Cox regression models were used for the survival prediction. For the variable selection, we implemented two algorithms: (i) LASSO regularization approach; and (ii) a greedy cost-specified variable selection algorithm. The models were compared in three cohorts of mCRPC patients from randomized clinical trials (RCT), as well as in a real-world cohort (RWC) of advanced prostate cancer patients treated at the Turku University Hospital. Hospital laboratory expenses were utilized as a reference for computing the costs of introducing new variables into the models. Results Compared to measuring the full set of clinical variables, economic costs could be reduced by half without a significant loss of model performance. The greedy algorithm outperformed the LASSO-based variable selection with the lowest tested budgets. The overall top performance was higher with the LASSO algorithm. Conclusion The cost-specified variable selection offers significant budget optimization capability for the real-world survival prediction without compromising the predictive power of the model.
  • Poganitsch-Korhonen, M.; Masliukaite, I.; Nurmio, M.; Lahteenmaki, P.; van Wely, M.; van Pelt, A. M. M.; Jahnukainen, K.; Stukenborg, J-B (2017)
  • Narvi, Elli; Vaparanta, Katri; Karrila, Anna; Chakroborty, Deepankar; Knuutila, Sakari; Pulliainen, Arto; Sundvall, Maria; Elenius, Klaus (2018)
    Therapeutic protocols including EGFR antibodies in the context of oxaliplatin-based regimens have variable clinical effect in colorectal cancer. Here, we tested the effect of the EGFR antibody cetuximab in different sequential combinations with oxaliplatin on the growth of colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Cetuximab reduced the efficacy of oxaliplatin when administered before oxaliplatin but provided additive effect when administered after oxaliplatin regardless of the KRAS or BRAF mutation status of the cells. Systemic gene expression and protein phosphorylation screens revealed alternatively activated pathways regulating apoptosis, cell cycle and DNA damage response. Functional assays indicated that cetuximab-induced arrest of the cells into the G1 phase of the cell cycle was associated with reduced responsiveness of the cells to subsequent treatment with oxaliplatin. In contrast, oxaliplatin-enhanced responsiveness to subsequent treatment with cetuximab was associated with increased apoptosis, inhibition of STAT3 activity and increased EGFR down-regulation. This preclinical study indicates that optimizing the sequence of administration may enhance the antitumor effect of combination therapy with EGFR antibodies and oxaliplatin.