Browsing by Subject "CHICKPEA"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-3 of 3
  • Belachew, Kiflemariam Yehuala; Nagel, Kerstin; Fiorani, Fabio; Stoddard, Frederick Lothrop (2018)
    Background Soil moisture deficiency causes yield reduction and instability in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) production. The extent of sensitivity to drought stress varies across accessions originating from diverse moisture regimes of the world. Hence, we conducted successive greenhouse experiments in pots and rhizotrons to explore diversity in root responses to soil water deficit. Methods A set of 89 accessions from wet and dry growing regions of the world was defined according to the Focused Identification of Germplasm Strategy and screened in a perlite-sand medium under well watered conditions in a greenhouse experiment. Stomatal conductance, canopy temperature, chlorophyll concentration, and root and shoot dry weights were recorded during the fifth week of growth. Eight accessions representing the range of responses were selected for further investigation. Starting five days after germination, they were subjected to a root phenotyping experiment using the automated phenotyping platform GROWSCREEN-Rhizo. The rhizotrons were filled with peat-soil under well watered and water limited conditions. Root architectural traits were recorded five, 12, and 19 days after the treatment (DAT) began. Results In the germplasm survey, accessions from dry regions showed significantly higher values of chlorophyll concentration, shoot and root dry weights than those from wet regions. Root and shoot dry weight as well as seed weight, and chlorophyll concentration were positively correlated with each other. Accession DS70622 combined higher values of root and shoot dry weight than the rest. The experiment in GROWSCREEN-Rhizo showed large differences in root response to water deficit. The accession by treatment interactions in taproot and second order lateral root lengths were significant at 12 and 19 DAT, and the taproot length was reduced up to 57% by drought. The longest and deepest root systems under both treatment conditions were recorded by DS70622 and DS11320, and total root length of DS70622 was three times longer than that of WS99501, the shortest rooted accession. The maximum horizontal distribution of a root system and root surface coverage were positively correlated with taproot and total root lengths and root system depth. DS70622 and WS99501 combined maximum and minimum values of these traits, respectively. Thus, roots of DS70622 and DS11320, from dry regions, showed drought-avoidance characteristics whereas those of WS99501 and Melodie/2, from wet regions, showed the opposite. Discussion The combination of the germplasm survey and use of GROWSCREEN-Rhizo allowed exploring of adaptive traits and detection of root phenotypic markers for potential drought avoidance. The greater root system depth and root surface coverage, exemplified by DS70622 and DS11320, can now be tested as new sources of drought tolerance.
  • Coda, Rossana; Varis, Jutta; Verni, Michela; Rizzello, Carlo G.; Katina, Kati (2017)
    The effects of the substitution of wheat flour with faba bean flour and faba bean sourdough on the properties of composite bread were investigated. Bread was prepared by replacing wheat flour with 30% of faba bean flour, native or after sourdough fermentation. The addition of faba bean flour influenced the structure of the breads, causing a slight decrease of volume and higher hardness compared to wheat bread. However, when fermented faba bean flour was added, the crumb porosity of the bread was not affected. The addition of 30% of faba bean flour increased wheat bread protein content from 11.6 up to 16.5% of dry matter. The addition of native faba bean flour did not affect the in vitro protein digestibility, resulting similar to wheat bread (64%). On the contrary, faba bean sourdough bread showed higher protein digestibility (73%). Generally, the addition of native faba bean flour caused an improvement of the nutritional indexes of the composite bread, further enhanced when fermentation was carried out. The free amino acid profile, protein chemical score, and biological value index were the highest in faba bean sourdough bread. In addition, the predicted glycemic index was the lowest in faba bean sourdough bread. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Hernandez-Ledesma, Blanca; Fernandez-Tome, Samuel; Curiel, Jose Antonio; Pinto, Daniela; Marzani, Barbara; Coda, Rossana; Gobbetti, Marco (2015)
    Background: There is an increasing interest toward the use of legumes in food industry, mainly due to the quality of their protein fraction. Many legumes are cultivated and consumed around the world, but few data is available regarding the chemical or technological characteristics, and especially on their suitability to be fermented. Nevertheless, sourdough fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria has been recognized as the most efficient tool to improve some nutritional and functional properties. This study investigated the presence of lunasin-like polypeptides in nineteen traditional Italian legumes, exploiting the potential of the fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria to increase the native concentration. An integrated approach based on chemical, immunological and ex vivo (human adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cell cultures) analyses was used to show the physiological potential of the lunasin-like polypeptides. Results: Italian legume varieties, belonging to Phaseulus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum, Lathyrus sativus, Lens culinaris and Pisum sativum species, were milled and flours were chemically characterized and subjected to sourdough fermentation with selected Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactobacillus brevis AM7, expressing different peptidase activities. Extracts from legume doughs (unfermented) and sourdoughs were subjected to western blot analysis, using an anti-lunasin primary antibody. Despite the absence of lunasin, different immunoreactive polypeptide bands were found. The number and the intensity of lunasin-like polypeptides increased during sourdough fermentation, as the consequence of the proteolysis of the native proteins carried out by the selected lactic acid bacteria. A marked inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells was observed using extracts from legume sourdoughs. In particular, sourdoughs from Fagiolo di Lamon, Cece dell'Alta Valle di Misa, and Pisello riccio di Sannicola flours were the most active, showing a decrease of Caco-2 cells viability up to 70 %. The over-expression of Caco-2 filaggrin and involucrin genes was also induced. Nine lunasin-like polypeptides, having similarity to lunasin, were identified. Conclusions: The features of the sourdough fermented legume flours suggested the use for the manufacture of novel functional foods and/or pharmaceuticals preparations.