Browsing by Subject "CHILD"

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  • Laukkanen, Eila; Hintikka, Jukka J.; Kylma, Jari; Kekkonen, Virve; Marttunen, Mauri (2010)
  • Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; Ni, Guiyan; Gratten, Jacob; Wray, Naomi R.; Lee, Sang Hong; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar; Paunio, Tiina Maria; Pietiläinen, Olli Kalevi; Palotie, Aarno Veikko (2018)
    Previous studies have shown an increased risk for mental health problems in children born to both younger and older parents compared to children of average-aged parents. We previously used a novel design to reveal a latent mechanism of genetic association between schizophrenia and age at first birth in women (AFB). Here, we use independent data from the UK Biobank (N = 38,892) to replicate the finding of an association between predicted genetic risk of schizophrenia and AFB in women, and to estimate the genetic correlation between schizophrenia and AFB in women stratified into younger and older groups. We find evidence for an association between predicted genetic risk of schizophrenia and AFB in women (P-value = 1.12E-05), and we show genetic heterogeneity between younger and older AFB groups (P-value = 3.45E-03). The genetic correlation between schizophrenia and AFB in the younger AFB group is -0.16 (SE = 0.04) while that between schizophrenia and AFB in the older AFB group is 0.14 (SE = 0.08). Our results suggest that early, and perhaps also late, age at first birth in women is associated with increased genetic risk for schizophrenia in the UK Biobank sample. These findings contribute new insights into factors contributing to the complex bio-social risk architecture underpinning the association between parental age and offspring mental health.
  • Neumann, Alexander; Walton, Esther; Alemany, Silvia; Cecil, Charlotte; Gonzalez, Juan Ramon; Jima, Dereje D.; Lahti, Jari; Tuominen, Samuli T.; Barker, Edward D.; Binder, Elisabeth; Caramaschi, Doretta; Carracedo, Angel; Czamara, Darina; Evandt, Jorunn; Felix, Janine F.; Fuemmeler, Bernard F.; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Julvez, Jordi; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele; Maguire, Rachel; Maitre, Lea; Murphy, Susan K.; Murcia, Mario; Villa, Pia M.; Sharp, Gemma; Sunyer, Jordi; Räikkönen, Katri; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus; Guxens, Monica; Relton, Caroline L.; Tiemeier, Henning (2020)
    Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder with a substantial genetic component. However, the extent to which epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the etiology of the disorder is unknown. We performed epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) Consortium to identify DNA methylation sites associated with ADHD symptoms at two methylation assessment periods: birth and school age. We examined associations of both DNA methylation in cord blood with repeatedly assessed ADHD symptoms (age 4-15 years) in 2477 children from 5 cohorts and of DNA methylation at school age with concurrent ADHD symptoms (age 7-11 years) in 2374 children from 9 cohorts, with 3 cohorts participating at both timepoints. CpGs identified with nominal significance (p <0.05) in either of the EWAS were correlated between timepoints (rho = 0.30), suggesting overlap in associations; however, top signals were very different. At birth, we identified nine CpGs that predicted later ADHD symptoms (p <1 x 10(-7)), including ERC2 and CREB5. Peripheral blood DNA methylation at one of these CpGs (cg01271805 in the promoter region of ERC2, which regulates neurotransmitter release) was previously associated with brain methylation. Another (cg25520701) lies within the gene body of CREB5, which previously was associated with neurite outgrowth and an ADHD diagnosis. In contrast, at school age, no CpGs were associated with ADHD with p <1 x 10(-7). In conclusion, we found evidence in this study that DNA methylation at birth is associated with ADHD. Future studies are needed to confirm the utility of methylation variation as biomarker and its involvement in causal pathways.
  • Kalliomaa-Puha, Laura; Poso, Tarja; Toivonen, Virve-Maria (2021)
    The article examines appeals against restrictive measures in child protection submitted to and decided upon by administrative courts in Finland. Restrictive measures used in care restrict children's and young people's fundamental and human rights considerably, meaning 'confinement in fractions'. Therefore, young people's access to justice is an important issue in situations in which they consider an error to have been made. We study appeals as a form of legal safety and as a means of error correction. Although young people, 12 years of age and older, have the right to appeal, the appeal system is mainly used by parents to appeal against restriction of contact. As such, the appeal system poorly protects young people's individual access to justice, if at all. As only administrative courts can overturn the decision to apply restrictive measures, the adult-centeredness of the system and young people's access to justice should be critically assessed and rethought.
  • Rostila, Mikael; Saarela, Jan; Kawachi, Ichiro (2013)
  • Cui, Ming; Janhonen-Abruquah, Hille; Darling, Carol A.; Carlos Chavez, Fiorella L.; Palojoki, Päivi (2019)
    Helicopter parenting, defined as a form of overinvolved parenting of young adult children, is shown to be associated with young adult children’s well-being. Furthermore, the phenomenon of helicopter parenting is increasingly evident across various cultures. In this study, the association between helicopter parenting and young adult children’s well-being problems was examined, and the associations were compared between samples of American and Finnish young adults. With a sample of 441 American and 306 Finnish university students, results from path models suggested that maternal and paternal helicopter parenting was associated with university students’ symptoms of anxiety and depression, life dissatisfaction, and emotional dysregulation. Furthermore, even though the mean levels of helicopter parenting were lower among Finnish parents as compared with American parents, the associations between helicopter parenting and young adults’ well-being problems were, in general, equally significant. The implications for university students, parents of students, educators, and university administrators from different cultural backgrounds were also discussed.
  • Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Norman, Jane E.; Reynolds, Rebecca M. (2018)
    While previous studies have shown intergenerational transmission of birth weight from mother to child, whether the continuity persists across 3 generations has rarely been assessed. We used the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Data-bank (United Kingdom) to examine the intergenerational correlations of birth weight, birth weight adjusted for gestational age and sex, and small- and large-for-gestational-age births across 3 generations among 1,457 grandmother-mother-child triads. All participants were born between 1950 and 2015. The intergenerational transmission was examined with linear regression analyses. We found that grandmaternal birth weight was associated with grandchild birth weight, independently of prenatal and sociodemographic covariates and maternal birth weight (B = 0.12 standard deviation units, 95% confidence interval: 0.07, 0.18). Similar intergenerational continuity was found for birth weight adjusted for sex and gestational age as well as for small-for-gestational-age births. In conclusion, birth weight and fetal growth showed intergenerational continuity across 3 generations. This supports the hypothesis that the developmental origins of birth weight and hence later health and disease are already present in earlier generations.
  • Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Räikkönen, Katri; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Reynolds, Rebecca M. (2021)
    Maternal obesity in pregnancy predicts offspring psychopathology risk in childhood but it remains unclear whether maternal obesity or underweight associate with adult offspring mental disorders. We examined longitudinally whether maternal body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy predicted mental disorders in her offspring and whether the associations differed by offspring birth year among 68,571 mother–child dyads of Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank, Scotland. The offspring were born 1950–1999. Maternal BMI was measured at a mean 15.7 gestational weeks and classified into underweight, normal weight, overweight, moderate obesity and severe obesity. Mental disorders were identified from nationwide registers carrying diagnoses of all hospitalizations and deaths in Scotland in 1996–2017. We found that maternal BMI in pregnancy was associated with offspring mental disorders in a time-dependent manner: In offspring born 1950–1974, maternal underweight predicted an increased hazard of mental disorders [Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.74; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.01–3.00)]. In offspring born 1975–1999, maternal severe obesity predicted increased hazards of any mental (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.08–2.38) substance use (HR 1.91; 95% CI 1.03–3.57) and schizophrenia spectrum (HR 2.80; 95% CI 1.40–5.63) disorders. Our findings of time-specific associations between maternal prenatal BMI and adult offspring mental disorders may carry important public health implications by underlining possible lifelong effects of maternal BMI on offspring psychopathology.
  • Lavonius, Maria; Railo, Henry; Karlsson, Linnea; Wikström, Valtteri; Tuulari, Jetro J.; Scheinin, Noora M.; Paavonen, E. Juulia; Polo-Kantola, Paivi; Karlsson, Hasse; Huotilainen, Minna (2020)
    Poor maternal sleep quality during pregnancy may act as a prenatal stress factor for the fetus and associate with neonate neurocognition, for example via fetal programming. The impacts of worsened maternal sleep on neonatal development and, more specifically on neonatal auditory brain responses, have not been studied. A total of 155 mother-neonate dyads drawn from the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study participated in our study including maternal self-report questionnaires on sleep at gestational week 24 and an event-related potential (ERP) measurement among 1-2-day-old neonates. For sleep quality assessment, the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire (BNSQ) was used and calculated scores for (1) insomnia, (2) subjective sleep loss and (3) sleepiness were formed and applied in the analyses. In the auditory ERP protocol, three emotionally uttered pseudo words (in happy, angry and sad valence) were presented among neutrally uttered pseudo words. To study the relations between prenatal maternal sleep quality and auditory emotion-related ERP responses, mixed-effects regression models were computed for early (100-200 ms) and late (300-500 ms) ERP response time-windows. All of the selected BNSQ scores were associated with neonatal ERP responses for happy and angry emotion stimuli (sleep loss and sleepiness in the early, and insomnia, sleep loss and sleepiness in the late time-window). For sad stimuli, only maternal sleep loss predicted the neonatal ERP response in the late time-window, likely because the overall ERP was weakest in the sad condition. We conclude that maternal sleep quality during pregnancy is associated with changes in neonatal auditory ERP responses.
  • Muurinen, Mari; Taylan, Fulya; Tournis, Symeon; Eisfeldt, Jesper; Balanika, Alexia; Vastardis, Heleni; Ala-Mello, Sirpa; Mäkitie, Outi; Costantini, Alice (2022)
    Mosaicism, a state in which an individual has two or more genetically distinct populations of cells in the body, can be difficult to detect because of either mild or atypical clinical presentation and limitations in the commonly used detection methods. Knowledge of the role of mosaicism is limited in many skeletal disorders, including osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OSCS) and cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD). We used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) with coverage >40x to identify the genetic causes of disease in two clinically diagnosed patients. In a female patient with OSCS, we identified a mosaic 7-nucleotide frameshift deletion in exon 2 of AMER1, NM_152424.4:c.855_861del:p.(His285Glnfs*7), affecting 8.3% of the WGS reads. In a male patient with CCD, approximately 34% of the WGS reads harbored a 3710-basepair mosaic deletion, NC_000006.11:g.45514471_45518181del, starting in intron 8 of RUNX2 and terminating in the 3 ' untranslated region. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction was used to validate these deletions and quantify the absolute level of mosaicism in each patient. Although constitutional variants in AMER1 and RUNX2 are a known cause of OSCS and CCD, respectively, the mosaic changes here reported have not been described previously. Our study indicates that mosaicism should be considered in unsolved cases of skeletal dysplasia and should be investigated with comprehensive and sensitive detection methods. (c) 2022 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
  • Rosenqvist, Johanna; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Urgesi, Cosimo; Holdnack, James; Kemp, Sally L.; Laasonen, Marja (2017)
    Objectives: Performance on neurocognitive tasks develops with age, but it is still unknown whether this performance differs between children from different cultures. We compared cross-sectionally the development of neurocognitive functions in 3- to 15-year-old children from three countries: Finland, Italy, and the United States (N = 2745). Methods: Language, face memory, emotion recognition, theory of mind, and visuospatial processing subtests from the NEPSY-II standardizations in Finland, Italy, and the United States were used to evaluate if children and adolescents from different linguistic and cultural backgrounds differ in performance on these measures. Results: We found significant differences in performance on the tasks between the countries. Generally, the differences were more pronounced in the younger age groups. Some subtests showed greater country effects than others, performance on these subtests being higher, in general, in one country over the others, or showed different patterns of age associated changes in test performance. Conclusions: Significant differences in neurocognitive performance between children from Finland, Italy, and the United States were found. These findings may be due to cultural or educational differences that impact test performance, or due to factors associated with the adaptation of measures from one culture to another. The finding of performance differences across countries on similar tasks indicate that cross-cultural and background variables impact performance on neuropsychological measures. Therefore, clinicians need to consider a child's cultural background when evaluating performance on neuropsychological assessments. The results also indicate that future cross-cultural studies are needed to further examine the underlying cultural factors that influence neurocognitive performance.
  • Salo, Saara Johanna; Lipsanen, Jari; Sourander, Johanna; Pajulo, Marjukka; Kalland, Mirjam (2022)
    Parent relationship satisfaction and parental reflective functioning (PRF) are significant factors in the transition to first-time parenting and are likely to affect a child's later wellbeing. However, little is known about their joint longitudinal effects from pregnancy onward. Starting in the prenatal period, this follow-up study of 1016 Finnish first-time parents (358 fathers and 658 mothers at baseline) examined the stability and the reciprocal associations between relationship satisfaction and PRF in predicting child behavioral problems (CBCL) at age 2. First, the results of the random-intercept cross-lagged panel models showed that both relationship satisfaction and PRF were stable from pregnancy onward for both mothers and fathers, with the exception of mothers' prenatal PRF. Second, there were significant reciprocal associations between low prenatal PRF and low relationship satisfaction at age 1, and vice versa. Third, for both mothers and fathers, a low level of relationship satisfaction, but not PRF, predicted consistently higher levels of child behavioral problems at age 2. These results suggest that parent relationship satisfaction and PRF are stable but largely independent parental factors during the transition to parenthood. In addition, our results highlight the significant role of parent relationship satisfaction in predicting toddler behavior problems, which indicates the relevance of early relationship-orientated help for first-time parents.
  • Hayeems, Robin Z.; Miller, Fiona A.; Barg, Carolyn J.; Bombard, Yvonne; Carroll, June C.; Tam, Karen; Kerr, Elizabeth; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Potter, Beth K.; Patton, Sarah; Bytautas, Jessica; Taylor, Louise; Davies, Christine; Milburn, Jennifer; Price, April; Gonska, Tanja; Keenan, Katherine; Ratjen, Felix; Guttmann, Astrid (2017)
    Objective To explore the psychosocial implications of diagnostic uncertainty that result from inconclusive results generated by newborn bloodspot screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF). Study design Using a mixed methods prospective cohort study of children who received NBS for CF, we compared psychosocial outcomes of parents whose children who received persistently inconclusive results with those whose children received true positive or screen-negative results. Results Mothers of infants who received inconclusive results (n = 17), diagnoses of CF (n = 15), and screen-negative results (n = 411) were surveyed; 23 parent interviews were completed. Compared with mothers of infants with true positive/screen-negative results, mothers of infants with inconclusive results reported greater perceived uncertainty (P <.006) but no differences in anxiety or vulnerability (P > .05). Qualitatively, parents valued being connected to experts but struggled with the meaning of an uncertain diagnosis, worried about their infant's health-related vulnerability, and had mixed views about surveillance. Conclusion Inconclusive CF NBS results were not associated with anxiety or vulnerability but led to health-related uncertainty and qualitative concerns. Findings should be considered alongside efforts to optimize protocols for CF screening and surveillance. Educational and psychosocial supports are warranted for these families.
  • Berg, Venla; Miettinen, Anneli; Jokela, Markus; Rotkirch, Anna (2020)
    Birth intervals are a crucial component of fertility behaviour and family planning. Short birth intervals are associated—although not necessarily causally—with negative health-related outcomes, but less is known about their associations with family functioning. Here, the associations between birth intervals and marital stability were investigated by Cox regression using a nationally representative, register-based sample of individuals with two (N = 42,481) or three (N = 22,514) children from contemporary Finland (observation period 1972–2009). Shorter interbirth intervals were associated with an increased risk of parental divorce over a ten-year follow-up. Individuals with birth intervals of up to 1.5 years had 24–49 per cent higher divorce risk compared to individuals whose children were born more than 4 years apart. The pattern was similar in all socioeconomic groups and among individuals with earlier and later entry to parenthood. Our results add to the growing body of research showing associations between short birth intervals and negative outcomes in health and family functioning.
  • Pietikäinen, Johanna T.; Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Pölkki, Pirjo; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Paunio, Tiina; Paavonen, E. Juulia (2019)
    In the general population, sleeping problems can precede an episode of depression. We hypothesized that sleeping problems during pregnancy, including insomnia symptoms, shortened sleep, and daytime tiredness, are related to maternal postnatal depressiveness. We conducted a prospective study evaluating sleep and depressive symptoms, both prenatally (around gestational week 32) and postnatally (around 3months after delivery) in the longitudinal CHILD-SLEEP birth cohort in Finland. Prenatally, 1667 women returned the questionnaire, of which 1398 women participated also at the postnatal follow-up. Sleep was measured with the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire (BNSQ) and depressive symptoms with a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Altogether, 10.3% of the women had postnatal depressiveness (CES-D 10 points). After adjusting for main background characteristics and prenatal depressiveness (CES-D 10), poor general sleep quality (AOR 1.87, 95% CI 1.21-2.88), tiredness during the day (AOR 2.19, 95% CI 1.41-3.38), short sleep 6 and 7h, sleep latency >20min, and sleep loss 2h were associated with postnatal depressiveness (all p
  • Castelpietra, Giulio; Knudsen, Ann Kristin Skrindo; Agardh, Emilie E.; Armocida, Benedetta; Beghi, Massimiliano; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Ma, Rui; Starace, Fabrizio; Steel, Nicholas; Addolorato, Giovanni; Andrei, Catalina Liliana; Andrei, Tudorel; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose L.; Banach, Maciej; Barnighausen, Till Winfried; Barone-Adesi, Francesco; Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Carvalho, Felix; Carvalho, Marcia; Chandan, Joht Singh; Chattu, Vijay Kumar; Couto, Rosa A. S.; Cruz-Martins, Natalia; Dargan, Paul; Deuba, Keshab; da Silva, Diana Dias; Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis; Fernandes, Eduarda; Ferrara, Pietro; Fischer, Florian; Gaal, Peter Andras; Gialluisi, Alessandro; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Haro, Josep Maria; Hasan, M. Tasdik; Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Hostiuc, Sorin; Iacoviello, Licia; Iavicoli, Ivo; Jamshidi, Elham; Jonas, Jost B.; Joo, Tamas; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Kauppila, Joonas H.; Khan, Moien A. B.; Kisa, Adnan; Kisa, Sezer; Kivimäki, Mika; Koly, Kamrun Nahar; Koyanagi, Ai; Kumar, Manasi; Lallukka, Tea; Langguth, Berthold; Ledda, Caterina; Lee, Paul H.; Lega, Ilaria; Linehan, Christine; Loureiro, Joana A.; Madureira-Carvalho, Aurea M.; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Mathur, Manu Raj; McGrath, John J.; Mechili, Enkeleint A.; Mentis, Alexios-Fotios A.; Mestrovic, Tomislav; Miazgowski, Bartosz; Mirica, Andreea; Mirijello, Antonio; Moazen, Babak; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mulita, Francesk; Nagel, Gabriele; Negoi, Ionut; Negoi, Ruxandra Irina; Nwatah, Vincent Ebuka; Padron-Monedero, Alicia; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Pardhan, Shahina; Pasovic, Maja; Patel, Jay; Petcu, Ionela-Roxana; Pinheiro, Marina; Pollok, Richard Charles G.; Postma, Maarten J.; Rawaf, David Laith; Rawaf, Salman; Romero-Rodriguez, Esperanza; Ronfani, Luca; Sagoe, Dominic; Sanmarchi, Francesco; Schaub, Michael P.; Sharew, Nigussie Tadesse; Shiri, Rahman; Shokraneh, Farhad; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silva, Joao Pedro; Silva, Renata; Socea, Bogdan; Szocska, Miklos; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Torrado, Marco; Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto; Vasankari, Tommi Juhani; Veroux, Massimiliano; Viner, Russell M.; Werdecker, Andrea; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Hay, Simon; Ferrari, Alize J.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Allebeck, Peter; Monasta, Lorenzo (2022)
    Background Mental health is a public health issue for European young people, with great heterogeneity in resource allocation. Representative population-based studies are needed. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019 provides internationally comparable information on trends in the health status of populations and changes in the leading causes of disease burden over time. Methods Prevalence, incidence, Years Lived with Disability (YLDs) and Years of Life Lost (YLLs) from mental disorders (MDs), substance use disorders (SUDs) and self-harm were estimated for young people aged 10-24 years in 31 European countries. Rates per 100,000 population, percentage changes in 1990-2019, 95% Uncertainty Intervals (UIs), and correlations with Sociodemographic Index (SDI), were estimated. Findings In 2019, rates per 100,000 population were 16,983 (95% UI 12,823 - 21,630) for MDs, 3,891 (3,020 4,905) for SUDs, and 89.1 (63.8 - 123.1) for self-harm. In terms of disability, anxiety contributed to 647.3 (432 -912.3) YLDs, while in terms of premature death, self-harm contributed to 319.6 (248.9-412.8) YLLs, per 100,000 population. Over the 30 years studied, YLDs increased in eating disorders (14.9%;9.4-20.1) and drug use disorders (16.9%;8.9-26.3), and decreased in idiopathic developmental intellectual disability (-29.1%;23.8-38.5). YLLs decreased in self-harm (-27.9%;38.3-18.7). Variations were found by sex, age-group and country. The burden of SUDs and self-harm was higher in countries with lower SDI, MDs were associated with SUDs. Interpretation Mental health conditions represent an important burden among young people living in Europe. National policies should strengthen mental health, with a specific focus on young people. Funding The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • Salo, S. J.; Flykt, M.; Mäkelä, Jukka; Biringen, Z.; Kalland, M.; Pajulo, Marjukka; Punamaki, R. L. (2019)
    Aim: This randomised control trial (RCT) study examined the effectiveness of a mentalisation-based perinatal group intervention, Nurture and Play (NaP), in improving mother–infant interaction quality and maternal reflective functioning and in decreasing depressive symptoms. Background: Few preventive prenatal interventions have been developed for primary health care settings for mothers with depressive symptoms. Furthermore, previous prenatal intervention studies have only concentrated on reducing depressive symptoms and have not directly addressed enhancing optimal parenting qualities. Methods: The participants were 45 pregnant women with depressive symptoms. Women in the randomly assigned intervention group (n = 24) participated in the manualised, short-term NaP intervention group from pregnancy until the baby’s age of seven months, whereas control group women received treatment as usual (TAU). Maternal emotional availability (EA), reflective functioning (RF) and depressive symptoms were measured before the intervention and at the infants’ 12 months of age, and changes were evaluated using repeated measure analyses of variances (ANOVAs). Findings: The results showed that the intervention group displayed higher maternal sensitivity and RF and more reduction in depressive symptoms than the control group when babies were 12 months old. These findings provide preliminary support for the effectiveness of the NaP intervention.
  • Comittee Natl Advisors Paediat Neu; Craiu, Dana; Haataja, Leena; Hollody, Katalin; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene (2020)
    Background: Paediatric Neurology (PN) is a discipline focused on diagnosis, comprehensive management and research into diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system from fetal life to transition into adulthood. The European Paediatric Neurology Society first designed and published the European PN training programme in the European Paediatric Neurology Syllabus in 2002. This was important in gaining recognition for the sub-specialty from the European Academy of Paediatrics and the European Academy of Neurology and in 2003 PN was recognized as a sub-specialty of paediatrics and neurology by the Board of the European Union of Medical Specialties. In 2004, the EPNS founded the Committee of National Advisors (CNA) that comprised representatives from national Paediatric Neurology societies, in order to further enhance Europe wide standards in training and practice., The EPNS Training Advisory Board (TAB) offers nation specific advice/support to PN societies on developing training and care systems. In 2019, the 2nd revision of the Paediatric Neurology Syllabus was approved by the EPNS Board and CNA. We aim to give an overview of the training of Paediatric Neurology (PN) specialists (i.e. Paediatric Neurologists), the relevant professional bodies and the current practice of Paediatric Neurology in Europe, as defined geographically by the World Health Organization. Methods: A structured online data collection form was completed by CNA representatives from European countries. The data included training routes and structure of training, epidemiological data, nature of professional societies, organization of Paediatric Neurology care, research, academic life and recognition of the specialty. Results: Data was collected from 43 European countries of which 38 have a national PN Society. In 10 (6 European Union (EU) and 4 non-EU countries) PN is recognized as a core specialty. In 26 countries PN is recognized as a sub-specialty of Paediatrics, Neurology or both (15 EU-11 non-EU). PN is not recognized as a core or sub-specialty in 7 countries (4 EU and 3 non-EU). In 35 countries paediatric neurologists begin their training from Paediatrics, but in 19 countries PN training from Neurology is also possible or the preferred route. Training in PN differs, but in over 50% of countries the three main training modules named in the 2019 2nd revision of the European PN Syllabus (PN, Paediatrics and adult Neurology) are included. Many countries have already adapted their curriculum to the suggestions in the European PN syllabus. Conclusions: There is diversity among European countries in terms of professional organization and PN training. The European PN syllabus has had impact on the development of PN training throughout Europe, independent of duration of training or route from paediatrics or neurology. The syllabus provides a basis for the future development of PN training, the recognition of PN as a (sub) specialty in individual countries and for improving the care of children with neurological disorders in Europe. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of European Paediatric Neurology Society.