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  • Korkeila, Jyrki; Lietzen, Raija; Sillanmäki, Lauri Henrik; Rautava, Päivi; Korkeila, Katariina; Kivimäki, Mika; Koskenvuo, Markku; Vahtera, Jussi (2012)
    OBJECTIVES: Childhood adversities may be important determinants of later illnesses and poor health behaviour. However, large-scale prospective studies on the associations between childhood adversities and the onset of asthma in adulthood are lacking. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with 7-year follow-up. SETTING: Nationally representative study. Data were collected from the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) survey and national registers. PARTICIPANTS: The participants represent the Finnish population from the following age groups: 20-24, 30-34, 40-44, and 50-54 years at baseline in 1998 (24 057 survey participants formed the final cohort of this study). The occurrence of childhood adversities was assessed at baseline with a six-item survey scale. The analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, behavioural health risks and common mental disorders. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: The survey data were linked to data from national health registers on incident asthma during a 7-year follow-up to define new-onset asthma cases with verified diagnoses. RESULTS: A total of 12 126 (59%) participants reported that they encountered a childhood adversity. Of them 3677 (18% of all) endured three to six adversities. During a follow-up of 7 years, 593 (2.9%) participants were diagnosed with incident asthma. Those who reported three or more childhood adversities had a 1.6-fold (95% CI 1.31 to 2.01) greater risk of asthma compared to those without childhood adversities. This hazard attenuated but remained statistically significant after adjustment for conventional risk factors (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.67). CONCLUSIONS: Adults who report having encountered adversities in childhood may have an increased risk of developing asthma.
  • Karukivi, Max; Vahlberg, Tero; Horjamo, Kalle; Nevalainen, Minna; Korkeila, Jyrki (2017)
    Background: Current categorical classification of personality disorders has been criticized for overlooking the dimensional nature of personality and that it may miss some sub-threshold personality disturbances of clinical significance. We aimed to evaluate the clinical importance of these conditions. For this, we used a simple four-level dimensional categorization based on the severity of personality disturbance. Methods: The sample consisted of 352 patients admitted to mental health services. All underwent diagnostic assessments (SCID-I and SCID-II) and filled in questionnaires concerning their social situation and childhood adversities, and other validated tools, including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), health-related quality of life (15D), and the five-item Mental Health Index (MHI-5). The patients were categorized into four groups according to the level of personality disturbance: 0 = No personality disturbance, 1 = Personality difficulty (one criterion less than threshold for one or more personality disorders), 2 = Simple personality disorder (one personality disorder), and 3 = Complex/Severe personality disorder (two or more personality disorders or any borderline and antisocial personality disorder). Results: The proportions of the groups were as follows: no personality disturbance 38.4% (n = 135), personality difficulty 14.5% (n = 51), simple personality disorder 19.9% (n = 70), and complex/severe personality disorder 24.4% (n = 86). Patients with no personality disturbance were significantly differentiated (p <0.05) from the other groups regarding the BDI, 15D, and MHI-5 scores as well as the number of Axis I diagnoses. Patients with complex/severe personality disorders stood out as being worst off. Social dysfunction was related to the severity of the personality disturbance. Patients with a personality difficulty or a simple personality disorder had prominent symptoms and difficulties, but the differences between these groups were mostly non-significant. Conclusions: An elevated severity level of personality disturbance is associated with an increase in psychiatric morbidity and social dysfunction. Diagnostically sub-threshold personality difficulties are of clinical significance and the degree of impairment corresponds to actual personality disorders. Since these two groups did not significantly differ from each other, our findings also highlight the complexity related to the use of diagnostic thresholds for separate personality disorders.
  • Hiilamo, Aapo; Shiri, Rahman; Kouvonen, Anne; Manty, Minna; Butterworth, Peter; Pietilainen, Olli; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lallukka, Tea (2019)
    Objective: We examined trajectories of work disability, indicated by sickness absence and disability retirement, among midlife public sector employees with and without common mental disorders (CMD) at baseline. We also examined adverse childhood events, occupational class, long-standing illness and health behaviour as determinants of the trajectories. Methods: A sample from the Helsinki Health Study was extracted comprising 2350 employees. Baseline characteristics were obtained from mail surveys conducted in 2000-2 and 2007. CMD were measured by the General Health Questionnaire. Participants were followed between the ages of 50-59. Work disability trajectories were modelled by the annual number of work disability months in group-based trajectory analysis. Multinomial regression was used to predict trajectory group memberships. Results: Three trajectories were identified: no work disability (consisting 59% of the all employees), stable/low (31%) and high/increasing disability (10%). Employees with CMD were more likely to belong to the stable/low (odds ratio 1.73 [95% confidence interval 1.37-2.18]), and the high/increasing (2.55 [1.81-3.59]) trajectories. Stratified models showed that the determinants of the trajectories were largely similar for those with CMD compared to those without CMD except that obesity was a somewhat stronger predictor of the high/increasing trajectory among employees with CMD. Limitations: The focus on midlife public sector employees limits the generalisability to other employment sectors and younger employees. Conclusions: CMD were strongly associated with a trajectory leading to early exit from employment and a stable/ low work disability trajectory. These findings have implications for interventions promoting work ability of employees with mental ill-health.
  • Lindgren, Maija; Birling, Heli; Kieseppä, Tuula; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari (2020)
    Background: In first-episode psychosis (FEP), symptoms of anxiety and depression are common. We examined whether cognitive performance is associated with these clinical measures in FEP during a one-year follow-up. Methods: Young adults with non-affective FEP (n = 52) were assessed two months after their first psychiatric contact for psychosis. Matched controls (n = 62) were administered a baseline assessment 32 FEP subjects and 44 controls were assessed again at a one-year follow-up. In both assessments, a broad neuropsychological test battery was administered. Clinical evaluation was done with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Cross-sectional correlations were calculated at both time points. Cognitive test scores were used as independent variables in regression models, predicting both baseline and follow-up symptom levels. Results: At baseline, better performance especially in verbal memory and executive functioning was associated with elevated anxiety symptoms in FEP. In addition, better performance especially in verbal working memory was associated with depression. A year later, better cognitive performance was no longer associated with affective symptoms. Limitations: Small sample sizes are a limitation. Conclusions: In the FEP group, higher cognitive performance associated with affective symptoms. Right after getting severely ill, anxiety and depression may be a part of normal adaptive reactions to the situation and markers of an intact cognitive performance. This association seems to cease during the year following the FEP.
  • Harkonmaki, Karoliina; Silventoinen, Karri; Levalahti, Esko; Pitkaniemi, Janne; Huunan-Seppala, Antti; Klaukka, Timo; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko (2008)