Browsing by Subject "CHILDHOOD"

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  • Kaukonen, Riikka; Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Nissinen, Kaija; Korkalo, Liisa; Koivusilta, Leena; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    Although evidence exists of the association between children's temperament and weight, only few studies have examined how temperament is associated with actual food consumption among preschoolers. We examined concurrent associations between children's temperament and the consumption of different foods, and investigated whether the association between children's temperament and vegetable consumption is mediated by vegetable-related parenting practices. We utilized the data from the cross-sectional DAGIS study of 864 preschool children aged between three to six and their families, conducted between 2015 and 2016 in Finland. The parents reported their children's temperament, food consumption, and their vegetable-related parenting practices. Adjusted logistic regression analyses found positive associations between surgency and vegetable consumption as well as between effortful control and vegetable consumption. Both associations were mediated by one examined vegetable-related parenting practice: enhanced availability and autonomy support. No associations were found between children's negative affectivity and food consumption or vegetable-related parenting practices. In conclusion, children's temperament may be an important factor behind food-related parenting practices and children's diet. However, further longitudinal research and research covering different food-related parenting practices and home environment factors is necessary to better understand the complex associations between temperament and food consumption among young children.
  • Rosendahl, Jenni; Fogelholm, Mikael; Pelkonen, Anna; Makela, Mika J.; Makitie, Outi; Erkkola, Maijaliisa (2017)
    Background/Aims: Vitamin D insufficiency is common in children. We aimed to evaluate the main determinants of vitamin D status in Finnish school-aged children, including the history of allergic diseases. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 171 ten-year-olds where serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH] D) levels were measured, and data on food consumption and use of vitamin D supplements were collected. The history of allergic diseases was evaluated with a validated questionnaire. Results: Vitamin D insufficiency (
  • Sofou, Kalliopi; De Coo, Irenaeus F. M.; Isohanni, Pirjo; Ostergaard, Elsebet; Naess, Karin; De Meirleir, Linda; Tzoulis, Charalampos; Uusimaa, Johanna; De Angst, Isabell B.; Lonnqvist, Tuula; Pihko, Helena; Mankinen, Katariina; Bindoff, Laurence A.; Tulinius, Mar; Darin, Niklas (2014)
  • Elovainio, Marko; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T. (2020)
    We modeled early psychosocial risks as a network of interconnected variables to study their associations with later depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes. The participants were a nationally representative sample of 2580 men and women aged 3-18 years in 1980. Their parents reported the psychosocial risks in 1980, including the following: (1) child-specific life events, (2) parental health behavior, (3) parental socioeconomic status, and (4) parental psychological problems. Adulthood depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes were measured in 2007-2012. The most central risks (most number of connections to other risks) were socioeconomic risks that also predicted health outcomes more consistently than others.
  • Hintsanen, Mirka; Kivimäki, Mika; Hintsa, Taina; Theorell, T.; Elovainio, Marko; Raitakari, O. T.; Viikari, J. S. A.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2010)
  • Kinnunen, Jaana M.; Lindfors, Pirjo; Rimpela, Arja; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Rathmann, Katharina; Perelman, Julian; Federico, Bruno; Richter, Matthias; Kunst, Anton E.; Lorant, Vincent (2016)
    It is well established that poor academic performance is related to smoking, but the association between academic well-being and smoking is less known. We measured academic well-being by school burnout and schoolwork engagement and studied their associations with smoking among 14- to 17-year-old schoolchildren in Belgium, Germany, Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, and Portugal. A classroom survey (2013 SILNE survey, N = 11,015) was conducted using the Short School Burnout Inventory and the Schoolwork Engagement Inventory. Logistic regression, generalized linear mixed models, and ANOVA were used. Low schoolwork engagement and high school burnout increased the odds for daily smoking in all countries. Academic performance was correlated with school burnout and schoolwork engagement, and adjusting for it slightly decreased the odds for smoking. Adjusting for socioeconomic factors and school level had little effect. Although high school burnout and low schoolwork engagement correlate with low academic performance, they are mutually independent risk factors for smoking. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.
  • Heikkala, Eveliina; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Taimela, Simo; Paananen, Markus; Vaaramo, Eeva; Auvinen, Juha; Karppinen, Jaro (2020)
    BackgroundThe relevance of health-related behaviors to exclusion from the labor market in early adulthood remains poorly studied in relation to the magnitude of the problem. We explored whether adolescents' accumulated unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems are associated with later labor market exclusion, and whether multisite musculoskeletal pain (MMSP) impacts these relations.MethodsWe gathered questionnaire data on unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems and MMSP among adolescents aged 15 to 16 belonging to the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. The findings were combined with registry data on unemployment, employment and permanent work disability during a five-year follow-up between the ages of 25 and 29 (n=6692). In the statistical modeling we used education, family leave and socioeconomic status of childhood family as potential confounders, as well as latent class and logistic regression analyses.ResultsThe Externalizing behavior cluster associated with over one year of unemployment (RR 1.64, CI 1.25-2.14) and permanent work disability (OR 2.49, CI 1.07-5.78) in the follow-up among the men. The Sedentary cluster also associated with over one year (RR 1.41, CI 1.13-1.75) and under one year of unemployment (RR 1.25, CI 1.02-1.52) and no employment days (RR 1.93, CI 1.26-2.95) among the men. Obese male participants were at risk of over one year of unemployment (RR 1.50, CI 1.08-2.09) and no employment days (RR 1.93, CI 1.07-3.50). Among the women, the Multiple risk behavior cluster related significantly to over one year of unemployment (RR 1.77, CI 1.37-2.28). MMSP had no influence on the associations.ConclusionsUnhealthy behavior patterns and psychosocial problems in adolescence have long-term consequences for exclusion from the labor market in early adulthood, especially among men. Simultaneously supporting psychological well-being and healthy behaviors in adolescence may reduce labor market inclusion difficulties in the early phase of working life.
  • Dumuid, Dorothea; Stanford, Tyman E.; Pedisic, Zeljko; Maher, Carol; Lewis, Lucy K.; Martin-Fernandez, Josep-Antoni; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S.; Olds, Timothy (2018)
    Background: Daily activity data are by nature compositional data. Accordingly, they occupy a specific geometry with unique properties that is different to standard Euclidean geometry. This study aimed to estimate the difference in adiposity associated with isotemporal reallocation between daily activity behaviours, and to compare the findings from compositional isotemporal subsitution to those obtained from traditional isotemporal substitution. Methods: We estimated the differences in adiposity (body fat%) associated with reallocating fixed durations of time (isotemporal substitution) between accelerometer-measured daily activity behaviours (sleep, sedentary time and light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) among 1728 children aged 9-11 years from Australia, Canada, Finland and the UK (International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment, 2011-2013).We generated estimates from compositional isotemporal substitution models and traditional non-compositional isotemporal substitution models. Results: Both compositional and traditional models estimated a positive (unfavourable) difference in body fat% when time was reallocated from MVPA to any other behaviour. Unlike traditional models, compositional models found the differences in estimated adiposity (1) were not necessarily symmetrical when an activity was being displaced, or displacing another (2) were not linearly related to the durations of time reallocated, and (3) varied depending on the starting composition. Conclusion: The compositional isotemporal model caters for the constrained and therefore relative nature of activity behaviour data and enables all daily behaviours to be included in a single statistical model. The traditional model treats data as real variables, thus the constrained nature of time is not accounted for, nor reflected in the findings. Findings from compositional isotemporal substitution support the importance of MVPA to children's health, and suggest that while interventions to increase MVPA may be of benefit, attention should be directed towards strategies to avoid decline in MVPA levels, particularly among already inactive children. Future applications of the compositional model can extend from pair-wise reallocations to other configurations of time-reallocation, for example, increasing MVPA at the expense of multiple other behaviours.
  • Talja, Ija; Kubo, Anna-Liisa; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Simell, Olli; Ilonen, Jorma; Vaha-Makila, Mari; Sepp, Epp; Mikelsaar, Marika; Utt, Meeme; Uibo, Raivo (2014)
  • Jelenkovic, Aline; Mikkonen, Janne; Martikainen, Pekka; Latvala, Antti; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Rebato, Esther; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Jina; Lee, Jooyeon; Lee, Sooji; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; Brescianini, Sonia; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Krueger, Robert F.; Mcgue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas S.; Harris, Jennifer R.; Cutler, Tessa L.; Hopper, John L.; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri (2018)
    Background There is evidence that birth weight is positively associated with education, but it remains unclear whether this association is explained by familial environmental factors, genetic factors or the intrauterine environment. We analysed the association between birth weight and educational years within twin pairs, which controls for genetic factors and the environment shared between co-twins. Methods The data were derived from nine twin cohorts in eight countries including 6116 complete twin pairs. The association between birth weight and educational attainment was analysed both between individuals and within pairs using linear regression analyses. Results In between-individual analyses, birth weight was not associated with educational years. Within-pairs analyses revealed positive but modest associations for some sex, zygosity and birth year groups. The greatest association was found in dizygotic (DZ) men (0.65 educational years/kg birth weight, p=0.006); smaller effects of 0.3 educational years/kg birth weight were found within monozygotic (MZ) twins of both sexes and opposite-sex DZ twins. The magnitude of the associations differed by birth year in MZ women and opposite-sex DZ twins, showing a positive association in the 1915-1959 birth cohort but no association in the 1960-1984 birth cohort. Conclusion Although associations are weak and somewhat inconsistent, our results suggest that intrauterine environment may play a role when explaining the association between birth weight and educational attainment.
  • Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Ooki, Syuichi; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Heikkila, Kauko; Cutler, Tessa L.; Hopper, John L.; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Fisher, Abigail; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Tarnoki, Adam D.; LTarnoki, David; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Ordonana, Juan R.; Sanchez-Romera, Juan F.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Harris, Jennifer R.; Brandt, Lngunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Saffery, Richard; Rasmussen, Finn; Tynelius, Per; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Plomin, Robert; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Rebato, Esther; Krueger, Robert F.; Mcgue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri (2017)
    Background: There is evidence that birthweight is positively associated with body mass index (BMI) in later life, but it remains unclear whether this is explained by genetic factors or the intrauterine environment. We analysed the association between birthweight and BMI from infancy to adulthood within twin pairs, which provides insights into the role of genetic and environmental individual-specific factors. Methods: This study is based on the data from 27 twin cohorts in 17 countries. The pooled data included 78 642 twin individuals (20 635 monozygotic and 18 686 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs) with information on birthweight and a total of 214 930 BMI measurements at ages ranging from 1 to 49 years. The association between birthweight and BMI was analysed at both the individual and within-pair levels using linear regression analyses. Results: At the individual level, a 1-kg increase in birthweight was linearly associated with up to 0.9 kg/m(2) higher BMI (P <0.001). Within twin pairs, regression coefficients were generally greater (up to 1.2 kg/m(2) per kg birthweight, P <0.001) than those from the individual-level analyses. Intra-pair associations between birthweight and later BMI were similar in both zygosity groups and sexes and were lower in adulthood. Conclusions: These findings indicate that environmental factors unique to each individual have an important role in the positive association between birthweight and later BMI, at least until young adulthood.
  • TRIGR Investigators; Pacaud, Daniele; Nucci, Anita M.; Cuthbertson, David; Becker, Dorothy J.; Virtanen, Suvi M.; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael (2021)
    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this work was to examine the relationship between family history of type 1 diabetes, birthweight, growth during the first 2 years and development of multiple beta cell autoantibodies in children with a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes and HLA-conferred disease susceptibility. Methods In a secondary analysis of the Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR), clinical characteristics and development of beta cell autoantibodies were compared in relation to family history of type 1 diabetes (mother vs father vs sibling) in 2074 children from families with a single affected family member. Results Multiple autoantibodies (>= 2 of 5 measured) developed in 277 (13%) children: 107 (10%), 114 (16%) and 56 (18%) born with a mother, father or sibling with type 1 diabetes, respectively (p <0.001). The HR for time to multiple autoimmunity was 0.54 (95% CI 0.39, 0.75) in offspring of affected mothers (n = 107/1046,p <0.001) and 0.81 (95% CI 0.59, 1.11) (n = 114/722,p = 0.19) in offspring of affected fathers, compared with participants with a sibling with type 1 diabetes (comparator groupn = 56/306). The time to the first autoantibody present (to insulin, GAD, tyrosine phosphatase-related insulinoma-associated 2 molecules, islet cell or zinc transporter 8) was similar in the three groups. Height velocity (zscore/year) in the first 24 months was independently associated with developing multiple antibodies in the total cohort (HR 1.31 [95% CI 1.01, 1.70],p = 0.04). A higher birthweight in children born to an affected mother vs affected father or an affected sibling was not related to the risk of multiple autoimmunity. Conclusions/interpretation The risk of developing multiple autoantibodies was lower in children with maternal type 1 diabetes. For the whole group, this risk of developing multiple autoantibodies was independent of birthweight but was greater in those with increased height velocity during the first 2 years of life. However, the risk associated with paternal type 1 diabetes was not linked to differences in birthweight or early growth.
  • Psychiat Genomics Consortium; Yao, Shuyang; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Martin, Joanna; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Raevuori, Anu; Ripatti, Samuli; Widen, Elisabeth (2019)
    BACKGROUND: Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders (EDs) frequently cooccur, little is known about the shared etiology. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the genetic association between ADHD and various EDs, including anorexia nervosa (AN) and other EDs such as bulimia nervosa. METHODS: We applied different genetically informative designs to register-based information of a Swedish nationwide population (N = 3,550,118). We first examined the familial coaggregation of clinically diagnosed ADHD and EDs across multiple types of relatives. We then applied quantitative genetic modeling in full-sisters and maternal half-sisters to estimate the genetic correlations between ADHD and EDs. We further tested the associations between ADHD polygenic risk scores and ED symptoms, and between AN polygenic risk scores and ADHD symptoms, in a genotyped population-based sample (N = 13,472). RESULTS: Increased risk of all types of EDs was found in individuals with ADHD (any ED: odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.81, 4.14; AN: OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 2.15, 2.86; other EDs: OR = 4.66, 95% CI = 4.47, 4.87; bulimia nervosa: OR = 5.01, 95% CI = 4.63, 5.41) and their relatives compared with individuals without ADHD and their relatives. The magnitude of the associations decreased as the degree of relatedness decreased, suggesting shared familial liability between ADHD and EDs. Quantitative genetic models revealed stronger genetic correlation of ADHD with other EDs (.37, 95% CI = .31, .42) than with AN (.14, 95% CI = .05, .22). ADHD polygenic risk scores correlated positively with ED symptom measures overall and with the subscales Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction despite small effect sizes. CONCLUSIONS: We observed stronger genetic association with ADHD for non-AN EDs than for AN, highlighting specific genetic correlation beyond a general genetic factor across psychiatric disorders.
  • Haapala, Eero A.; Gao, Ying; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Vanhala, Anssi; Tompuri, Tuomo; Lakka, Timo A.; Finni, Taija (2021)
    We investigated the associations of motor competence (MC) with peak oxygen uptake (V.O-2peak), peak power output (W-max), and body fat percentage (BF%) and whether measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) modify the associations between MC and BF%. Altogether, 35 children (aged 7-11 years) in the CHIPASE Study and 297 in PANIC Study (aged 9-11 years) participated in the study. MC was assessed using KTK and modified Eurofit tests. V.O-2peak and W-max were measured by maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer and scaled by lean mass (LM) or body mass (BM). BF% was assessed either by bioimpedance (CHIPASE) or DXA (PANIC). MC was not associated with V.O-2peak/LM (standardized regression coefficient beta = 0.073-0.188, P > .083). V.O-2peak/BM and W-max/LM and BM were positively associated with MC (beta = 0.158-0.610, P < .05). MC ( = -0.186 to -0.665, P < .01), but not V.O-2peak/LM ( = -0.169-0.035, P > .381), was inversely associated with BF%. Furthermore, the associations of MC with BF% were not modified by CRF. These results suggest that the positive associations between MC and CRF scaled by BM are a function of adiposity and not peak aerobic power and that CRF is not modifying factor in the associations of MC and BF%.
  • Løhmann, Ditte J. A.; Asdahl, Peter H.; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Ha, Shau-Yin; Jónsson, Ólafur G.; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Koskenvuo, Minna; Lausen, Birgitte; De Moerloose, Barbara; Palle, Josefine; Zeller, Bernward; Sung, Lillian; Hasle, Henrik (2019)
    Background Associations between body mass index (BMI), outcome, and leukemia-related factors in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain unclear. We investigated associations between pretherapeutic BMI, cytogenetic abnormalities, and outcome in a large multinational cohort of children with AML. Methods We included patients, age 2-17 years, diagnosed with de novo AML from the five Nordic countries (2004-2016), Hong Kong (2007-2016), the Netherlands and Belgium (2010-2016), and Canada and USA (1995-2012). BMI standard deviations score for age and sex was calculated and categorized according to the World Health Organization. Cumulative incidence functions, Kaplan-Meier estimator, Cox regression, and logistic regression were used to investigate associations. Results In total, 867 patients were included. The median age was 10 years (range 2-17 years). At diagnosis, 32 (4%) were underweight, 632 (73%) were healthy weight, 127 (15%) were overweight, and 76 (9%) were obese. There was no difference in relapse risk, treatment-related mortality or overall mortality across BMI groups. The frequency of t(8;21) and inv(16) increased with increasing BMI. For obese patients, the sex, age, and country adjusted odds ratio of having t(8;21) or inv(16) were 1.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-3.4) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.3-5.8), respectively, compared to healthy weight patients. Conclusions This study did not confirm previous reports of associations between overweight and increased treatment-related or overall mortality in children. Obesity was associated with a higher frequency of t(8;21) and inv(16). AML cytogenetics appear to differ by BMI status.
  • Kortesoja, Laura; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hotulainen, Risto; Rimpelä, Arja; Dobewall, Henrik; Lindfors, Pirjo; Karvonen, Sakari; Merikanto, Ilona (2020)
    The long-term effects of sleep on adolescent psychosocial well-being are mostly unknown, although insufficient sleep has been associated with emotional and behavioral difficulties in cross-sectional studies. With a five-year follow-up of Finnish adolescents (Time 1: n = 8834; Mean age = 13 years, 51.1% female, Time 2: n = 5315, Mean age = 15 years, 51.6% female, Time 3: n = 3712; Mean age = 17 years; 50.2% female), the purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the relations between self-reported sleep duration, sleep problems, and emotional and behavioral difficulties during adolescence. Emotional and behavioral difficulties were assessed using The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) measuring emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems and total difficulties. Sleep duration was calculated by counting the hours between self-reported bedtime and wake-up time. Sleep problems were assessed with a single question about the general sleep problems. According to the cross-lagged models for sleep and emotional and behavioral difficulties, the findings of this study indicate a developmental process during adolescence where, firstly, short sleep duration is a stronger predictor for current and prospective emotional and behavioral difficulties than vice versa. Secondly, increased emotional and behavioral difficulties expose adolescents to current and later sleep problems more strongly than reverse. Thus, the results show that short sleep duration predisposed to emotional and behavioral difficulties across adolescence, which then led to more prospective sleep problems. These findings suggest a developmental process where sleep and emotional and behavioral difficulties are intertwined in shaping adolescents' health.
  • Bonamy, Anna-Karin Edstedt; Mohlkert, Lilly-Ann; Hallberg, Jenny; Liuba, Petru; Fellman, Vineta; Domellof, Magnus; Norman, Mikael (2017)
    Background-Advances in perinatal medicine have increased infant survival after very preterm birth. Although this progress is welcome, there is increasing concern that preterm birth is an emerging risk factor for hypertension at young age, with implications for the lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results-We measured casual blood pressures (BPs) in a population-based cohort of 6-year-old survivors of extremely preterm birth (<27 gestational weeks; n=171) and in age-and sex-matched controls born at term (n=172). Measured BP did not differ, but sex, age-, and height-adjusted median z scores were 0.14 SD higher (P=0.02) for systolic BP and 0.10 SD higher (P=0.01) for diastolic BP in children born extremely preterm than in controls. Among children born extremely preterm, shorter gestation, higher body mass index, and higher heart rate at follow-up were all independently associated with higher BP at 6 years of age, whereas preeclampsia, smoking in pregnancy, neonatal morbidity, and perinatal corticosteroid therapy were not. In multivariate regression analyses, systolic BP decreased by 0.10 SD (P=0.08) and diastolic BP by 0.09 SD (P=0.02) for each week-longer gestation. Conclusions-Six-year-old children born extremely preterm have normal but slightly higher BP than their peers born at term. Although this finding is reassuring for children born preterm and their families, follow-up at older age is warranted.
  • Utriainen, Pauliina; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo; Saarinen, Anne-Riitta; Vanninen, Esko; Mäkitie, Outi; Voutilainen, Raimo (2009)
  • Saarinen, Aino I. L.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Honda, Yukiko; Oksman, Elli; Raitakari, Olli; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Hintsanen, Mirka (2020)
    This study investigated whether breastfeeding predicts offspring’s dispositional compassion and empathy from early adulthood to middle age. The parents of the participants (N = 1,394) of the Young Finns study answered questions about breastfeeding in 1983, and the participants’ compassion and empathy were evaluated in 1997‒2012 (participants were aged 20‒50 years). Breastfeeding did not predict the course of compassion or empathy in adulthood at the age of 20‒50 years. The associations remained non‐significant, when adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic factors, and a wide range of characteristics of the family environment (including mother’s gestational age; premature birth; birth weight; number of other children at home; parental mental disorder; parental relationship status; parental postnatal smoking; parental postnatal alcohol use; parenting behavior; and child’s externalizing behavior). In conclusion, breastfeeding seems not to predict offspring’s compassion or empathy in adulthood. The findings may present a hopeful perspective for children growing up with non‐breastfeeding caregivers.
  • Pankakoski, Anna; Panelius, Jaana; Salava, Alexander; Kluger, Nicolas (2020)