Browsing by Subject "CHITOSAN"

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  • Ainola, Mari; Tomaszewski, Waclaw; Ostrowska, Barbara; Wesolowska, Ewa; Wagner, H. Daniel; Swieszkowski, Wojciech; Sillat, Tarvo; Peltola, Emilia; Konttinen, Yrjo T. (2016)
    The aim was to develop a hybrid three-dimensional-tissue engineering construct for chondrogenesis. The hypothesis was that they support chondrogenesis. A biodegradable, highly porous polycaprolactone-grate was produced by solid freeform fabrication. The polycaprolactone support was coated with a chitosan/polyethylene oxide nanofibre sheet produced by electrospinning. Transforming growth factor-3-induced chondrogenesis was followed using the following markers: sex determining region Y/-box 9, runt-related transcription factor 2 and collagen II and X in quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, histology and immunostaining. A polycaprolactone-grate and an optimized chitosan/polyethylene oxide nanofibre sheet supported cellular aggregation, chondrogenesis and matrix formation. In tissue engineering constructs, the sheets were seeded first with mesenchymal stem cells and then piled up according to the lasagne principle. The advantages of such a construct are (1) the cells do not need to migrate to the tissue engineering construct and therefore pore size and interconnectivity problems are omitted and (2) the cell-tight nanofibre sheet and collagen-fibre network mimic a cell culture platform for mesenchymal stem cells/chondrocytes (preventing escape) and hinders in-growth of fibroblasts and fibrous scarring (preventing capture). This allows time for the slowly progressing, multiphase true cartilage regeneration.
  • Zhang, Liucheng; Xiang, Yi; Zhang, Hongbo; Cheng, Liying; Mao, Xiyuan; An, Ning; Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Jinxiong; Deng, Lianfu; Zhang, Yuguang; Sun, Xiaoming; Santos, Hélder A.; Cui, Wenguo (2020)
    The development of science and technology often drew lessons from natural phenomena. Herein, inspired by drying-driven curling of apple peels, hydrogel-based micro-scaled hollow tubules (MHTs) are proposed for biomimicking microvessels, which promote microcirculation and improve the survival of random skin flaps. MHTs with various pipeline structures are fabricated using hydrogel in corresponding shapes, such as Y-branches, anastomosis rings, and triangle loops. Adjustable diameters can be achieved by altering the concentration and cross-linking time of the hydrogel. Based on this rationale, biomimetic microvessels with diameters of 50-500 mu m are cultivated in vitro by coculture of MHTs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In vivo studies show their excellent performance to promote microcirculation and improve the survival of random skin flaps. In conclusion, the present work proposes and validifies a biomimetic 3D self-forming method for the fabrication of biomimetic vessels and microvascular scaffolds with high biocompatibility and stability based on hydrogel materials, such as gelatin and hyaluronic acid.
  • Costa, Clarinda; Liu, Zehua; Martins, João Pedro; Correia, Alexandra; Rahikkala, Antti Tuomas Antero; Li, Wei; Seitsonen, Jani; Ruokolainen, Janne; Hirvonen, Sami-Pekka; Aguiar- Ricardo, Ana; Corvo, M. Luísa; Santos, Hélder A. (2020)
    Here, a continuous two-step glass-capillary microfluidic technique to produce a multistage oral delivery system is reported. Insulin is successfully encapsulated into liposomes, which are coated with chitosan to improve their mucoadhesion. The encapsulation in an enteric polymer offers protection from the harsh gastric conditions. Insulin permeability is enhanced across an intestinal monolayer.
  • Kanerva, M.; Puolakka, A.; Takala, T.M.; Elert, A.M.; Mylläri, V.; Jönkkäri, I.; Sarlin, E.; Seitsonen, J.; Ruokolainen, J.; Saris, P.; Vuorinen, J. (2019)
    The antibacterial features of natural pine/spruce rosin are well established, yet the functionality in various thermoplastics has not been surveyed. This work focuses on the processing of industrial grade purified rosin mixed with polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polylactic acid (PLA), polyamide (PA) and corn starch based biopolymer (CS). Homopolymer masterbatches were extrusion-compounded and melt-spun to form fibres for a wide range of products, such as filters, reinforcements, clothing and medical textiles. Due to the versatile chemical structure of rosin, it was observed compatible with all the selected polymers. In general, the rosin-blended systems were shear-thinning in a molten condition. The doped fibres spun of PE and PP indicated adequate melt-spinning capability and proper mechanical properties in terms of ultimate strength and Young's modulus. The antibacterial response was found dependent on the selected polymer. Especially PE with a 10 wt% rosin content showed significant antibacterial effects against Escherichia coli DH5α and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12598 when analysed in the Ringer's solution for 24 h.
  • Zhang, Liucheng; Xiang, Yi; Zhang, Hongbo; Cheng, Liying; Mao, Xiyuan; An, Ning; Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Jinxiong; Deng, Lianfu; Zhang, Yuguang; Sun, Xiaoming; Santos, Hélder A.; Cui, Wenguo (2020)
    Inspired by drying‐driven curling of apple peels, hydrogel‐based micro‐scaled hollow tubules are proposed in article number 1903553 by Yuguang Zhang, Xiaoming Sun, Hélder A. Santos, Wenguo Cui, and co‐workers for biomimicking microvessels with diameters of 50–500 μm, which promote microcirculation and improve the survival of random skin flaps. The 3D‐shape‐morphing technique is of great flexibility and potential to lay the foundation for the construction of complex vascular networks, such as Y‐branches, anastomosis rings, and triangle loops.
  • Xu, Wujun; Pang, Cui; Song, Chaojun; Qian, Jing; Feola, Sara; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Fan, Li; Yu, Haijun; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka (2022)
    Photothermal therapy (PTT) in combination with other treatment modalities has shown great potential to activate immunotherapy against tumor metastasis. However, the nanoparticles (NPs) that generate PTT have served as the photothermal agent only. Moreover, researchers have widely utilized highly immuno-genic tumor models to evaluate the immune response of these NPs thus giving over-optimistic results. In the present study black porous silicon (BPSi) NPs were developed to serve as both the photothermal agent and the adjuvant for PTT-based antitumor immunotherapy. We found that the poorly immunogenic tumor models such as B16 are more valid to evaluate NP-based immunotherapy than the widely used im-munogenic models such as CT26. Based on the B16 cancer model, a cocktail regimen was developed that combined BPSi-based PTT with doxorubicin (DOX) and cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG). BPSi-based PTT was an important trigger to activate the specific immunotherapy to inhibit tumor growth by featuring the selective upregulation of TNF-alpha. Either by adding a low dose DOX or by prolonging the laser heating time, a similar efficacy of immunotherapy was evoked to inhibit tumor growth. Moreover, BPSi acted as a co-adjuvant for CpG to significantly boost the immunotherapy. The present study demonstrates that the BPSi-based regimen is a potent and safe antitumor immunotherapy modality. Moreover, our study high-lighted that tuning the laser heating parameters of PTT is an alternative to the toxic cytostatic to evoke immunotherapy, paving the way to optimize the PTT-based combination therapy for enhanced efficacy and decreased side effects.
  • Guedes, Gabriela; Wang, Shiqi; Fontana, Flavia; Figueiredo, Patricia; Linden, Jere; Correia, Alexandra; Pinto, Ricardo J. B.; Hietala, Sami; Sousa, Filipa L.; Santos, Helder A. (2021)
    Polyoxometalates are an emerging class of molecular clusters, with well-defined structures and chemical compositions that are produced through simple, low-cost, and highly reproducible methods. In particular, the wheel-shaped cluster {Mo154} is a promising photothermal agent due to its intervalence charge transfer transitions. However, its toxicity hinders its systemic administration, being the development of a localized delivery system still incipient. Herein, an injectable and self-healing hydrogel of easy preparation and administration is developed, incorporating both {Mo154} and doxorubicin for synergistic photothermal and chemotherapy applications. The hydrogel is composed of benzylaldehyde functionalized polyethylene glycol, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) functionalized chitosan and {Mo154}. The gelation occurs within 60 s at room temperature, and the dual crosslinking by Schiff base and electrostatic interactions generates a dynamic network, which enables self-healing after injection. Moreover, the hydrogel delivers chemotherapeutic drugs, with a release triggered by dual near infra-red (NIR) radiation and pH changes. This stimuli-responsive release system along with the photothermal conversion ability of the hydrogel allows the simultaneous combination of photothermal and chemotherapy. This synergic system efficiently ablates the cancer tumor in vivo with no systemic toxicity. Overall, this work paves the way for the development of novel {Mo154}-based systems, incorporated in self-healing and injectable hydrogels for dual chemo-photothermal therapy.
  • Wiedenmann, Verena; Oehlke, Kathleen; van der Schaaf, Ulrike; Koivula, Hanna; Mikkonen, Kirsi S.; Karbstein, Heike P. (2019)
    Protein films can be applied to improve food quality and to reduce packaging waste. To overcome their poor water barrier properties, lipids are often incorporated. The function of incorporated lipid depends on the interface between filler and matrix. This study aimed to tailor the properties of a protein–lipid film by designing the oil/water interface to see if the concept of inactive/active filler is valid. Therefore, we varied the emulsifier stabilizing solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) to promote (viaβ-lactoglobulin) or to minimize (via Tween 20) interactions between particle surface and protein. SLN were incorporated into protein films and film properties were determined. Addition of SLN led to significantly decreased water vapor permeability (WVP) of protein films. However, WVP was mainly affected by the emulsifiers and not by the lipid. Protein-stabilized SLN (BS) replaced a lacking protein in the protein network and therefore did not influence the mechanical properties of the films at ambient temperature. BS-composite films were temperature sensitive, as lipid and sucrose palmitate melted at temperatures above 40°C. Tween 20-stabilized SLN(TS) led to reduced tensile strengths, probably due to perturbative effects of TS and plasticizing effects of Tween 20. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that TS and Tween 20 increased film mobility. Melting of lipid and emulsifiers, and temperature-dependent behavior of Tween 20 led to a strong temperature dependence of the film stiffness. By designing the interface, particles can be used to tailor mechanical properties of protein films. Tuned edible films could be used to control mass transfers between foods.
  • Wang, Ling; Zanjanizadeh Ezazi, Nazanin; Liu, Jin-Liang; Ajdary, Rubina; Xiang, Wenchao; Borghei, Maryam; Santos, Hélder A.; Rojas, Orlando J. (2020)
    Partially deacetylated chitin nanofibers (ChNF) were isolated from shell residues derived from crab biomass and used to prepare hydrogels, which were easily transformed into continuous microfibers by wet-spinning. We investigated the effect of ChNF solid content, extrusion rate and coagulant type, which included organic (acetone) and alkaline (NaOH and ammonia) solutions, on wet spinning. The properties of the microfibers and associated phenomena were assessed by tensile strength, quartz crystal microgravimetry, dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), thermogravimetric analysis and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The as-spun microfibers (14 GPa stiffness) comprised hierarchical structures with fibrils aligned in the lateral direction. The microfibers exhibited a remarkable water sorption capacity (up to 22 g g−1), while being stable in the wet state (50% of dry strength), which warrants consideration as biobased absorbent systems. In addition, according to cell proliferation and viability of rat cardiac myoblast H9c2 and mouse bone osteoblast K7M2, the wet-spun ChNF microfibers showed excellent results and can be considered as fully safe for biomedical uses, such as in sutures, wound healing patches and cell culturing.
  • Lauren, Patrick; Paukkonen, Heli; Lipiainen, Tiina; Dong, Yujiao; Oksanen, Timo; Raikkonen, Heikki; Ehlers, Henrik; Laaksonen, Päivi; Yliperttula, Marjo; Laaksonen, Timo (2018)
    Purpose Bioadhesion is an important property of biological membranes, that can be utilized in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. In this study, we have fabricated mucoadhesive drug releasing films with bio-based, non-toxic and biodegradable polymers that do not require chemical modifications. Methods Nanofibrillar cellulose and anionic type nanofibrillar cellulose were used as film forming materials with known mucoadhesive components mucin, pectin and chitosan as functional bioadhesion enhancers. Different polymer combinations were investigated to study the adhesiveness, solid state characteristics, film morphology, swelling, mechanical properties, drug release with the model compound metronidazole and in vitro cytotoxicity using TR146 cells to model buccal epithelium. Results SEM revealed lamellar structures within the films, which had a thickness ranging 40-240 mu m depending on the film polymer composition. All bioadhesive components were non-toxic and showed high adhesiveness. Rapid drug release was observed, as 60-80% of the total amount of metronidazole was released in 30 min depending on the film formulation. Conclusions The liquid molding used was a straightforward and simple method to produce drug releasing highly mucoadhesive films, which could be utilized in treating local oral diseases, such as periodontitis. All materials used were natural biodegradable polymers from renewable sources, which are generally regarded as safe.
  • Akl, Mohamed A.; Kartal-Hodzic, Alma; Suutari, Teemu; Oksanen, Timo; Montagner, Isabella Monia; Rosato, Antonio; Ismael, Hatem R.; Afouna, Mohsen I.; Caliceti, Paolo; Yliperttula, Marjo; Samy, Ahmed M.; Mastrotto, Francesca; Salmaso, Stefano; Viitala, Tapani (2019)
    The exploitation of curcumin for oral disease treatment is limited by its low solubility, poor bioavailability, and low stability. Surface-functionalized poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) have shown promising results to ameliorate selective delivery of drugs to the gastro-intestinal tract. In this study, curcumin-loaded PLGA NPs (C-PLGA NPs) of about 200 nm were surface-coated with chitosan (CS) for gastro-intestinal mucosa adhesion, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) for colon targeting or GE11 peptide for tumor colon targeting. Spectrometric and zeta potential analyses confirmed the successful functionalization of the C-PLGA NPs. Real-time label-free assessment of the cell membrane-NP interactions and NP cell uptake were performed by quartz crystal microbalance coupled with supported lipid bilayers and by surface plasmon resonance coupled with living cells. The study showed that CS-coated C-PLGA NPs interact with cells by the electrostatic mechanism, while both WGA- and GE11-coated C-PLGA NPs interact and are taken up by cells by specific active mechanisms. In vitro cell uptake studies corroborated the real-time label-free assessment by yielding a curcumin cell uptake of 7.3 ± 0.3, 13.5 ± 1.0, 27.3 ± 4.9, and 26.0 ± 1.3 μg per 104 HT-29 cells for noncoated, CS-, WGA-, and GE11-coated C-PLGA NPs, respectively. Finally, preliminary in vivo studies showed that the WGA-coated C-PLGA NPs efficiently accumulate in the colon after oral administration to healthy Balb/c mice. In summary, the WGA- and GE11-coated C-PLGA NPs displayed high potential for application as active targeted carriers for anticancer drug delivery to the colon.
  • Casteleijn, Marco G.; Richardson, Dominique; Parkkila, Petteri Kalervo; Granqvist, Niko Markus; Urtti, Arto Olavi; Viitala, Tapani Juhani Samuel (2018)
    Chitin, abundant in nature, is a renewable resource with many possible applications in bioengineering. Biosensors, capable of label-free and in-line evaluation, play an important role in the investigation of chitin synthesis, degradation and interaction with other materials. This work presents a comparative study of the usefulness of a chitin surface preparation, either on gold (Au) or on polystyrene (PS). In both cases the most common method to dissolve chitin was used, followed by a simple spin-coating procedure. Multi-parametric surface plasmon resonance (MP-SPR), modeling of the optical properties of the chitin layers, scanning electron microscopy, and contact angle goniometry were used to confirm: the thickness of the layers in air and buffer, the refractive indices of the chitin layers in air and buffer, the hydrophobicity, the binding properties of the chitin binding domain (CBD) of Bacillus circulans, and the split-intein capture process. Binding of the CBD differed between chitin on Au versus chitin on PS in terms of binding strength and binding specificity due to a less homogenous structured chitin-surface on Au in comparison to chitin on PS, despite a similar thickness of both chitin layers in air and after running buffer over the surfaces. The use of the simple method to reproduce chitin films on a thin polystyrene layer to study chitin as a biosensor and for chitin binding studies was obvious from the SPR studies and the binding studies of CBD as moiety of chitinases or as protein fusion partner. In conclusion, stable chitin layers for SPR studies can be made from chitin in a solution of dimethylacetamide (DMA) and lithium chloride (LiCl) followed by spin-coating if the gold surface is protected with PS.
  • EFSA Panel Dietetic Products Nutr (2018)
    Following an application from Flan-Biotech GmbH, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Symbiosal((R)), lowering of blood pressure and reduced risk of hypertension. The Panel considers that the food, Symbiosal((R)), which is the subject of the health claim, and the food, table salt, which Symbiosal((R)) should replace, are sufficiently characterised. Lowering of blood pressure is a beneficial physiological effect. Increased blood pressure is a risk factor for hypertension. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that one human study with some methodological limitations showed an effect of Symbiosal((R)) on blood pressure in the context of a self-selected diet with a maximum of 3 g/day added salt. The Panel also took into account that no other human studies in which these results have been replicated were provided, that the animal studies did not support the results of the human study, that no evidence was provided in support of a mechanism by which Symbiosal((R)) could induce a decrease in blood pressure upon oral consumption as compared to table salt in vivo in humans, and the low biological plausibility of the effect observed in the human intervention study. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Symbiosal((R)) and lowering of blood pressure. (C) 2018 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • Dobryden, Illia; Ruiz, Maria Cortes; Zhang, Xuwei; Dedinaite, Andra; Wieland, D. C. Florian; Winnik, Francoise M.; Claesson, Per M. (2019)
    The adsorption of hydrophilic or amphiphilic multiblock copolymers provides a powerful means to produce well-defined "smart" surfaces, especially if one or several blocks are sensitive to external stimuli. We focus here on an A-B-A-B-A copolymer, where A is a cationic poly((3acrylamido-propyl)-trimethylammonium chloride) (PAMPTMA) block containing 15 (end blocks) or 30 (middle block) repeat units and B is a neutral thermosensitive water-soluble poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline) (PIPOZ) block with 50 repeat units. X-ray reflectivity and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring were employed to study the adsorption of PAMPTMA(15)-PAMPTMA(30)-PIPOZ(50)-PAMPTMA(15) on silica surfaces. The latter technique was employed at different temperatures up to 50 degrees C. Surface forces and friction between the two silica surfaces across aqueous pentablock copolymer solutions at different temperatures were determined with the atomic force microscopy colloidal probe force and friction measurements. The cationic pentablock copolymer was found to have a high affinity to the negatively charged silica surface, leading to a thin (2 nm) and rigid adsorbed layer. A steric force was encountered at a separation of around 3 nm from hard wall contact. A capillary condensation of a polymer-rich phase was observed at the cloud point of the solution. The friction forces were evaluated using Amontons' rule modified with an adhesion term.