Browsing by Subject "CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE"

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  • Kaitaniemi, Pekka; Lintunen, Anna; Sievänen, Risto; Perttunen, Jari (2018)
    Foliar nitrogen is one of the key traits determining the photosynthetic capacity of trees. It is influenced by many environmental factors that are often confounded with the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), which alone strongly modifies the nitrogen content and other foliar traits. We combined field measurements and computational estimates of light transmittance in 3D stands with different combinations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and silver birch (Betula pendula) to decouple the effect of PPFD from other potential effects exerted by the species of neighbouring trees on the leaf nitrogen content per unit leaf area (Narea) and leaf mass per area (LMA). Independent of the level of PPFD, silver birch had a significantly lower Narea and LMA when Scots pine was abundant in its neighbourhood compared with the presence of conspecific neighbours. In Scots pine, Narea and LMA were only dependent on PPFD and the branching order of shoots. In both species, the relationships between PPFD and Narea or LMA were nonlinear, especially at intermediate levels of PPFD. The levels of PPFD did not show any dependence on the species of the neighbouring trees. The responses of silver birch suggest that the species composition of the surrounding stand can influence foliar nitrogen, independent of the level of PPFD within the canopy.
  • Brelsford, Craig; Morales Suarez, Luis Orlando; Nezval, Jakub; Kotilainen, Titta Katariina; Hartikainen, Saara Maria; Aphalo, Pedro J.; Robson, Thomas Matthew (2019)
    We studied how plants acclimated to growing conditions that included combinations of blue light (BL) and ultraviolet (UV)-A radiation, and whether their growing environment affected their photosynthetic capacity during and after a brief period of acute high light (as might happen during an under-canopy sunfleck). Arabidopsis thaliana Landsberg erecta wild-type were compared with mutants lacking functional blue light and UV photoreceptors: phototropin 1, cryptochromes (CRY1 and CRY2) and UV RESISTANT LOCUS 8 (uvr8). This was achieved using light-emitting-diode (LED) lamps in a controlled environment to create treatments with or without BL, in a split-plot design with or without UV-A radiation. We compared the accumulation of phenolic compounds under growth conditions and after exposure to 30 min of high light at the end of the experiment (46 days), and likewise measured the operational efficiency of photosystem II (phi PSII, a proxy for photosynthetic performance) and dark-adapted maximum quantum yield (F-v/F-m to assess PSII damage). Our results indicate that cryptochromes are the main photoreceptors regulating phenolic compound accumulation in response to BL and UV-A radiation, and a lack of functional cryptochromes impairs photosynthetic performance under high light. Our findings also reveal a role for UVR8 in accumulating flavonoids in response to a low UV-A dose. Interestingly, phototropin 1 partially mediated constitutive accumulation of phenolic compounds in the absence of BL. Low-irradiance BL and UV-A did not improve phi PSII and F-v/F-m upon our acute high-light treatment; however, CRYs played an important role in ameliorating high-light stress.
  • Kolari, Pasi; Chan, Tommy; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Back, Jaana; Nikinmaa, Eero; Juurola, Eija (2014)
  • Kuttim, Martin; Hofsommer, Maaike L.; Robroek, Bjorn J. M.; Signarbieux, Constant; Jassey, Vincent E. J.; Laine, Anna M.; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Buttler, Alexandre; Ilomets, Mati; Mills, Robert T. E. (2017)
    Decreasing snow cover in winter resulting from climate warming increases the incidence of freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs) in many ecosystems, including peatlands. As peatland ecosystems form a globally significant long-term carbon storage, understanding the effects of changing conditions in winter on carbon dynamics is essential. We studied how FTCs affect peatland carbon cycling by conducting mesocosm experiments with Sphagnum. Our results indicate an overall impeding effect of FTCs on Sphagnum photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, ecosystem respiration and enzymatic processes. A threefold reduction in photosynthesis in the FTC treatment was related to a decrease in chlorophyll content, showing that Sphagnum physiologically suffers from repeated FTCs. In the FTC treatment beta-glucosidase and phosphatase enzymatic activities decreased by 50% and 30%, respectively, whilst alanine remained unaffected, indicating that in peat soils short-term FTCs affect the carbon and phosphorus cycles, but not the nitrogen cycle. Long-term effects of FTCs deserve further studies.
  • Pavicic, M.; Wang, F.; Mouhu, K.; Himanen, K. (2019)
    Seed quality is an important factor for seedling vigour as well as adult plant resilience. The key quality attributes are related to physical characteristics, physiological performance, genetic background and health status of the seeds. Many ways to address seed quality attributes have been developed and recently many of them have featured automated high throughput methods. In our study, we addressed two of the seed quality attributes, namely physiological performance and genetic background by analysing germination rates in our mutant collection. These mutants represent ubiquitin E3 ligases that transcriptionally respond to abscisic acid (ABA). This plant hormone is an important regulator of germination and seedling establishment. To facilitate in vitro germination screens of large seed collections a high throughput image-based assay was developed. As a read out of the germination on ABA treatment the cotyledon emergence was detected with top view chlorophyll fluorescence camera. By applying the ABA treatment during germination, RING-type ubiquitin E3 ligase mutants were identified, showing either resistant or sensitive responses to ABA. In conclusion, a scalable high throughput screen for in vitro germination assay was established that allowed fast screening of tens of mutants in a hormone supplemented media.
  • Han, Qingquan; Luo, Jianxun; Li, Zhijun; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang (2018)
    In this study, intergeneric grafting was employed between Populus cathayana and Salix rehderiana to investigate the grafting compatibility of the two Salicaceae plants and to reveal whether grafting can improve their drought resistance. Under different grafting combinations (P. cathayana scion with P. cathayana rootstock, P/P; P. cathayana scion with S. rehderiana rootstock, P/S; S. rehderiana scion with S. rehderiana rootstock, S/S; and S. rehderiana scion with P. cathayana rootstock, S/P), the survival and growth rate, biomass accumulation and allocation, photosynthetic traits, carbon isotope composition (delta C-13), relative water content (RWC) and nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) were measured. The results showed that the grafting compatibility between P. cathayana and S. rehderiana was very high, as the survival rates ranged from 76% to 100% under different grafting combinations. Drought significantly decreased growth, biomass accumulation, photosynthetic pigment contents, net photosynthesis rates (P) and RWC, and increased delta C-13 in all grafting combinations. Under drought stress, biomass accumulation, total chlorophyll, transpiration rate (E) and P-n were higher in P/P and P/S than in S/S and S/P. Compared with P/P, the growth rate, biomass accumulation, root/aboveground ratio (R/A ratio), carotenoid, RWC, starch and total soluble sugar (TSS) of P/S were less affected by drought. The height growth rate (GRH), R/A ratio, carotenoid, chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll, WUEi and TSS of S/P were lower than those of S/S under water-limited conditions. Moreover, a principal component analysis indicated that P/S and S/S had higher drought resistance than P/P and S/P under water deficits. The used method allows combining specific advantageous traits from P. cathayana and S. rehderiana, which may be a highly useful tool to enhance drought resistance in the cultivation of Salicaceae plants.
  • Mõttus, Matti; Hernandez-Clemente, Rocio; Perheentupa, Viljami; Markiet, Vincent (2017)
    Background: The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) calculated from narrow-band spectral reflectance data is a vegetation index which is increasingly used as an indicator of photosynthetic activity. The leaf-level link between the status of photosynthetic apparatus and PRI has been robustly established under controlled light conditions. However, when a whole canopy is measured instantaneously, the PRI signal is heavily modified by vegetation structure and local variations in incident light conditions. To apply PRI for monitoring the photosynthesis of whole canopies under natural conditions, these large-scale measurements need to be validated against simultaneous leaf PRI. Unfortunately, PRI changes dynamically with incident light and has a large natural variation. No generally accepted procedure exists today for determining the PRI of canopy elements in situ. Results: We present a successful procedure for in situ measurements of needle PRI. We describe, characterize and test an optical measurement protocol and demonstrate its applicability in field conditions. The measurement apparatus consisted of a light source, needle clip, spectroradiometer and a controlling computer. The light level inside the clip was approximately two-thirds of that on sunlit needle surfaces at midday. During each measurement the needle was inserted into the clip for approximately 5 s. We found no near-instantaneous changes (sub-second scale jumps) in PRI during the measurements. The time constants for PRI variation in light to full shade acclimations were approximately 10 s. The procedure was successfully applied to monitor the greening-up of Scots pine trees. We detected both facultative (diurnal) PRI changes of 0.02 (unitless) and constitutive (seasonal) variations of 0.1. In order to reliably detect the facultative PRI change of 0.02, 20 needles need to be sampled from both sunlit and shaded locations. Conclusions: We established a robust procedure for irradiance-dependent leaf (needle) PRI measurements, facilitating empirical scaling of PRI from leaf (needle) to full canopy level and the application of PRI to monitoring the changes in highly structured vegetation. The measured time constants, and facultative and constitutive PRI variations support the use of an artificial light for in situ PRI measurements at leaf (needle) level.
  • Mõttus, Matti; Hernandez-Clemente, Rocio; Perheentupa, Viljami; Markiet, Vincent; Aalto, Juho; Bäck, Jaana; Nichol, Caroline J. (2018)
  • Duan, Baoli; Paquette, Alain; Juneau, Philippe; Brisson, Jacques; Fontaine, Bastien; Berninger, Frank Alexander (2014)
    We investigated the effects of leaf color change in the fall on photosynthetic production and nitrogen resorption. Seedlings of Acer platanoides L. and A. saccharum Marsh. were grown in a shade house for 5 months in either 21 % (intermediate light, M) or 4.9 % (low light, L) of incident irradiance. After this period, a subset of the intermediate-light grown seedlings was transferred to a high-light stress treatment (H). Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, pigments, antioxidant activity, and nitrogen (N) resorption were examined at three leaf senescence stages during September and October. Our results show that plants of both species produce more anthocyanins in the H treatment. In comparison with plants grown in the L and M treatments, plants of both species in the H treatments had lower chlorophyll, carotenoid and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F (v)/F (m), I broken vertical bar (PSII), NPQ and ETR) at the third sampling date (October 12-18), and indicating higher levels of photoinhibition in the seedlings exposed to high light. Our results imply that autumn leaf redness is inducible and closely linked to photo-oxidative stress. However, anthocyanins did not enhance antioxidant capacity in red leaves in either species, when exposed to high light. For both species, our results showed a higher N-resorption for high-light stressed plants. We also observed that the number of abscised leaves at the second sampling dates (September 10) was higher than at the third sampling dates. The intra-leaf distribution of anthocyanin, the association between anthocyanin production and the high-light environments, the retention of red leaves, the substantial physiological gain of photosynthetic activity, as well as the links between anthocyanins and increased N resorption led us to assume that one primary role of autumn anthocyanin could be to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-oxidative damage as light filters rather than as antioxidant. Another major role is to extend carbon capture and help supply the energy needed for N resorption from senescing leaves in both A. saccharum and A. Platanoides during high-light stress. Nevertheless, photoprotective capacity of anthocyanins was not able to fully compensate for photoinhibitory stress as the anthocyanins are not optimally located to efficiently reduce light within the leaves.
  • Aalto, J.; Porcar-Castell, A.; Atherton, J.; Kolari, P.; Pohja, T.; Hari, P.; Nikinmaa, E.; Petäjä, T.; Bäck, J. (2015)
    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by boreal evergreen trees have strong seasonality, with low emission rates during photosynthetically inactive winter and increasing rates towards summer. Yet, the regulation of this seasonality remains unclear. We measured in situ monoterpene emissions from Scots pine shoots during several spring periods and analysed their dynamics in connection with the spring recovery of photosynthesis. We found high emission peaks caused by enhanced monoterpene synthesis consistently during every spring period (monoterpene emission bursts, MEB). The timing of the MEBs varied relatively little between the spring periods. The timing of the MEBs showed good agreement with the photosynthetic spring recovery, which was studied with simultaneous measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence, CO2 exchange and a simple, temperature history-based proxy for state of photosynthetic acclimation, S. We conclude that the MEBs were related to the early stages of photosynthetic recovery, when the efficiency of photosynthetic carbon reactions is still low whereas the light harvesting machinery actively absorbs light energy. This suggests that the MEBs may serve a protective functional role for the foliage during this critical transitory state and that these high emission peaks may contribute to atmospheric chemistry in the boreal forest in springtime. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by boreal evergreen trees have strong seasonality. We measured high emission peaks from Scots pine shoots caused by enhanced monoterpene synthesis taking place simultaneously with the photosynthetic spring recovery. We conclude that the increased emissions were related to the photosynthetic recovery, when the efficiency of photosynthetic carbon reactions is low whereas the light harvesting machinery actively absorbs light energy. Increased emissions may serve a protective functional role for the foliage during the transitory state, and these high emission peaks may contribute to atmospheric chemistry in the boreal forest in springtime.
  • Liu, Meihua; Korpelainen, Helena; Dong, Lianchun; Yi, Lita (2019)
    Combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and acid rain on physiological characteristics in Eleocarpus glabripetalus seedlings were investigated under controlled conditions. The single Cd treatment and the combined Cd and acid rain treatment increased growth at low Cd concentrations, while decreased growth and photosynthesis at high Cd2+ concentrations. A low Cd2+ concentration (50 mg kg(-1)) combined with different acid rain treatments increased the seedling biomass. A high Cd2+ concentration (100 mg kg(-1)) under different acid rain treatments significantly decreased the biomass, the Fe content, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters. Relative electric conductivity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and peroxidase (POD) activity were increased while the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and catalase (CAT) activity were significantly lower at high Cd2+ concentration under acid rain. The results indicated that the combination of a high concentration of Cd2+ and acid rain aggravated the toxic effect of Cd2+ or acid rain alone on the growth and physiological parameters of E. glabripetalus due to serious damage to the chloroplast structure. These results provide novel insights into the combined effects of Cd(2+ )and acid rain on woody plants and might also serve as a guide to evaluate forest restoration and biological safety in areas with Cd2+ and acid rain pollution.
  • Leppä, Kersti; Korkiakoski, Mika; Nieminen, Mika; Laiho, Raija; Hotanen, Juha-Pekka; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Korpela, Leila; Laurila, Tuomas; Lohila, Annalea Katriina; Minkkinen, Kari; Mäkipää, Raisa; Ojanen, Paavo; Pearson, Meeri; Penttilä, Timo; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Launiainen, Samuli (2020)
    We quantified the response of peatland water table level (WTL) and energy fluxes to harvesting of a drained peatland forest. Two alternative harvests (clear-cut and partial harvest) were carried out in a mixed-species ditch-drained peatland forest in southern Finland, where water and energy balance components were monitored for six pre-treatment and three post-treatment growing seasons. To explore the responses caused by harvestings, we applied a mechanistic multi-layer soil-plant-atmosphere transfer model. At the clear-cut site, the mean growing season WTL rose by 0.18 +/- 0.02 m (error estimate based on measurement uncertainty), while net radiation, and sensible and latent heat fluxes decreased after harvest. On the contrary, we observed only minor changes in energy fluxes and mean WTL (0.05 +/- 0.03 m increase) at the partial harvest site, although as much as 70% of the stand basal area was removed and leaf-area index was reduced to half. The small changes were mainly explained by increased water use of spruce undergrowth and field layer vegetation, as well as increased forest floor evaporation. The rapid establishment of field layer vegetation had a significant role in energy balance recovery at the clear-cut site. At partial harvest, chlorophyll fluorescence measurements and model-data comparison suggested the shade-adapted spruce undergrowth was suffering from light stress during the first post-harvest growing season. We conclude that in addition to stand basal area, species composition and stand structure need to be considered when controlling WTL in peatland forests with partial harvesting. Our results have important implications on the operational use of continuous cover forestry on drained peatlands. A continuously maintained tree cover with significant evapotranspiration capacity could enable optimizing WTL from both tree growth and environmental perspectives.