Browsing by Subject "CHLOROPHYLL"

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  • Pale, Ville; Nikkonen, Taru; Vapaavuori, Jaana; Kostiainen, Mauri; Kavakka, Jari; Selin, Jorma; Tittonen, Ilkka; Helaja, Juho (2013)
  • Viinikka, Arto; Hurskainen, Pekka; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Kivinen, Sonja; Tanhuanpää, Topi; Mäyrä, Janne; Poikolainen, Laura; Vihervaara, Petteri; Kumpula, Timo (2020)
    Sustainable forest management increasingly highlights the maintenance of biological diversity and requires up-to-date information on the occurrence and distribution of key ecological features in forest environments. European aspen (Populus tremulaL.) is one key feature in boreal forests contributing significantly to the biological diversity of boreal forest landscapes. However, due to their sparse and scattered occurrence in northern Europe, the explicit spatial data on aspen remain scarce and incomprehensive, which hampers biodiversity management and conservation efforts. Our objective was to study tree-level discrimination of aspen from other common species in northern boreal forests using airborne high-resolution hyperspectral and airborne laser scanning (ALS) data. The study contained multiple spatial analyses: First, we assessed the role of different spectral wavelengths (455-2500 nm), principal component analysis, and vegetation indices (VI) in tree species classification using two machine learning classifiers-support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF). Second, we tested the effect of feature selection for best classification accuracy achievable and third, we identified the most important spectral features to discriminate aspen from the other common tree species. SVM outperformed the RF model, resulting in the highest overall accuracy (OA) of 84% and Kappa value (0.74). The used feature set affected SVM performance little, but for RF, principal component analysis was the best. The most important common VI for deciduous trees contained Conifer Index (CI), Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI), Plant Stress Index 3 (PSI3), and Vogelmann Index 1 (VOG1), whereas Green Ratio (GR), Red Edge Inflection Point (REIP), and Red Well Position (RWP) were specific for aspen. Normalized Difference Red Edge Index (NDRE) and Modified Normalized Difference Index (MND705) were important for coniferous trees. The most important wavelengths for discriminating aspen from other species included reflectance bands of red edge range (724-727 nm) and shortwave infrared (1520-1564 nm and 1684-1706 nm). The highest classification accuracy of 92% (F1-score) for aspen was achieved using the SVM model with mean reflectance values combined with VI, which provides a possibility to produce a spatially explicit map of aspen occurrence that can contribute to biodiversity management and conservation efforts in boreal forests.
  • Tossavainen, Marika; Ilyass, Usman; Ollilainen, Velimatti; Valkonen, Kalle; Ojala, Anne; Romantschuk, Martin (2019)
    Nitrogen limitation is considered a good strategy for enhancement of algal lipid production while conversely N repletion has been shown to result in biomass rich in proteins. In this study, the influence of long-term N limitation on Euglena gracilis fatty acid (FA), protein, chlorophyll a, and carotenoid concentrations was studied in N limited cultures. Biomass composition was analyzed from three-time points from N starved late stationary phase cultures, exposed to three different initial N concentrations in the growth medium. Total lipid content increased under N limitation in ageing cultures, but the low N content and prolonged cultivation time resulted in the formation of a high proportion of saturated FAs. Furthermore, growth as well as the production of proteins, chlorophyll a and carotenoids were enhanced in higher N concentrations and metabolism of these cellular components stayed stable during the stationary growth phase. Our findings showed that a higher N availability and a shorter cultivation time is a good strategy for efficient E. gracilis biomass production, regardless of whether the produced biomass is intended for maximal recovery of polyunsaturated FAs, proteins, or photosynthetic pigments. Additionally, we showed an increase of neoxanthin, beta-carotene, and diadinoxanthin as a response to higher N availability.
  • Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Lisboa, Filipe; Kaikkonen, Laura Maria; Koponen, Sampsa; Kallio, Kari; Brotas, Vanda; Kuikka, Olli Sakari (2019)
    Monitoring temporal changes in phytoplankton dynamics in high latitude lakes is particularly timely for understanding the impacts of warming on aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed 33-years of high resolution (30 m) Landsat (LT) data for reconstructing seasonal patterns of chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration in four lakes across Finland, between 60°N and 64°N. Chl a models based on LT spectral bands were calibrated using 17-years (2000–2016) of field measurements collected across the four lakes. These models were then applied for estimating chl a using the entire LT-5 and 7 archives. Approximately 630 images, from 1984 to 2017, were analyzed for each lake. The chl a seasonal patterns were characterized using phenology metrics, and the time-series of LT-based chl a estimates were used for identifying temporal shifts in the seasonal patterns of chl a concentration. Our results showed an increase in the length of phytoplankton growth season in three of the lakes. The highest increase was observed in Lake Köyliönjärvi, where the length of growth season has increased by 28 days from the baseline period of 1984–1994 to 2007–2017. The increase in the length of season was mainly attributed to an earlier start of phytoplankton blooms. We further analyzed surface temperature (Ts) and precipitation data to verify if climatic factors could explain the shifts in the seasonal patterns of chl a. We found no direct relationship between Ts and chl a seasonal patterns. Similarly, the phenological metrics of Ts, in particular length of season, did not show significant temporal trends. On the other hand, we identify potential links between changes in precipitation patterns and the increase in the phytoplankton season length. We verified a significant increase in the rainfall contribution to the total precipitation during the autumn and winter, accompanied by a decline in snowfall volumes. This could indicate an increasing runoff volume during the beginning of spring, contributing to an earlier onset of the phytoplankton blooms, although further assessments are needed to analyze historical streamflow values and nearby land cover data. Likewise, additional studies are needed to better understand why chl a patterns in some lakes seem to be more resilient than in others.