Browsing by Subject "CHOLINE"

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  • Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Kärkkäinen, Olli; Jokkala, Jenna; Klåvus, Anton; Heinonen, Seppo; Auriola, Seppo; Lehtonen, Marko; FINNPEC Core Invest Grp; Hanhineva, Kati; Laivuori, Hannele (2021)
    IntroductionMaternal metabolism changes substantially during pregnancy. However, few studies have used metabolomics technologies to characterize changes across gestation.Objectives and methodsWe applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based non-targeted metabolomics to determine whether the metabolic profile of serum differs throughout the pregnancy between pre-eclamptic and healthy women in the FINNPEC (Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium) Study. Serum samples were available from early and late pregnancy.ResultsProgression of pregnancy had large-scale effects to the serum metabolite profile. Altogether 50 identified metabolites increased and 49 metabolites decreased when samples of early pregnancy were compared to samples of late pregnancy. The metabolic signatures of pregnancy were largely shared in pre-eclamptic and healthy women, only urea, monoacylglyceride 18:1 and glycerophosphocholine were identified to be increased in the pre-eclamptic women when compared to healthy controls.ConclusionsOur study highlights the need of large-scale longitudinal metabolomic studies in non-complicated pregnancies before more detailed understanding of metabolism in adverse outcomes could be provided. Our findings are one of the first steps for a broader metabolic understanding of the physiological changes caused by pregnancy per se.
  • Luukkonen, Panu K.; Tukiainen, Taru; Juuti, Anne; Sammalkorpi, Henna; Haridas, P. A. Nidhina; Niemelä, Onni; Arola, Johanna; Orho-Melander, Marju; Hakkarainen, Antti; Kovanen, Petri T.; Dwivedi, Om; Groop, Leif; Hodson, Leanne; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Oresic, Matej; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele (2020)
    Carriers of the hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 13 (HSD17B13) gene variant (rs72613567:TA) have a reduced risk of NASH and cirrhosis but not steatosis. We determined its effect on liver histology, lipidome, and transcriptome using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and RNA-seq. In carriers and noncarriers of the gene variant, we also measured pathways of hepatic fatty acids (de novo lipogenesis [ONLI and adipose tissue lipolysis [ATL] using (H2O)-H-2 and H-2-glycerol) and insulin sensitivity using H-3-glucose and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp) and plasma cytokines. Carriers and noncarriers had similar age, sex and BMI. Fibrosis was significantly less frequent while phospholipids, but not other lipids, were enriched in the liver in carriers compared with noncarriers. Expression of 274 genes was altered in carriers compared with noncarriers, consisting predominantly of downregulated inflammation-related gene sets. Plasma IL-6 concentrations were lower, but DNL, ATL and hepatic insulin sensitivity were similar between the groups. In conclusion, carriers of the HSD17B13 variant have decreased fibrosis and expression of inflammation-related genes but increased phospholipids in the liver. These changes are not secondary to steatosis, ONL, ATL, or hepatic insulin sensitivity. The increase in phospholipids and decrease in fibrosis are opposite to features of choline-deficient models of liver disease and suggest HSD17B13 as an attractive therapeutic target.
  • EFSA Panel Dietetic Prod Nutr; Heinonen, Marina (2017)
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panelon Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on betaine as a novel food (NF) pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The information provided on the composition, the specifications, the batch-to-batch variability, stability and production process of the NF is sufficient and does not raise concerns about the safety of the NF. The NF is proposed to be used in foods intended to meet additional requirements for intense muscular effort with a maximum intake of 2.5 g/day of betaine for sports people above 10 years of age. Based on the lowest BMDL05, which was derived from a chronic toxicity study in rats in which a dose-related increase in platelet counts was observed, and the anticipated daily intake of the NF in the target population, the Margins of Exposure are 3.6 and 5, which are generally regarded as not sufficient. However, the total exposure to betaine from the diet (about 830 mg/day) is not known to be associated with adverse effects. Moreover, no adverse effects on platelet counts were noted in human intervention studies with exposure levels of 4 g/day of betaine for up to 6 months. A significant increase in total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations was noted at intakes of 4 g/day of betaine in overweight subjects with metabolic syndrome but not in healthy subjects, nor at intakes of 3 g/day. Thus, considering 4 g/day of betaine as a reference point and applying an uncertainty factor of 10 to account for interindividual variability, an amount of 400 mg/day of betaine in addition to the background exposure is considered as safe. The Panelconsiders that the NF is safe to be used at maximum intake of 400 mg/day in the target population. (C) 2017 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.