Browsing by Subject "CHRONIC ILLNESS"

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  • Rochfort, Andree; Beirne, Sinead; Doran, Gillian; Patton, Patricia; Gensichen, Jochen; Kunnamo, Ilkka; Smith, Susan; Eriksson, Tina; Collins, Claire (2018)
    Background: Patient self-management support is recognised as a key component of chronic care. Education and training for health professionals has been shown in the literature to be associated with better uptake, implementation and effectiveness of self-management programs, however, there is no clear evidence regarding whether this training results in improved health outcomes for patients with chronic conditions. Methods: A systematic review was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines using the Cochrane Library, PubMEd, ERIC, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web searches, Hand searches and Bibliographies. Articles published from inception to September 1st, 2013 were included. Systematic reviews, Meta-analysis, Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), Controlled clinical trials, Interrupted time series and Controlled before and after studies, which reported on primary care health professionals' continuing education or evidence-based medicine/education on patient self-management for any chronic condition, were included. A minimum of two reviewers participated independently at each stage of review. Results: From 7533 abstracts found, only two papers provided evidence on the effectiveness of self-management education for primary healthcare professionals in terms of measured outcomes in patients. These two articles show improvement in patient outcomes for chronic back pain and diabetes based on RCTs. The educational interventions with health professionals spanned a range of techniques and modalities but both RCTs included a motivational interviewing component. Conclusions: Before and up to 2 years after the incorporation of patient empowerment for self-management into the WONCA Europe definition of general practice, there was a scarcity of high quality evidence showing improved outcomes for patients as a result of educating health professionals in patient self-management of chronic conditions.
  • Weiste, Elina; Peräkylä, Anssi; Valkeapää, Taina; Savander, Enikö; Hintikka, Jukka (2018)
    Diagnosis is integral part of the way medicine organises illness: it is important for identifying treatment options, predicting outcomes and providing an explanatory framework for clinicians. Previous research has shown that during a medical visit not only the clinician but also patients provide explanations for the causes of their symptoms and health problems. Patients' lifeworld explanations are often differentiated from the diagnostic explanations provided by clinicians. However, while previous conversation analytic research has elaborated the ways in which diagnostic and lifeworld explanations are interactionally structured in somatic medicine, there is little research on how these explanations are organised in psychiatry. Psychiatric diagnosis is particularly interesting because in mental disorders illness itself is not determined by any objective measurement. Understanding of the patient's problem is constructed in interaction between the patient and clinician. The focus of this research will be patients' references to diagnosis in psychiatry and the functions of these references. The findings are based on conversation analysis of 29 audio-recorded diagnostic interviews in a psychiatric outpatient clinic. Our results demonstrate that patients can utilise diagnostic categories in several ways: disavowing a category to distance their symptoms from it, accounting for their life experiences being rooted in psychiatric illnesses and explaining their illnesses as being caused by certain life experiences. We argue that these explanations are important in patients' face-work - in constructing and maintaining a coherent and meaningful view of the patient's self.
  • Jauho, Mikko (2019)
    Risk adopts an ambiguous position between health and illness/disease and is culturally salient in various health-related everyday practices. Previous research on risk experience has mostly focused on the illness/disease side of this risk ambiguity. Persons at risk have typically been defined as patients (of some kind) and their condition as a form of proto-illness. To allow for the cultural proliferation of health risk and to account for the health side of risk ambiguity, I chose to focus on elevated cholesterol, a condition both intensely medicalised and connected to the everyday practice of eating, among participants (n = 14) recruited from a consumer panel and approached not as patients, but as individuals concerned about their cholesterol. Utilising the biographical disruption framework developed by Bury, I show how the risk experience of my participants differed from the chronic illness experience. Instead of patients-in-waiting suffering from a proto-illness, they presented themselves as 'chronically healthy individuals' (Varul 2010), actively trying to avoid becoming patients through a responsible regimen of personal health care. The results call for a more nuanced approach to the risk experience, which accounts for both sides of the risk ambiguity.