Browsing by Subject "CHRONOTYPE"

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  • Kuula, Liisa; Halonen, Risto; Lipsanen, Jari; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina (2022)
    Circadian rhythms orchestrate brain function and mental wellbeing. We compared circadian patterns derived from continuous measurements of body temperature, sleep actigraphy and self-reported circadian preference in relation to different psychiatric disorders. 342 adolescents (70% females) aged 17.4y underwent M.I.N.I. psychiatric interviews, wore Ibutton 1922L skin temperature loggers (n = 281; 3 days), completed one-week GeneActiv Original actigraphy measurements (n = 306) and responded to Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ; n = 330). We derived circadian period length and amplitude from the temperature loggers. Actigraphy measures included sleep duration, midpoint, efficiency, and irregularity as well as Delayed Sleep Phase (DSP) characteristics (bedtime after 1 a.m. 3 times/week). M.I.N.I. psychiatric interviews suggested that 36% of participants had one or more psychiatric problem, with 21% suffering from comorbidity. Severe depression was associated with longer circadian period (p = 0.002). Suicidality was associated with later midpoint (p = 0.007) and more irregular sleep (p = 0.007). Those with agoraphobia slept longer (p = 0.013). Manic episodes and psychotic disorders were associated with irregular sleep (p-values < 0.02). DSP was related to suicidality (p = 0.026), panic disorder (p = 0.022), and greater comorbidity (p = 0.026). Preference for eveningness was similarly related to higher prevalence of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (p = 0.014), social anxiety (p = 0.03), agoraphobia (p = 0.026), panic disorder (p = 0.004), suicidality (p = 0.018), severe depression (p < 0.001), and comorbidity (p < 0.001). Deviations in circadian rhythms were widely associated with psychiatric problems, whereas sleep duration was not. Especially suicidality linked with several markers of circadian disruption: later sleep midpoint, irregular sleep, and DSP characteristics. Longer circadian period length was associated with severe depression.
  • Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Seitsalo, Seppo; Kronholm, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Peltonen, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo (2014)
    Earlier studies have revealed that the more the preference to schedule daily activities towards the evening hours is, the higher the odds for a range of health hazards are. Therefore, we wanted to analyze, whether the behavioral trait of morningness-eveningness is associated with articular and spinal diseases or those with musculoskeletal disorders. Participants (n=6089), as part of the National FINRISK 2007 Study, were derived from the general population, aged 25 to 74 years, living in Finland. Chronotype was assessed based on six items from the original Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Information about risk factors and the diagnoses of articular and spinal diseases were based on the self-reported information. Our results suggest that Evening-types have higher odds for articular and spinal diseases as compared with Morning-types, and this risk is heightened especially regarding spinal disease and backache (odds ratios of 1.8 to 2.1, and 1.6 to 1.8, respectively) and remains significant after controlling for the sex, age, education, civil status, physical activity, alcohol use, and smoking, and additionally for the body-mass index, insufficient sleep, or depressive symptoms.
  • Merikanto, Ilona; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Paunio, Tiina; Partonen, Timo (2022)
    Background: Circadian phenotype has a crucial role in determining wellbeing and health prospective. Evening-types have higher risk for sleep and mental health problems, which is also reflected in work wellbeing. However, there are no population-based studies examining the association of working ability and circadian typology at different working-age-groups. Also, the role of predisposing factors, ie, sleep-related differences between circadian types, has not been studied in relation to working ability among circadian types in a population-based sample. Methods: In this population-based sample of 13,114 working-age Finnish adults from 18 to 64 years of age, we examined the associations between circadian type, exhaustion and working ability and the roles of sleep-wake rhythm misalignment and insufficient sleep on these associations in 10-years-wide age-groups. Circadian type was assessed with the widely-used single item for selfassessed morningness/eveningness from the Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Results: Evening-types, especially definite evening-types, were more exhausted and had poorer working ability than morning-types. Higher exhaustion among evening-types was apparent in all working ages with a peak at ages 45 to 54 years. Poorer working ability in definite evening-types as compared to definite morning-types was found only at ages 35 to 54 years. Evening-types, especially definiteevening-types, had also more social jet lag and they reported more insufficient sleep than definite morning-types. More frequent insufficient sleep associated with poorer working ability and partly mediated the association between circadian type and working ability. Conclusion: Circadian phenotypes were found to differ in risk for exhaustion and in working ability, and this association was partly mediated by insufficient sleep. Our findings emphasize the importance to improve sleep especially among evening-types to ensure better work wellbeing.
  • Kuula, Liisa; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Merikanto, Ilona; Gradisar, Michael; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Räikkönen, Katri (2018)
    Objectives To assess differences relating to circadian preference in objectively measured sleep patterns from childhood to adolescence over a 9-year period. We hypothesized there is developmental continuity in sleep timing and duration according to circadian preference. Study design Young participants (N = 111, 65% girls) from a community- based birth cohort underwent sleep actigraphy at mean ages 8.1 (SD = 0.3), 12.3 (SD = 0.5), and 16.9 (SD = 0.1) years. A short version of MorningnessEveningness Questionnaire was administered in late adolescence. At each follow-up, sleep midpoint, duration, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency, and weekend catch-up sleep were compared between those reporting morning, intermediate, and evening preferences in late adolescence. Results Mixed model analyses indicated that sleep timing was significantly earlier among morning types compared with evening types at all ages (P values <.04). The mean differences in sleep midpoint between morning and evening types increased from a mean of 19 minutes (age 8), 36 minutes (age 12), to 89 minutes (age 17). The largest change occurred from age 12 to 17 years. Sleep duration, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency, and catch-up sleep did not differ according to circadian preference. Conclusions This study found significant continuity in sleep timing from childhood to adolescence over 9 years, indicating that late circadian preference reported in late adolescence begins to manifest in middle childhood. Further studies are needed to establish whether sleep timing has its origins at an even earlier age.
  • Merikanto, Ilona; Kortesoja, Laura; Benedict, Christian; Chung, Frances; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Espie, Colin A.; Morin, Charles M.; Dauvilliers, Yves; Partinen, Markku; De Gennaro, Luigi; Wing, Yun Kwok; Chan, Ngan Yin; Inoue, Yuichi; Matsui, Kentaro; Holzinger, Brigitte; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Mota-Rolim, Sérgio Arthuro; Leger, Damien; Penzel, Thomas; Bjorvatn, Bjorn (2022)
    Study objectives: Individual circadian type is a ubiquitous trait defining sleep, with eveningness often associated with poorer sleep and mental health than morningness. However, it is unknown whether COVID-19 pandemic has differentially affected sleep and mental health depending on the circadian type. Here, the differences in sleep and mental health between circadian types are examined globally before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The sample collected between May and August 2020 across 12 countries/regions consisted of 19,267 adults with information on their circadian type. Statistical analyses were performed by using Complex Sample procedures, stratified by country and weighted by the number of inhabitants in the country/area of interest and by the relative number of responders in that country/area. Results: Evening-types had poorer mental health, well-being, and quality of life or health than other circadian types during the pandemic. Sleep-wake schedules were delayed especially on working days, and evening-types reported an increase in sleep duration. Sleep problems increased in all circadian types, but especially among evening-types, moderated by financial suffering and confinement. Intermediate-types were less vulnerable to sleep changes, although morningness protected from most sleep problems. These findings were confirmed after adjusting for age, sex, duration of the confinement or socio-economic status during the pandemic. Conclusions: These findings indicate an alarming increase in sleep and mental health problems, especially among evening-types as compared to other circadian types during the pandemic. Keywords: Chronotype; Circadian Rhythms; Coronavirus; Depression; Eveningness; Insomnia; Sleep quality; Stress.
  • Merikanto, Ilona; Kuula, Liisa; Lahti, Jari; Raikkonen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina (2020)
    Objective: Adolescence is often associated with decline in physical activity (PA) and a circadian shift towards eveningness, but it is not known whether these transitions are intertwined. We explored longitudinally and in cross-section how chronotype and genetic liability for morningness associate with PA as self-reported and measured by actigraphy in early and late adolescence. Methods: Our sample comes from a longitudinal Finnish community-cohort born in 1998 with information on actigraph-based PA and objectively measured sleep-wake rhythm based on midpoint of sleep at ages 12 (N = 353, girls = 187) and 17 (N = 171, girls = 98). Information on self-reported circadian preference and subjective PA was available at age 17. The summarized genetic effects of multiple single nucleotide polymorphism for morningness was assessed by calculating polygenic score (PGS) based on the results on a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS). Results: PA declined by 40% (p <0.0001) in boys and by 32% in girls (p <0.0001) from age 12 to 17. Later midpoint of sleep correlated significantly with lower level of general, light and moderate to vigorous PA only at age 12 (all p <0.05) but not at age 17 (all p >= 0.36). However, those with circadian preference more towards eveningness at age 17 had more sedentary behavior (p <0.01) and a lower level of general (p = 0.01), light (p <0.01) and moderate to vigorous PA (p <0.05). They also had poorer subjective assessment of their fitness level (p <0.01) and they exercised less (all p = 0.13). Conclusions: Findings of this study highlighted the influence of circadian preference on physical activity behavior in adolescence. Self-assessed circadian preference towards eveningness associated with lower PA and greater decline of it during adolescence. Furthermore, PA declined significantly especially among boys from early to late adolescence. Interventions encouraging physical activity should target specifically evening-oriented adolescents. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Merikanto, Ilona; Partonen, Timo (2021)
    Background Epidemiological data show that having the eveningness associates with poor mental health. For preventive measures it is important to know which underlying factors mediate these associations and the burden posed to public health. This study examines at a population-based level, whether (1) circadian type and the sleep-wake behavior-based phase entrainment similarly associate with mental health problems, (2) there are differences in hospital treatments due to mental disorders between chronotypes, and (3) the association of chronotype with mental health is mediated by insufficient sleep. Methods The study sample (N = 18,039) consisted of population-based sample of Finnish adults, aged 25-74 years, with information on their circadian type and sleep patterns, mental health symptoms, and diagnosis as reported in a health examination survey, as well as hospital treatments as recorded on the national Hospital Discharge Register. Results All the mental health symptoms, diagnoses and hospital treatments were more pronounced among Evening-types, especially when assessed by circadian type. Insufficient sleep mediated most but not all of the associations between eveningness and mental health. Conclusions Eveningness does not increase mental health risks only on symptom or diagnosis level, but also on hospital admission level. A higher prevalence of insufficient sleep among the Evening-types elevates the risk and severity for many of the mental health outcomes. Improving the sleep among Evening-types could help to improve their mental health prospective and ease the health care burden.
  • Merikanto, Ilona; Kantojärvi, Katri; Partonen, Timo; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Paunio, Tiina (2021)
    Objective Associations of eveningness with health hazards benefit from analyzing to what extent the polygenic score for morningness correlates with the assessments of the behavioral trait of morningness-eveningness and chronotype. Methods With a population-based sample of 17,243 Finnish adults, aged 25–74 years, this study examines the associations of four feasible assessment methods of chronotype, a) biological the genetic liability based on the polygenic score for morningness (PGSmorn), b) the widely-used single item for self-assessed morningness/eveningness (MEQi19) of the original Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), c) the behavioral trait of morningness-eveningness as assessed with the score on the shortened version (sMEQ) of the original MEQ, and d) the phase of entrainment as assessed with the habitual midpoint of sleep based on the self-reported sleep-wake schedule during weekend (Sleepmid-wknd) as well as the sleep debt corrected midpoint of sleep (Sleepmid-corr). Results All self-report measures correlated with each other, but very weakly with the PGSmorn, which explained 1–2% of the variation in diurnal preference or habitual sleep-wake schedule. The influence of age was greater on Sleepmid-wknd and Sleepmid-corr than on the sMEQ or MEQi19, indicating that the diurnal preference might be a more stable indicator for morningness-eveningness than the sleep-wake schedule. Analyses of the discrepancies between sMEQ and MEQi19 indicated that eveningness can be over-estimated when relying on only the single-item self-assessment. Conclusions The current polygenic score for morningness explains only a small proportion of the variation in diurnal preference or habitual sleep-wake schedule. The molecular genetic basis for morningness-eveningness needs further elucidation.
  • Zavgorodniaia, Albina; Shrestha, Raj; Leinonen, Juho; Hellas, Arto; Edwards, John (IEEE, 2021)
    Circadian rhythms are the cycles of our internal clock that play a key role in governing when we sleep and when we are active. A related concept is chronotype, which is a person's natural tendency toward activity at certain times of day and typically governs when the individual is most alert and productive. In this work we investigate chronotypes in the setting of an Introductory Computer Programming (CS1) course. Using keystroke data collected from students we investigate the existence of chronotypes through unsupervised learning. The chronotypes we find align with those of typical populations reported in the literature and our results support correlations of certain chronotypes to academic achievement. We also find a lack of support for the still-popular stereotype of a computer programmer as a night owl. The analyses are conducted on data from two universities, one in the US and one in Europe, that use different teaching methods. In comparison of the two contexts, we look into programming assignment design and administration that may promote better programming practices among students in terms of procrastination and effort.
  • Basnet, Syaron; Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Männistö, Satu; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo (2018)
    Introduction: The seasonal pattern for mood and behaviour, the behavioural trait of morningness-eveningness, and sleep are interconnected features, that may serve as etiological factors in the development or exacerbation of medical conditions. Methods: The study was based on a random sample of inhabitants aged 25 to 74 years living in Finland. As part of the national FINRISK 2012 study participants were invited (n=9905) and asked whether the doctor had diagnosed or treated them during the past 12 months for chronic diseases. Results: A total of 6424 participants filled in the first set of questionnaires and 5826 attended the physical health status examination, after which the second set of questionnaires were filled. Regression models were built in which each condition was explained by the seasonal, diurnal and sleep features, after controlling for a range of background factors. Of the chronic diseases, depressive disorder was associated with longer total sleep duration (p
  • Brandao, Luiz Eduardo Mateus; Martikainen, Teemu; Merikanto, Ilona; Holzinger, Brigitte; Morin, Charles M.; Espie, Colin A.; Bolstad, Courtney; Leger, Damien; Chung, Frances; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Dauvilliers, Yves; Matsui, Kentaro; De Gennaro, Luigi; Sieminski, Mariusz; Nadorff, Michael R.; Chan, Ngan Yin; Wing, Yun Kwok; Mota-Rolim, Sergio Arthuro; Inoue, Yuichi; Partinen, Markku; Benedict, Christian; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Cedernaes, Jonathan (2021)
    Purpose: Lifestyle and work habits have been drastically altered by restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Whether the associated changes in sleep timing modulate the risk of suffering from symptoms of insomnia, the most prevalent sleep disorder, is however incompletely understood. Here, we evaluate the association between the early pandemic-associated change in 1) the magnitude of social jetlag (SJL) - ie, the difference between sleep timing on working vs free days - and 2) symptoms of insomnia. Patients and Methods: A total of 14,968 anonymous participants (mean age: 40 years; 64% females) responded to a standardized internet-based survey distributed across 14 countries. Using logistic multivariate regression, we examined the association between the degree of social jetlag and symptoms of insomnia, controlling for important confounders like social restriction extension, country specific COVID-19 severity and psychological distress, for example. Results: In response to the pandemic, participants reported later sleep timing, especially during workdays. Most participants (46%) exhibited a reduction in their SJL, whereas 20% increased it; and 34% reported no change in SJL. Notably, we found that both increased and decreased SJL, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, were associated with later sleep midpoint (indicating a later chronotype) as well as more recurrent and moderate-to-severe symptoms of insomnia (about 23- 54% higher odds ratio than subjects with unchanged SJL). Primarily those with reduced SJL shifted their bedtimes to a later timepoint, compared with those without changes in SJL. Conclusion: Our findings offer important insights into how self-reported changes to the stability of sleep/wake timing, as reflected by changes in SJL, can be a critical marker of the risk of experiencing insomnia-related symptoms - even when individuals manage to reduce their social jetlag. These findings emphasize the clinical importance of analyzing sleep-wake regularity.
  • Morales-Munoz, Isabel; Kantojärvi, Katri; Uhre, Veli-Matti; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Kylliäinen, Anneli; Pölkki, Pirjo; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Karlsson, Linnea; Karlsson, Hasse; Paavonen, E. Juulia; Paunio, Tiina (2021)
    Purpose: No previous research has examined the impact of the genetic background of diurnal preference on children´s sleep. Here, we examined the effects of genetic risk score for the liability of diurnal preference on sleep development in early childhood in two population-based cohorts from Finland. Participants and methods: The primary sample (CHILD-SLEEP, CS) comprised 1420 infants (695 girls), and the replication sample (FinnBrain, FB; 962 girls) 2063 infants. Parent-reported sleep duration, sleep-onset latency and bedtime were assessed at three, eight, 18 and 24 months in CS, and at six, 12 and 24 months in FB. Actigraphy-based sleep latency and efficiency were measured in CS in 365 infants at eight months (168 girls), and in 197 infants at 24 months (82 girls). Mean standard scores for each sleep domain were calculated in both samples. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were used to quantitate the genetic risk for eveningness (PRSBestFit) and morningness (PRS10kBest). Results: PRSBestFit associated with longer sleep-onset latency and later bedtime, and PRS10kBest related to shorter sleep-onset latency in CS. The link between genetic risk for diurnal preference and sleep-onset latency was replicated in FB, and meta-analysis resulted in associations (P<0.0005) with both PRS-values (PRSBestFit: Z=3.55; and PRS10kBest: Z=-3.68). Finally, PRSBestFit was related to actigraphy-based lower sleep efficiency and longer sleep latency at eight months. Conclusion: Genetic liability to diurnal preference for eveningness relates to longer sleep-onset during the first two years of life, and to objectively measured lowered sleep efficiency. These findings enhance our understanding on the biological factors affecting sleep development, and contribute to clarify the physiological sleep architecture in early childhood.
  • Morales-Munoz, Isabel; Partonen, Timo; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Kylliäinen, Anneli; Pölkki, Pirjo; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Paunio, Tiina; Paavonen, E. Juulia (2019)
    Background: Chronotype is a construct contributing to individual differences in sleep-wake timing. Previous studies with children have found that evening-types exhibit greater sleep difficulties. Infant sleep quality can be modulated by several factors, such as parental characteristics. We examined the association between parental circadian preference and sleep in early childhood. Methods: This study was based on a longitudinal birth cohort, with several measurement points. We used information regarding parental questionnaires during pregnancy and children's sleep measures at three, eight, 18 and 24 months. In total, 1220 mothers, 1116 fathers, 993 infants at three months, 990 infants at eight months, 958 children at 18 months, and 777 children at 24 months were analyzed. Parental circadian preference was measured using the Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Concerning children's sleep, we used the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ) and the Infant Sleep Questionnaire (ISQ) at each time point. Results: Maternal circadian preference was associated with infants' circadian rhythm development at three, eight, 18 and 24 months. Furthermore, increased maternal eveningness was also related to short sleep during daytime at three months, and nighttime at three and eight months, to long sleep-onset latency at three, 18 and 24 months, to late bedtime at three, eight and 18 months, and to sleep difficulties at eight and 24 months. Paternal circadian preference was not associated with any sleep variable at any time point. Conclusion: Maternal circadian preference is related to several sleep difficulties in early childhood, and it may be considered a potential risk factor for the onset of early sleeping problems. (c) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Sandman, Nils; Merikanto, Ilona; Maattanen, Hanna; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Partonen, Timo; Paunio, Tiina (2016)
    Sleep problems, especially nightmares and insomnia, often accompany depression. This study investigated how nightmares, symptoms of insomnia, chronotype and sleep duration associate with seasonal affective disorder, a special form of depression. Additionally, it was noted how latitude, a proxy for photoperiod, and characteristics of the place of residence affect the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder and sleep problems. To study these questions, data from FINRISK 2012 study were used. FINRISK 2012 consists of a random population sample of Finnish adults aged 25-74 years (n = 4905) collected during winter from Finnish urban and rural areas spanning the latitudes of 60 degrees N to 66 degrees N. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire was used to assess symptoms of seasonal affective disorder. Participants with symptoms of seasonal affective disorder had significantly increased odds of experiencing frequent nightmares and symptoms of insomnia, and they were more often evening chronotypes. Associations between latitude, population size and urbanicity with seasonal affective disorder symptoms and sleep disturbances were generally not significant, although participants living in areas bordering urban centres had less sleep problems than participants from other regions. These data show that the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder was not affected by latitude.