Browsing by Subject "CIGARETTE-SMOKE"

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  • Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna Katriina; Luukkainen, Annika; Kern, Robert (2020)
    Allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, and asthma are highly prevalent, multifactorial chronic airway diseases. Several environmental and genetic factors affect airway epithelial dynamics leading to activation of inflammatory mechanisms in the airways. This review links environmental factors to host epithelial immunity in airway diseases. Understanding altered homeostasis of the airway epithelium might provide important targets for diagnostics and therapy of chronic airway diseases.
  • Malhotra, Rajneesh; Kurian, Nisha; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Jiang, Fanyi; Monkley, Susan; DeMicco, Amy; Clausen, Ib G.; Dellgren, Göran; Edenro, Goran; Ahdesmaki, Miika J.; Clausen, Maryam; Oberg, Lisa; Israelsson, Elisabeth; Belfield, Graham; Vaarala, Outi (2017)
    Background BET proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRDT and BRD4) belong to the family of bromodomain containing proteins, which form a class of transcriptional co-regulators. BET proteins bind to acetylated lysine residues in the histones of nucleosomal chromatin and function either as co-activators or co-repressors of gene expression. An imbalance between HAT and HDAC activities resulting in hyperacetylation of histones has been identified in COPD. We hypothesized that pan-BET inhibitor (JQ1) treatment of BET protein interactions with hyperacety-lated sites in the chromatin will regulate excessive activation of pro-inflammatory genes in key inflammatory drivers of alveolar macrophages (AM) in COPD. Methods and findings Transcriptome analysis of AM from COPD patients indicated up-regulation of macrophage M1 type genes upon LPS stimulation. Pan-BET inhibitor JQ1 treatment attenuated expression of multiple genes, including pro-inflammatory cytokines and regulators of innate and adaptive immune cells. We demonstrated for the first time that JQ1 differentially modulated LPS-induced cytokine release from AM or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of COPD patients compared to PBMC of healthy controls. Using the BET regulated gene signature, we identified a subset of COPD patients, which we propose to benefit from BET inhibition. Conclusions This work demonstrates that the effects of pan-BET inhibition through JQ1 treatment of inflammatory cells differs between COPD patients and healthy controls, and the expression of BET protein regulated genes is altered in COPD. These findings provide evidence of histone hyperacetylation as a mechanism driving chronic inflammatory changes in COPD.
  • Klebe, Sonja; Leigh, James; Henderson, Douglas W.; Nurminen, Markku (2020)
    This review updates the scientific literature concerning asbestos and lung cancer, emphasizing cumulative exposure and synergism between asbestos exposure and tobacco smoke, and proposes an evidence-based and equitable approach to compensation for asbestos-related lung cancer cases. This update is based on several earlier reviews written by the second and third authors on asbestos and lung cancer since 1995. We reevaluated the peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies. In addition, selected in vivo and in vitro animal studies and molecular and cellular studies in humans were included. We conclude that the mechanism of lung cancer causation induced by the interdependent coaction of asbestos fibers and tobacco smoke at a biological level is a multistage stochastic process with both agents acting conjointly at all times. The new knowledge gained through this review provides the evidence for synergism between asbestos exposure and tobacco smoke in lung cancer causation at a biological level. The evaluated statistical data conform best to a multiplicative model for the interaction effects of asbestos and smoking on the lung cancer risk, with no requirement for asbestosis. Any asbestos exposure, even in a heavy smoker, contributes to causation. Based on this information, we propose criteria for the attribution of lung cancer to asbestos in smokers and non-smokers.
  • Rovio, Suvi P.; Pahkala, Katja; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Juonala, Markus; Salo, Pia; Kahonen, Mika; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Lehtimaki, Terho; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Taittonen, Leena; Tossavainen, Paivi; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Rinne, Juha O.; Raitakari, Olli T. (2017)
    BACKGROUND In adults, high blood pressure (BP), adverse serum lipids, and smoking associate with cognitive deficits. The effects of these risk factors from childhood on midlife cognitive performance are unknown. OBJECTIVES This study sought to investigate the associations between childhood/adolescence cardiovascular risk factors and midlife cognitive performance. METHODS From 1980, a population-based cohort of 3,596 children (baseline age: 3 to 18 years) have been followed for 31 years in 3- to 9-year intervals. BP, serum lipids, body mass index, and smoking were assessed in all follow-ups. Cumulative exposure as the area under the curve for each risk factor was determined in childhood (6 to 12 years), adolescence (12 to 18 years), and young adulthood (18 to 24 years). In 2011, cognitive testing was performed in 2,026 participants aged 34 to 49 years. RESULTS High systolic BP, elevated serum total-cholesterol, and smoking from childhood were independently associated with worse midlife cognitive performance, especially memory and learning. The number of early life risk factors, including high levels (extreme 75th percentile for cumulative risk exposure between ages 6 and 24 years) of systolic BP, total-cholesterol, and smoking associated inversely with midlife visual and episodic memory and visuospatial associative learning (-0.140 standard deviations per risk factor, p <0.0001) and remained significant after adjustment for contemporaneous risk factors. Individuals with all risk factors within recommended levels between ages 6 and 24 years performed 0.29 standard deviations better (p = 0.006) on this cognitive domain than those exceeding all risk factor guidelines at least twice. This difference corresponds to the effect of 6 years aging on this cognitive domain. CONCLUSIONS Cumulative burden of cardiovascular risk factors from childhood/adolescence associate with worse midlife cognitive performance independent of adulthood exposure. (C) 2017 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
  • Rovio, Suvi P.; Pihlman, Jukka; Pahkala, Katja; Juonala, Markus; Magnussen, Costan G.; Pitkänen, Niina; Ahola-Olli, Ari; Salo, Pia; Kähönen, Mika; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Taittonen, Leena; Tossavainen, Päivi; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli T. (2020)
    We studied whether exposure to parental smoking in childhood/adolescence is associated with midlife cognitive function, leveraging data from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. A population-based cohort of 3,596 children/adolescents aged 3-18 years was followed between 1980 and 2011. In 2011, cognitive testing was performed on 2,026 participants aged 34-49 years using computerized testing. Measures of secondhand smoke exposure in childhood/adolescence consisted of parental self-reports of smoking and participants' serum cotinine levels. Participants were classified into 3 exposure groups: 1) no exposure (nonsmoking parents, cotinine 1.0 ng/mL). Analyses adjusted for sex, age, family socioeconomic status, polygenic risk score for cognitive function, adolescent/adult smoking, blood pressure, and serum total cholesterol level. Compared with the nonexposed, participants exposed to nonhygienic parental smoking were at higher risk of poor (lowest quartile) midlife episodic memory and associative learning (relative risk (RR) = 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.75), and a weak association was found for short-term and spatial working memory (RR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.58). Associations for those exposed to hygienic parental smoking were nonsignificant (episodic memory and associative learning: RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.54; short-term and spatial working memory: RR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.34). We conclude that avoiding childhood/adolescence secondhand smoke exposure promotes adulthood cognitive function.
  • Sundar, Isaac K.; Yin, Qiangzong; Baier, Brian S.; Yan, Li; Mazur, Witold; Li, Dongmei; Susiarjo, Martha; Rahman, Irfan (2017)
    Background: Epigenetics changes have been shown to be affected by cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoke (CS)-mediated DNA methylation can potentially affect several cellular and pathophysiological processes, acute exacerbations, and comorbidity in the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to determine whether genome-wide lung DNA methylation profiles of smokers and patients with COPD were significantly different from non-smokers. We isolated DNA from parenchymal lung tissues of patients including eight lifelong non-smokers, eight current smokers, and eight patients with COPD and analyzed the samples using Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Results: Our data revealed that the differentially methylated genes were related to top canonical pathways (e.g., G beta gamma signaling, mechanisms of cancer, and nNOS signaling in neurons), disease and disorders (organismal injury and abnormalities, cancer, and respiratory disease), and molecular and cellular functions (cell death and survival, cellular assembly and organization, cellular function and maintenance) in patients with COPD. The genome-wide DNA methylation analysis identified suggestive genes, such as NOS1AP, TNFAIP2, BID, GABRB1, ATXN7, and THOC7 with DNA methylation changes in COPD lung tissues that were further validated by pyrosequencing. Pyrosequencing validation confirmed hyper-methylation in smokers and patients with COPD as compared to non-smokers. However, we did not detect significant differences in DNA methylation for TNFAIP2, ATXN7, and THOC7 genes in smokers and COPD groups despite the changes observed in the genome-wide analysis. Conclusions: Our study suggests that DNA methylation in suggestive genes, such as NOS1AP, BID, and GABRB1 may be used as epigenetic signatures in smokers and patients with COPD if the same is validated in a larger cohort. Future studies are required to correlate DNA methylation status with transcriptomics of selective genes identified in this study and elucidate their role and involvement in the progression of COPD and its exacerbations.
  • Hemilä, Harri (2020)
    A previous analysis of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Study on male smokers found that beta-carotene supplementation increased the risk of pneumonia 4-fold in those who started smoking at the age of >= 21 years and smoked >= 21 cigarettes/d (a subgroup of 7 % of the study population). The present study hypothesised that beta-carotene increases mortality in the same subgroup. The ATBC Study (1985-1993) recruited 29 133 Finnish male smokers (>= 5 cigarettes/d) aged 50-69 years. Cox regression models were constructed to estimate the effect of beta-carotene supplementation in subgroups. beta-Carotene increased mortality (risk ratio 1 center dot 56; 95 % CI 1 center dot 06, 2 center dot 3) in those who started to smoke at >= 21 years and smoked >= 21 cigarettes/d. Within this subgroup, there was strong evidence of further heterogeneity. The effect of beta-carotene supplementation was further modified by dietary vitamin C intake, fruit and vegetable intake (P = 0 center dot 0004), and by vitamin E supplementation (P = 0 center dot 011). Thus, harm from beta-carotene was not uniform within the study population. Interactions between beta-carotene and vitamins C and E were seen only within a subgroup of 7 % of the ATBC participants, and therefore should not be extrapolated to the general population. Heterogeneity of the beta-carotene effect on mortality challenges the validity of previous meta-analyses that have pooled many diverse antioxidants for one single estimate of effect using the assumption that a single estimate equally applies to all antioxidants and all people. Trial registration: NCT00342992.