Browsing by Subject "CIMS"

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  • Mohr, Claudia; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Heitto, Arto; Lutz, Anna; Hallquist, Mattias; D'Ambro, Emma L.; Rissanen, Matti P.; Hao, Liqing; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Kulmala, Markku; Mauldin III, Roy L.; Makkonen, Ulla; Sipilä, Mikko; Petäjä, Tuukka; Thornton, Joel A. (2017)
    We present ambient observations of dimeric monoterpene oxidation products (C16-20HyO6-9) in gas and particle phases in the boreal forest in Finland in spring 2013 and 2014, detected with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer with a filter inlet for gases and aerosols employing acetate and iodide as reagent ions. These are among the first online dual-phase observations of such dimers in the atmosphere. Estimated saturation concentrations of 10(-15) to 10(-6)mu gm(-3) (based on observed thermal desorptions and group-contribution methods) and measured gas-phase concentrations of 10(-3) to 10(-2)mu gm(-3) (similar to 10(6)-10(7)moleculescm(-3)) corroborate a gas-phase formation mechanism. Regular new particle formation (NPF) events allowed insights into the potential role dimers may play for atmospheric NPF and growth. The observationally constrained Model for Acid-Base chemistry in NAnoparticle Growth indicates a contribution of similar to 5% to early stage particle growth from the similar to 60 gaseous dimer compounds. Plain Language Summary Atmospheric aerosol particles influence climate and air quality. We present new insights into how emissions of volatile organic compounds from trees are transformed in the atmosphere to contribute to the formation and growth of aerosol particles. We detected for the first time over a forest, a group of organic molecules, known to grow particles, in the gas phase at levels far higher than expected. Previous measurements had only measured them in the particles. This finding provides guidance on how models of aerosol formation and growth should describe their appearance and fate in the atmosphere.
  • Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Iyer, Siddharth; Mohr, Claudia; Lee, Ben H.; D'Ambro, Emma L.; Kurten, Theo; Thornton, Joel A. (2016)
    The sensitivity of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ions formed per number density of analytes) is fundamentally limited by the collision frequency between reagent ions and analytes, known as the collision limit, the ion-molecule reaction time, and the transmission efficiency of product ions to the detector. We use the response of a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS) to N2O5, known to react with iodide at the collision limit, to constrain the combined effects of ion-molecule reaction time, which is strongly influenced by mixing and ion losses in the ion-molecule reaction drift tube. A mass spectrometric voltage scanning procedure elucidates the relative binding energies of the ion adducts, which influence the transmission efficiency of molecular ions through the electric fields within the vacuum chamber. Together, this information provides a critical constraint on the sensitivity of a ToF-CIMS towards a wide suite of routinely detected multifunctional organic molecules for which no calibration standards exist. We describe the scanning procedure and collision limit determination, and we show results from the application of these constraints to the measurement of organic aerosol composition at two different field locations.
  • Hansel, Armin; Scholz, Wiebke; Mentler, Bernhard; Fischer, Lukas; Bernd, Torsten (2018)
    The performance of the novel ammonium chemical ionization time of flight mass spectrometer (NH4+-CI3-TOF) utilizing NH4+ adduct ion chemistry to measure first generation oxidized product molecules (OMs) as well as highly oxidized organic molecules (HOMs) was investigated for the first time. The gas-phase ozonolysis of cyclohexene served as a first test system. Experiments have been carried out in the TROPOS free-jet flow system at close to atmospheric conditions. Product ion signals were simultaneously observed by the NH4+-CI3-TOF and the acetate chemical ionization atmospheric pressure interface time of flight mass spectrometer (acetate-CI-APITOF). Both instruments are in remarkable good agreement within a factor of two for HOMs. For OMs not containing an OOH group the acetate technique can considerably underestimate OM concentrations by 2-3 orders of magnitude. First steps of cyclohexene ozonolysis generate ten different main products, detected with the ammonium-CI3-TOF, comprising 93% of observed OMs. The remaining 7% are distributed over several minor products that can be attributed to HOMs, predominately to highly oxidized RO2 radicals. Summing up, observed ammonium-CI3-TOF products yield 5.6 x le molecules cm" in excellent agreement with the amount of reacted cyclohexene of 4.5 x 10(9) molecules cm(-3) for reactant concentrations of [O-3] = 2.25 x 10(12) molecules cm(-3) and [cyclohexene] = 2.0 x 10(12) molecules cm(-3) and a reaction time of 7.9 s. NH4+ adduct ion chemistry is a promising CIMS technology for achieving carbon-closure due to the unique opportunity for complete detection of the whole product distribution including also peroxy radicals, and consequently, for a much better understanding of oxidation processes.