Browsing by Subject "CISPLATIN"

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  • Paajanen, Juuso; Ilonen, Ilkka; Lauri, Helena; Järvinen, Tommi; Sutinen, Eva; Ollila, Hely; Rouvinen, Eeva; Lemström, Karl; Räsänen, Jari; Ritvos, Olli; Koli, Katri; Myllärniemi, Marjukka (2020)
    Activin A has previously been associated with cancer cachexia and in vitro resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. We studied circulating activin A concentrations as well as activin B and their antagonists' follistatin/follistatin-like 3 in presurgical patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma. We found that circulating activing A levels were elevated in malignant pleural mesothelioma and associated with cancer cachexia and poor response to platinum-based chemotherapy. Circulating activing A separated non-small-cell lung cancer from benign lung lesion. Background: Previous preclinical studies have shown that activin A is overexpressed in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), associates with cancer cachexia, and is observed in in vitro resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. We evaluated circulating activin levels and their endogenous antagonists' follistatin/follistatin-like 3 in intrathoracic tumors. Materials and Methods: Patients suspected of thoracic malignancy were recruited prior to surgery. Serum samples were collected from 21 patients with MPM, 59 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and 22 patients with benign lung lesions. Circulating activin/follistatin levels were measured using enzymelinked immunosorbent assay and compared with clinicopathologic parameters. Results: Circulating activin A levels were elevated in patients with MPM when compared with patients with NSCLC or benign lung lesion samples (P <.0001). Also, follistatin and follistatin-like 3 levels were the highest in MPM, although with less difference compared with activin A. Receiver operating characteristic analysis for activin A for separating NSCLC from benign lung lesion showed an area under the curve of 0.856 (95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.94). Activin A levels were higher in patients with cachexia (P <.001). In patients with MPM, activin A levels correlated positively with computed tomographybased baseline tumor size (R = 0.549; P = .010) and the change in tumor size after chemotherapy (R = 0.743; P = .0006). Patients with partial response or stable disease had lower circulating activin A levels than the ones with progressive disease (P = .028). Conclusion: Activin A serum level could be used as a biomarker in differentiating malignant and benign lung tumors. Circulating activin A levels were elevated in MPM and associates with cancer cachexia and reduced chemotherapy response. (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Tervahartiala, Minna; Taimen, Pekka; Mirtti, Tuomas; Koskinen, Ilmari; Ecke, Thorsten; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Bostrom, Peter J. (2017)
    Bladder cancer (BC) is the ninth most common cancer worldwide. Radical cystectomy (RC) with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is recommended for muscle-invasive BC. The challenge of the neoadjuvant approach relates to challenges in selection of patients to chemotherapy that are likely to respond to the treatment. To date, there are no validated molecular markers or baseline clinical characteristics to identify these patients. Different inflammatory markers, including tumor associated macrophages with their plastic pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic functions, have extensively been under interests as potential prognostic and predictive biomarkers in different cancer types. In this immunohistochemical study we evaluated the predictive roles of three immunological markers, CD68, MAC387, and CLEVER-1, in response to NAC and outcome of BC. 41% of the patients had a complete response (pT0N0) to NAC. Basic clinicopathological variables did not predict response to NAC. In contrast, MAC387(+) cells and CLEVER-1(+) macrophages associated with poor NAC response, while CLEVER-1(+) vessels associated with more favourable response to NAC. Higher counts of CLEVER-1+ macrophages associated with poorer overall survival and CD68(+) macrophages seem to have an independent prognostic value in BC patients treated with NAC. Our findings point out that CD68, MAC387, and CLEVER-1 may be useful prognostic and predictive markers in BC.
  • Ali, Abir Salwa; Grönberg, Malin; Langer, Seppo W.; Ladekarl, Morten; Hjortland, Geir Olav; Vestermark, Lene Weber; Österlund, Pia; Welin, Staffan; Gronbaek, Henning; Knigge, Ulrich; Sorbye, Halfdan; Janson, Eva Tiensuu (2018)
    High-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs, G3) are aggressive cancers of the digestive system with poor prognosis and survival. Platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin/carboplatin + etoposide) is considered the first-line palliative treatment. Etoposide is frequently administered intravenously; however, oral etoposide may be used as an alternative. Concerns for oral etoposide include decreased bioavailability, inter-and intra-patient variability and patient compliance. We aimed to evaluate possible differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients treated with oral etoposide compared to etoposide given as infusion. Patients (n = 236) from the Nordic NEC study were divided into three groups receiving etoposide as a long infusion (24 h, n = 170), short infusion (= 5 h, n = 33) or oral etoposide (n = 33) according to hospital tradition. PFS and OS were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier (log-rank), cox proportional hazard ratios and confidence intervals. No statistical differences were observed in PFS or OS when comparing patients receiving long infusion (median PFS 3.8 months, median OS 14.5 months), short infusion (PFS 5.6 months, OS 11.0 months) or oral etoposide (PFS 5.4 months, OS 11.3 months). We observed equal efficacy for the three administration routes suggesting oral etoposide may be safe and efficient in treating high-grade GEP-NEN, G3 patients scheduled for cisplatin/carboplatin + etoposide therapy.
  • Laaksonen, Sanna; Ilonen, Ilkka; Kuosma, Eeva; Sutinen, Eva; Wolff, Henrik; Vehmas, Tapio; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Salo, Jarmo A.; Koli, Katri; Räsänen, Jari; Myllärniemi, Marjukka (2019)
    Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare occupational cancer with a poor prognosis. Even with a multimodality treatment approach, the treatment outcomes remain unsatisfactory. The use of asbestos has been banned in most developed countries, but MPM continues to be a significant occupational disease also in these countries. Aim of this study is to identify modern epidemiology and assess equality in care.Methods: Our study cohort consists of 1010 patients diagnosed with MPM in Finland during 2000-2012. The data were collected from the Finnish Cancer Registry, the National Workers' Compensation Center Registry and the National Registry of Causes of Death, Statistics Finland.Results: Women were diagnosed a mean of 4.5 years later than males (p=.001), but survival did not differ (overall median survival 9.7 months). A workers' compensation claim was more common in males (OR 11.0 [95% CI 7.5-16.2]) and in regions with a major asbestos industry (OR 1.7 [95% CI 1.3-2.2]). One-year and three-year survivals did not differ regionally. Patients without chemotherapy treatment had an inferior survival (RR 1.8 [95% CI 1.5-2.0]). The initial survival benefit gained with pemetrexed was diluted at 51 months.Conclusions: MPM is a disease with a poor prognosis, although chemotherapy appears to improve survival time. Significant gender and regional variation exists among patients, with notable differences in diagnostic and treatment practices. Long-term outcomes with pemetrexed remain indeterminate.Impact: Emphasize centralized consult services for the diagnosis, treatment and support that patients receive for MPM, facilitating equal outcomes and compensation.
  • Mroueh, R.; Haapaniemi, A.; Saarto, T.; Grönholm, L.; Grénman, R.; Salo, T.; Mäkitie, A. A. (2019)
    PurposeLate-stage OTSCC is associated with poor overall survival (OS). Non-curative treatment approach aims to improve quality of life and prolong survival of patients deemed incurable. The purpose of this study was to investigate the used non-curative treatment modalities for OTSSC and patient survival.MethodsAll patients diagnosed with OTSCC and treated with non-curative intent at the HUS Helsinki University Hospital (Helsinki, Finland) during the 12-year period of 2005-2016 were included. Survival analysis after the non-curative treatment decision was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method in this population-based study.ResultsEighty-two patients were identified. A non-curative treatment decision was made at presentation without any previous treatment in 26 patients (7% of all patients diagnosed with OTSCC during the study period). Palliative radiotherapy was administered to 24% of all patients. The average survival time after the non-curative treatment decision was 3.7months (median 2 and range 0-26).ConclusionsDue to the short mean survival time after decision for treatment with non-curative intent, and the notable symptom burden in this patient population, a prompt initiation of all non-curative measures is warranted.
  • KEYNOTE-189 Investigators; Gandhi, L.; Myllärniemi, Marjukka (2018)
    BACKGROUND First-line therapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that lacks targetable mutations is platinum-based chemotherapy. Among patients with a tumor proportion score for programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) of 50% or greater, pembrolizumab has replaced cytotoxic chemotherapy as the first-line treatment of choice. The addition of pembrolizumab to chemotherapy resulted in significantly higher rates of response and longer progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone in a phase 2 trial. METHODS In this double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned (in a 2: 1 ratio) 616 patients with metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC without sensitizing EGFR or ALK mutations who had received no previous treatment for metastatic disease to receive pemetrexed and a platinum-based drug plus either 200 mg of pembrolizumab or placebo every 3 weeks for 4 cycles, followed by pembrolizumab or placebo for up to a total of 35 cycles plus pemetrexed maintenance therapy. Crossover to pembrolizumab monotherapy was permitted among the patients in the placebo-combination group who had verified disease progression. The primary end points were overall survival and progression-free survival, as assessed by blinded, independent central radiologic review. RESULTS After a median follow-up of 10.5 months, the estimated rate of overall survival at 12 months was 69.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 64.1 to 73.8) in the pembrolizumab-combination group versus 49.4% (95% CI, 42.1 to 56.2) in the placebocombination group (hazard ratio for death, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; P<0.001). Improvement in overall survival was seen across all PD-L1 categories that were evaluated. Median progression-free survival was 8.8 months (95% CI, 7.6 to 9.2) in the pembrolizumab-combination group and 4.9 months (95% CI, 4.7 to 5.5) in the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.64; P<0.001). Adverse events of grade 3 or higher occurred in 67.2% of the patients in the pembrolizumab-combination group and in 65.8% of those in the placebo-combination group. CONCLUSIONS In patients with previously untreated metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC without EGFR or ALK mutations, the addition of pembrolizumab to standard chemotherapy of pemetrexed and a platinum-based drug resulted in significantly longer overall survival and progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone.
  • Koskinen, Ilmari; Boström, Peter J.; Taimen, P.; Salminen, A.; Tervahartiala, M.; Sairanen, J.; Erickson, A.; Mirtti, T. (2021)
    Purpose To investigate the role of clinical parameters and immunohistochemical (IHC) biomarkers in their feasibility to predict the effect of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer (MIBC). Materials and methods The first 76 consecutive patients with MIBC treated with NAC and radical cystectomy in two University hospitals in Finland between 2008 and 2013 were chosen for this study. After excluding patients with non-urothelial cancer, less than two cycles of chemotherapy, no tissue material for IHC analysis or non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer in re-review, 59 patients were included in the final analysis. A tissue microarray block was constructed from the transurethral resection samples and IHC stainings of Ki-67, p53, Her-2 and EGFR were made. The correlations between histological features in transurethral resection samples and immune-histochemical stainings were calculated. The associations of clinicopathological parameters and IHC stainings with NAC response were evaluated. Factors affecting survival were estimated. Results The complete response rate after NAC was 44%. A higher number of chemotherapy cycles was associated with better response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. No response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and female gender was associated with decreased cancer-specific survival. The IHC stainings used failed to show an association with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy response and overall or cancer specific survival. Conclusions Patients who do not respond to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy do significantly worse than responders. This study could not find clinical tools to distinguish responders from non-responders. Further studies preferably with larger cohorts addressing this issue are warranted to improve the selection of patients for neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.