Browsing by Subject "CITY"

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  • Mumaw, Laura M.; Raymond, Christopher M. (2021)
    Despite growing interest in promoting urban biodiversity conservation, there are few concrete examples of how nature stewardship initiatives can be rapidly scaled, in number and across landscapes. This paper explores the factors that promote or inhibit the proliferation and impact of collaborations between citizens and their local governments that involve residents in municipal biodiversity conservation efforts in their gardens (wildlife gardening). We studied the Gardens for Wildlife Victoria network in Australia, which supports citizen-agency codevelopment of municipal wildlife gardening programs. In three years the network has expanded from one program to 39 initiatives in various developmental stages in 49% of the local government areas in the state of Victoria. Data are drawn from 21 semi-structured interviews of network participants running or developing programs in 12 municipalities, complemented by a survey of 33 network participants, and participants' evaluation of network workshops. We find that scaling occurs in four different domains of policy, values, locales and participants. Scaling is influenced by six interlinked factors: empowerment of actors; a civil-agency co-design and delivery model; conservation framing; links to and between landscapes and communities; resources - particularly time; and the network's role in promoting innovation and shared learning. Key barriers include short-term, topdown, and monetary agency foci; conservation framed as the principal domain of specialists and professionals; and prioritisation of listed species rather than local species more broadly. We present a framework for considering scaling of biodiversity stewardship and related factors.
  • Firozjaei, Mohammad Karimi; Sedighi, Amir; Firozjaei, Hamzeh Karimi; Kiavarz, Majid; Homaee, Mehdi; Arsanjani, Jamal Jokar; Makki, Mohsen; Naimi, Babak; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem (2021)
    Mining activities and associated actions cause land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes across the world. The objective of this study were to evaluate the historical impacts of mining activities on surface biophysical characteristics, and for the first time, to predict the future changes in pattern of vegetation cover and land surface temperature (LST). In terms of the utilized data, satellite images of Landsat, and meteorological data of Sungun mine in Iran, Athabasca oil sands in Canada, Singrauli coalfield in India and Hambach mine in Germany, were used over the period of 1989-2019. In the first step, the spectral bands of Landsat images were employed to extract historical LULC changes in the study areas based on the homogeneity distance classification algorithm (HDCA). Thereafter, a CA-Markov model was used to predict the future of LULC changes based on the historical changes. In addition, LST and vegetation cover maps were calculated using the single channel algorithm, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), respectively. In the second step, the trends of LST and NDVI variations in different LULC change types and over different time periods were investigated. Finally, a CA-Markov model was used to predict the LST and NDVI maps and the trend of their variations in future. The results indicated that the forest and green space cover was reduced from 9.95 in 1989 to 5.9 Km(2) in 2019 for Sungun mine, from 42.14 in 1999 to 33.09 Km(2) in 2019 for Athabasca oil sands, from 231.46 in 1996 to 263.95 Km(2) in 2016 for Singrauli coalfield, and from 180.38 in 1989 to 133.99 Km(2) in 2017 for Hambach mine, as a result of expansion and development of of mineral activities. Our findings about Sungun revealed that the areal coverage of forest and green space will decrease to 15% of the total study area by 2039, resulting in reduction of the mean NDVI by almost 0.06 and increase of mean standardized LST from 0.52 in 2019 to 0.61 in 2039. our results further indicate that for Athabasca oil sands (Singrauli coalfield, Hambach mine), the mean values of standardized LST and NDVI will change from 0.5 (0.44 and 0.4) and 0.38 (0.38, 0.35) in 2019 (2016, 2017) to 0.57 (0.5, 0.47) and 0.33 (0.32, 0.28), in 2039 (2036, 2035), respectively. This can be mainly attributed to the increasing mining activities in the past as well as future years. The discussion and conclusions presented in this study can be of interest to local planners, policy makers, and environmentalists in order to observe the damages brought to the environment and the society in a larger picture.
  • MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Falfan, Ina; Garcia-Arroyo, Michelle; Lemoine-Rodriguez, Richard; Gomez-Martinez, Miguel A.; Marin-Gomez, Oscar H.; Perez-Maqueo, Octavio; Equihua, Miguel (2022)
    To tackle urban heterogeneity and complexity, several indices have been proposed, commonly aiming to provide information for decision-makers. In this study, we propose a novel and customizable procedure for quantifying urban ecosystem integrity. Based on a citywide approach, we developed an easy-to-use index that contrasts physical and biological variables of urban ecosystems with a given reference system. The Urban Ecosystem Integrity Index (UEII) is the sum of the averages from the variables that make up its intensity of urbanization and biological components. We applied the UEII in a Mexican tropical city using land surface temperature, built cover, and the richness of native plants and birds. The overall ecosystem integrity of the city, having montane cloud, tropical dry, and temperate forests as reference systems, was low (-0.34 +/- SD 0.32), showing that, beyond its biodiverse greenspace network, the built-up structure highly differs from the ecosystems of reference. The UEII showed to be a flexible and easy-to-calculate tool to evaluate ecosystem integrity for cities, allowing for comparisons between or among cities, as well as the sectors/regions within cities. If used properly, the index could become a useful tool for decision making and resource allocation at a city level.
  • Wallin, Antti; Leino, Helena; Jokinen, Ari; Laine, Markus; Tuomisaari, Johanna; Backlund, Pia (2018)
    Urban strategies, representing stories of possible futures, often intervene in already established local communities and therefore call for a considerate urban intervention. This article utilises the ideas of Henri Lefebvre's socially produced space and of literature on stories involved in planning. Our empirical example tells a story of urban densification aspirations for an inner-city neighbourhood in Tampere, Finland. By combining the interviews of local people and planners with policy documents, we argue that planners' stories pay too little attention to the place and to local stories. Planners' abstract visions of the future and local stories building on lived experiences both draw meanings from the same place but have very different intentions. In our case, the consultation of the project started out wrong because the planners neglected a neighbourhood thick in symbolic meanings and the local stories' power in resistance. By understanding the place as polyphonic in its foundation, planners could learn about the symbolic elements and reasons for people's place attachment, and thus end up re-writing the place together. Urban interventions such as urban densification should connect to the place as part of its polyphonic historical continuum and acknowledge the residents' place attachments.
  • Alghamdi, Mansour A.; Al-Hunaiti, Afnan; Arar, Sharif; Khoder, Mamdouh; Abdelmaksoud, Ahmad S.; Al-Jeelani, Hisham; Lihavainen, Heikki; Hyvärinen, Antti; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I.; Almehmadi, Fahd M.; Zaidan, Martha A.; Hussein, Tareq; Dada, Lubna (2019)
    Ground level ozone (O-3) plays an important role in controlling the oxidation budget in the boundary layer and thus affects the environment and causes severe health disorders. Ozone gas, being one of the well-known greenhouse gases, although present in small quantities, contributes to global warming. In this study, we present a predictive model for the steady-state ozone concentrations during daytime (13:00-17:00) and nighttime (01:00-05:00) at an urban coastal site. The model is based on a modified approach of the null cycle of O-3 and NOx and was evaluated against a one-year data-base of O-3 and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) measured at an urban coastal site in Jeddah, on the west coast of Saudi Arabia. The model for daytime concentrations was found to be linearly dependent on the concentration ratio of NO2 to NO whereas that for the nighttime period was suggested to be inversely proportional to NO2 concentrations. Knowing that reactions involved in tropospheric O-3 formation are very complex, this proposed model provides reasonable predictions for the daytime and nighttime concentrations. Since the current description of the model is solely based on the null cycle of O-3 and NOx, other precursors could be considered in future development of this model. This study will serve as basis for future studies that might introduce informing strategies to control ground level O-3 concentrations, as well as its precursors' emissions.
  • Soininvaara, Ilppo (2020)
    In this article, I analyze the politics of urbanization and competitiveness-led state spatial transformations through political narratives. By analyzing empirical material, I search for ways of reasoning and rationalities that disclose the dynamics of the depoliticization and politicization of different spatial transformations of urbanization. Based on extensive interviews, I argue that a general understanding of urbanization as an external, global inevitability and as a force prevails among political elites. This key rationality and other sedimented knowledge duly opens up new political debates on the proper political management of urbanization and national adaptation. The order of reasoning is clear: the political elites argue that the perceived inevitability, common good and state of crisis necessitate national spatial transformations in order to secure the competitiveness of the state. As a result, new spatial hierarchies are forming as an adaptive strategy.
  • Esau, Igor; Bobylev, Leonid; Donchenko, Vladislav; Gnatiuk, Natalia; Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Konstantinov, Pavel; Kulmala, Markku; Mahura, Alexander; Makkonen, Risto; Manvelova, Alexandra; Miles, Victoria; Petaja, Tuukka; Poutanen, Pyry; Fedorov, Roman; Varentsov, Mikhail; Wolf, Tobias; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Baklanov, Alexer (2021)
    Sustaining urban environmental quality requires effective policy measures that integrate local monitoring and contextualized high-resolution modelling with actionable scenarios. Knowledgeable decision making in this field can nowadays be supported by an array of atmospheric models, but their transfer into an Integrated Urban hydrometeorological, climate and environmental Services (IUS) remains challenging. Methodological aspects that are beyond pure technicalities of the model-to-model coupling are still poorly explored. Modeling downscaling chains lack their most user-relevant link - urban-to-neighborhood scale observations and models. This study looks at a socio-environmental context of the high-resolution atmospheric modeling in the case study of the Arctic urban cluster of Apatity and Kirovsk, Russia. We demonstrate that atmospheric dynamics of the lowermost, turbulent air layers is highly localized during the most influential episodes of atmospheric pollution. Urban micro-climates create strong circulations (winds) that are sensitive to the local environmental context. As the small-scale turbulence dynamics is not spatially resolved in meteorological downscaling or statistical modeling, capturing this local context requires specialized turbulence-resolving (large-eddy simulation) models. Societal acceptance of the urban modeling could be increased in the IUS with horizontally integrated modeling driven by localized scenarios. This study presents an enhanced integrated approach, which incorporates a large-eddy simulation model PALM into meteorological downscaling chains of a climate model (EC-EARTH), a numerical weather prediction - atmospheric chemical transport model (ENVIRO-HIRLAM) and a regional-scale meteorological model (COSMO-CLM). We discuss how this approach could be further developed into an environmental component of a digital "smart city".
  • Kuussaari, Mikko; Toivonen, Marjaana; Heliola, Janne; Poyry, Juha; Mellado, Jorge; Ekroos, Johan; Hyyrylainen, Vesa; Vähä-Piikkiö, Inkeri; Tiainen, Juha (2021)
    Good knowledge on how increasing urbanization affects biodiversity is essential in order to preserve biodiversity in urban green spaces. We examined how urban development affects species richness and total abundance of butterflies as well as the occurrence and abundance of individual species within the Helsinki metropolitan area in Northern Europe. Repeated butterfly counts in 167 separate 1-km-long transects within Helsinki covered the entire urbanization gradient, quantified by human population density and the proportion of built-up area (within a 50-m buffer surrounding each butterfly transect). We found consistently negative effects of both human population density and built-up area on all studied butterfly variables, though butterflies responded markedly more negatively to increasing human population density than to built-up area. Responses in butterfly species richness and total abundance showed higher variability in relation to proportion of built-up area than to human density, especially in areas of high human density. Increasing human density negatively affected both the abundance and the occurrence of 47% of the 19 most abundant species, whereas, for the proportion of built-up area, the corresponding percentages were 32% and 32%, respectively. Species with high habitat specificity and low mobility showed higher sensitivity to urbanization (especially high human population density) than habitat generalists and mobile species that dominated the urban butterfly communities. Our results suggest that human population density provides a better indicator of urbanization effects on butterflies compared to the proportion of built-up area. The generality of this finding should be verified in other contexts and taxonomic groups.
  • Laakso, Senja (2017)
    Despite recent political and scientific interest in experiments, there is little research on participants' experiences of experimentation. This article focuses on an experiment during which eleven participants gave up ownership of their cars, and in return, received free travel cards to local buses for six months. The experiment is analysed from two perspectives. Firstly, the impact of the experiment on carbon emissions of the participants' everyday mobility is estimated based on weekly mobility surveillances and travel card data. Secondly, the practice theoretical approach is used to study the change in participants' mobility routines. The results indicate that the processes of de- and re-routinisation depend on multiple structural and individual factors reinforcing each other. Although carbon emissions of everyday mobility were reduced because of the experiment, there was variation in how the new routines were (or were not) acquired among the participants. The article suggests that, when analysed from the practice perspective, experiments might work as tools for mutual learning on how to make local public transportation more attractive among residents. Attention should also be paid to reducing the need for driving in the first place, as well as to providing more support and services for car-free living. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Nygren, Anja Kaarina (2018)
    Cities in different parts of the world are going through intensive transformations based on institutional efforts to govern urban spaces and populations in the face of global environmental change and neoliberalization of governance. This essay examines inequalities and interconnectivities in urban governance and justice, drawing on a case-study of three, socially-differentiated sectors of the city of Villahermosa, Mexico, between 2011 and 2016. My analysis contributes to a multi-dimensional approach toward justice, and the cognate fields of right to the city, and segregation and inequality, that encompasses: (1) (re)distribution of residents’ exposure to risks and access to services; (2) recognition of the causes and consequences of risks and vulnerabilities; (3) fields of representation available for different residents; and (4) residents’ capabilities to recover from disasters and achieve everyday well-being within the existing urban governance and service provision structures. Instead of conceptualizing segregated cities as composed of isolated worlds, I argue that it is only possible to understand how the prevailing forms of governance produce multifaceted inequalities through a relational analysis of how residents from different parts of the city interact with the authorities and with each other. The study shows how residents’ tactics to accommodate, reconfigure and contest institutional endeavors to place them in hierarchical positions link to their differentiated ways of constructing urban space.
  • Zaidan, Martha Arbayani; Hossein Motlagh, Naser; Fung, Pak Lun; Lu, David; Timonen, Hilkka; Kuula, Joel; Niemi, Jarkko V; Tarkoma, Sasu; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Hussein, Tareq (2020)
    This paper presents the development of air quality low-cost sensors (LCS) with improved accuracy features. The LCS features integrate machine learning based calibration models and virtual sensors. LCS performances are analyzed and some LCS variables with low performance are improved through intelligent field-calibrations. Meteorological variables are calibrated using linear dynamic models. While, due to the non-linear relationship to reference instruments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are calibrated using non-linear machine learning models. However, due to sensor drifts or faults, carbon dioxide (CO2) does not present correlation to reference instrument. As a result, the LCS for CO2 is not feasible to be calibrated. Hence, to estimate the CO2 concentration, mathematical models are developed to be integrated in the calibrated LCS, known as a virtual sensor. In addition, another virtual sensor is developed to demonstrate the capability of estimating air pollutant concentrations, e.g. black carbon, when the physical sensor devices are not available. In our paper, calibration models and virtual sensors are established using corresponding reference instruments that are installed on two reference stations. This strategy generalizes the models of calibration and virtual sensing which then allows LCS to be deployed in field independently with a high accuracy. Our proposed methodology enables scaling-up accurate air pollution mapping appropriate for smart cities.
  • Lewis, Patricia; Adamson, Maria; Biese, Ingrid; Kelan, Elisabeth (2019)
  • Väisänen, Tuomas Lauri Aleksanteri; Järv, Olle; Toivonen, Tuuli; Hiippala, Tuomo (2022)
    Globalization, urbanization and international mobility have led to increasingly diverse urban populations. Compared to traditional traits for measuring urban diversity, such as ethnicity and country of origin, the role of language remains underexplored in understanding diversity, interactions between different groups and socio-spatial segregation. In this article, we analyse language use in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area by combining individual-level register data, socio-economic grid database, mobile phone and social media data to understand spatio-temporal patterns of linguistic diversity better. We measured linguistic diversity using metrics developed in the fields of ecology and information theory, and performed spatial clustering and regression analyses to explore the spatio-temporal patterns of linguistic diversity. We found spatial and temporal differences between register and social media data, show that linguistic diversity is influenced by the physical and socio-economic environment, and identified areas where different linguistic groups are likely to interact. Our results provide insights for urban planning and understanding urban diversity through linguistic information. As global urbanization, international migration and refugee flows and climate change drive diverse populations into cities, understanding urban diversity and its implications for urban planning and sustainability become increasingly important.
  • Franzini, Florencia; Berghäll, Sami; Toppinen, Anne; Toivonen, Ritva (2023)
    Municipalities across Finland are promoting wooden multistorey construction as a low-carbon alternative for building construction. However, do attitudes towards implementing these alternatives stem from the opportunity to reduce carbon emissions or because these alternatives are perceived to improve local economies? This research employs a survey to collects the attitudes of Finnish municipal civil servants towards implementing wooden multistorey buildings in their municipalities. The respondents represent a mix of administrative professionals such as planners, real estate managers, building inspectors and other strategic managerial professionals (n = 273, 8% response rate). Their responses reflect views from approximately 8% of all municipal civil servants working on municipal land use and planning issues during 2019. The findings reveal attitudes towards implementing wooden multistorey buildings are engendered by fulfilling ecological development, economic development, technical quality and output efficiency goals. Furthermore, comparing municipal planners to other municipal administrators reveals dissimilar planning logics. Municipal planners holistically prioritize the project's ecological and economic development outcomes. Other administrators chiefly prioritize economic development outcomes. Hence, some municipal administrators may value wooden multistorey construction primarily as an activity to improve municipal vitality rather than as a holistic spatial planning solution. Future research should identify whether these divergences lead to planning tensions within municipal administrations.
  • Minoia, Paola; Jokela, Salla (2022)
    During the past decade, digital platforms like Airbnb and Uber have enabled the development of a new generation of entrepreneurs in tourism and mobility. The mediation of services through digital platforms was initially presented as a form of a sharing economy led by non-professional providers, but it has grown into a new form of capitalist speculation. This special issue presents theoretical and empirical perspectives on platform-mediated tourism by focusing on Airbnb, which is the most notable digital platform specialising in short-term property rental. The case studies included in this issue show that the impacts of short-term renting on neighbourhoods, residents and tourism operators are uneven, but increasingly significant. The authors explore issues of social justice in terms of residents' quality of life, working conditions, the housing market, urban structure, and the morality of operators who navigate through normative loopholes. They also examine the governance challenges caused by the inadequacy of existing legal frameworks to better regulate platform-mediated activities, and the reactions generated by social movements and city governments. With the outbreak of Covid-19, networks of cities are taking action against platforms to regain their control over data that is needed to regulate platform-mediated tourism services.
  • Korpilo, Silviya; Kaaronen, Roope Oskari; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Raymond, Prof. Christopher (2022)
    In the last two decades, there has been an exponential increase in application of public participation GIS (PPGIS) methods to urban green and blue space (UGBS) planning. However, integrating different elements of environ-mental justice in PPGIS research is still in its infancy, especially in regards to the deep and less visible issues related to recognition and participation of different groups in local green space planning and management. Here we present a new method for assessing perceived recognition and procedural justice with respect to UGBS in the Amager island of Copenhagen, Denmark. We collected survey data together with 2187 place-based values and preferences from 298 local residents. Using Exploratory Factor Analysis, we classified respondents in four clusters representing low to high perceived recognition and procedural justice. We then examined how these clusters relate to socio-demographics and the spatial distribution of mapped values and preferences. Results indicated no significant differences in terms of income and age between clusters. However, there was clear variation in the spatial distribution and type of values and preferences respondents from different clusters assigned, particularly for those who feel unrecognized and do not participate in local environmental decision -making compared to all other groups. In addition, gender had a significant effect on the perceptions of recog-nition and procedure. Female respondents scored lower on procedural justice than male and mapped landscape values and preferences closer to home than males, thus suggesting that gender inequalities can be deeply embedded in everyday public spaces and practices. Planning inclusive and environmentally just UGBS requires not only incorporating such gender perspectives, but a more flexible, intersectional and relational understanding of space that reflects the everyday needs of different and marginalized groups.
  • Tani, Sirpa (2017)
    The article investigates people–environment relationships from the viewpoint of humanistic and cultural geographies and highlights the importance of subjective experiences and emotional place attachment in the construction of environmental attitudes. Some core concepts of these research fields (e.g. ‘place’, ‘insideness/outsideness’, ‘topophilia/topophobia) are defined and their meanings for environmental relations are interpreted. Empirical material is based on the written essays of 65 students who participated in the Introduction Course of Environmental Education at the University of Helsinki, Finland. The analysis concentrated on students’ childhood memories to find out what kind of environmental experiences were regarded as significant from the adults’ perspective. The essays showed how the students’ environmental attitudes were not always based on their experiences of nature but their connection to the environment could also be constructed in urban settings. The role of everyday environments and other people during childhood years were regarded as essential elements in constructing close bonds with the environment.
  • Sahraravand, Ahmad; Haavisto, Anna-Kaisa; Leivo, Tiina (2022)
    Objective To estimate resource use and the costs of eye injuries in 2011-2012 in the Helsinki University Eye Hospital (HUEH), which covers 1.6 million people in Southern Finland. Methods This population-based study consisted of all new patients (1,151) with eye injuries in one year. The data were from hospital records, internal HUEH accountancy, and prospectively from questionnaires. The costs of direct health care, transportation, and lost productivity were obtained and estimated for the follow-up period of three months. The estimated future costs were discussed. Results During the follow-up, the total cost was 2,899,000 Euros (EUR) (= EUR 1,870,300/one million population), including lost productivity (EUR 1,415,000), direct health care (EUR 1,244,000), and transportation (EUR 240,000). The resources used included 6,902 days of lost productivity, 2,436 admissions and transportations, 314 minor procedures, 313 inpatient days, 248 major surgeries, and 86 radiological images. One open globe injury was the costliest (EUR 13,420/patient), but contusions had the highest overall cost (EUR 1,019,500), due to their high occurrence and number of follow-ups. Conclusions Eye injuries cause a major burden through high costs of direct health care and lost productivity: the imminent costs were EUR 1,870,000/one million population, and the future costs were estimated to EUR 3,741,400/one million population. Prevention remains the main factor to consider for better cost-efficiency.
  • Ogola, Joseph Ganda; Alburkat, Hussein; Masika, Moses; Korhonen, Essi; Uusitalo, Ruut; Nyaga, Philip; Anzala, Omu; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja; Forbes, Kristian M. (2021)
    Rodents are known reservoir hosts for a number of pathogens that can spillover into humans and cause disease. These threats are likely to be elevated in informal urban settlements (i.e., slums), where rodent and human densities are often high, rodents live in close proximity to humans, and human knowledge of disease risks and access to health care is often limited. While recent research attention has focused on zoonotic risks posed by urban rodents in major cities around the world, informal urban settlements have received far less attention. Here we report on a study in which samples were collected from 195 commensal rodents and 124 febrile human patients in the Kibera informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya (one of the largest informal urban settlements in the world). Using immunofluorescence assays, samples were screened for antibodies against common rodent-borne zoonotic virus groups, namely orthopoxviruses, arenaviruses, and hantaviruses. We detected antibodies against orthopoxviruses in rodents (4.1% positive) and antibodies in humans against orthopoxviruses, arenaviruses, and hantaviruses (4.8%, 3.2%, and 8.1% positive, respectively). No rodents had antibodies against arenaviruses or hantaviruses. These results provide strong evidence for the circulation of zoonotic viruses in rodents and humans in Kibera urban settlement, but discordance between viruses detected in host groups indicates that other species or taxa may also serve as reservoirs for these zoonotic viruses or that humans testing positive could have been exposed outside of the Kibera settlement. More broadly, this study highlights the threat posed by zoonotic viruses in informal urban settlements and the need to mitigate human exposure risks.
  • Jarvi, Leena; Havu, Minttu; Ward, Helen C.; Bellucco, Veronica; McFadden, Joseph P.; Toivonen, Tuuli; Heikinheimo, Vuokko; Kolari, Pasi; Riikonen, Anu; Grimmond, C. Sue B. (2019)
    There is a growing need to simulate the effect of urban planning on both local climate and greenhouse gas emissions. Here, a new urban surface carbon dioxide (CO2) flux module for the Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme is described and evaluated using eddy covariance observations at two sites in Helsinki in 2012. The spatial variability and magnitude of local-scale anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 flux components at high spatial (250 m x 250 m) and temporal (hourly) resolution are examined by combining high-resolution (down to 2 m) airborne lidar-derived land use data and mobility data to account for people's movement. Urban effects are included in the biogenic components parameterized using urban eddy covariance and chamber observations. Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme reproduces the seasonal and diurnal variability of the CO2 flux well. Annual totals deviate 3% from observations in the city center and 2% in a suburban location. In the latter, traffic is the dominant CO2 source but summertime vegetation partly offsets traffic-related emissions. In the city center, emissions from traffic and human metabolism dominate and the vegetation effect is minor due to the low proportion of vegetation surface cover (22%). Within central Helsinki, human metabolism accounts for 39% of the net local-scale emissions and together with road traffic is to a large extent responsible for the spatial variability of the emissions. Annually, the biogenic emissions and sinks are in near balance and thus the effect of vegetation on the carbon balance is small in this high-latitude city.