Browsing by Subject "CLADOCERA"

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  • Luoto, Tomi P.; Kivila, E. Henriikka; Kotrys, Bartosz; Plociennik, Mateusz; Rantala, Marttiina; Nevalainen, Liisa (2020)
    Independent Arctic records of temperature and precipitation from the same proxy archives are rare. Nevertheless, they are important for providing detailed information on long-term climate changes and temperature-precipitation relationships in the context of large-scale atmospheric dynamics. Here, we used chironomid and cladoceran fossil assemblages to reconstruct summer air-temperature and water-level changes, during the past 400 years, in a small lake located in Finnish Lapland. Temperatures remained persistently cold over the Little Ice Age (LIA), but increased in the 20th century. After a cooler phase in the 1970s, the climate rapidly warmed to the record-high temperatures of the most recent decades. The lake-level reconstruction suggested persistently wet conditions for the LIA, followed by a dry period between similar to 1910 and 1970 CE, when the lake apparently became almost dry. Since the 1980s, the lake level has returned to a similar position as during the IAA. The temperature development was consistent with earlier records, but a significant local feature was found in the lake-level reconstruction the LIA appears to have been continuously wet, without the generally depicted dry phase during the 18th and 19th centuries. Therefore, the results suggest local precipitation patterns and enforce the concept of spatially divergent LIA conditions.
  • Booksmythe, Isobel; Gerber, Nina; Ebert, Dieter; Kokko, Hanna (2018)
    Cyclical parthenogenesis presents an interesting challenge for the study of sex allocation, as individuals' allocation decisions involve both the choice between sexual and asexual reproduction, and the choice between sons and daughters. Male production is therefore expected to depend on ecological and evolutionary drivers of overall investment in sex, and those influencing male reproductive value during sexual periods. We manipulated experimental populations, and made repeated observations of natural populations over their growing season, to disentangle effects of population density and the timing of sex from effects of adult sex ratio on sex allocation in cyclically parthenogenetic Daphnia magna. Male production increased with population density, the major ecological driver of sexual reproduction; however, this response was dampened when the population sex ratio was more male-biased. Thus, in line with sex ratio theory, we show that D.magna adjust offspring sex allocation in response to the current population sex ratio.
  • Korponai, Janos; Köver, Csilla; Lopez-Blanco, Charo; Gyulai, Istvan; Forro, Laszlo; Katalinic, Ana; Ketola, Mirva; Nevalainen, Liisa; Luoto, Tomi P.; Sarmaja-Korjonen, Kaarina Margareta; Magyari, Enikö; Weckström, Jan; Urak, Istvan; Vadkerti, Edit; Buczko, Krisztina (2020)
    The body size of aquatic invertebrates is, to a great extent, dependent on ambient temperature, but size distributions are also determined by other factors like food supply and predation. The effect of temperature on organisms is formulated in the temperature-size hypothesis, which predicts a smaller body size with increasing temperature. In this study, the effect of temperature on the subfossil remains of three littoral Cladocera (Alona affnis, A. quadrangularis, and Chydorus cf. sphaericus) was investigated. Exoskeletal remains of these species can be found in large numbers in lacustrine sediments and over a wide north-south range in Europe. The total length of both headshield and postabdomen for A. affinis and A. quadrangularis and carapace length for C. cf. sphaericus were measured to observe their response to changes in latitude and temperature. A different response to ambient temperature in the growth of body parts was observed. The size of the headshields of both Alona species and of the carapace of Chydorus was significantly larger in colder regions as opposed to warm ones. It turned out that the postabdomen was not a good predictor of ambient temperature. While the sizes of all remains increased with latitude, the sizes of the Alona remains was smaller in the mountain lakes of the Southern Carpathians than in other cold lakes, in this case in Finland, a fact indicative of the importance of other factors on size distribution. This study demonstrates that a morphological response to climate is present in littoral cladocerans, and, therefore, changes in the length of headshield and carapace may be used as a proxy for climate changes in paleolimnological records.
  • Leppänen, Jaakko Johannes; Luoto, Tomi P.; Weckström, Jan (2019)
    The salinization of freshwater environments is a global concern, and one of the largest sources of salinated water is the mining industry. An increasing number of modern mines are working with low grade sulfide ores, resulting in increased volumes of potentially harmful saline drainage. We used water monitoring data, together with data on sedimentary fossil remains (cladoceran, diatom and chironomid), to analyze the spatio-temporal (5 sampling locations and 3 sediment depths) impact of salinated mine water originating from the Talvivaara/Terrafame open cast mine on multiple components of the aquatic ecosystem of Lake Jormasjärvi, Finland. Lake Jormasjärvi is the fourth and largest lake in a chain of lakes along the path of the mine water. Despite the location and large water volume, the mine water has changed the chemistry of Lake Jormasjärvi, reflected in increased electrical conductivity values since 2010. The ecological impact is significant around the inflow region of the lake, as all biological indicator groups show a rapid and directional shift towards new species composition. There is a clear trend in improved water quality as one moves further from the point of inflow, and as one looks back in time. Our results show that salinated mine water may induce rapid and large scale changes, even far downstream along a chain of several sinking basins. This is of special importance in cases where large amounts of waste water are processed in the vicinity of protected habitats.