Browsing by Subject "CLASS"

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  • Salomaa, Riikka-Liisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Objectives. In this study, the aim is to analyze whether the learning environments of drama lessons support creativity. Based on earlier research, creativity was understood as an ability that can be found in everyone. Creative environment, however, was considered to have several characteristics, two of which are; positive climate and student-centered teaching. The purpose of the study is to find out whether the drama lessons have positive climate and whether the teaching is student-centered or not. In addition, the aim is to analyze how these two phenomena function as a part of the creative environment of drama lessons. Furthermore, the aim is to test and develop The Classroom Assessment Scoring System™ (CLASS) observation tool in the context of drama lessons. Methods. The study is defined as a qualitative case study although some quantitative measures were also made. The subject of the present study was eight drama lessons which were given to pupils ranging from first to third graders. The research material was collected by videotaping two lessons from four class teachers all specialized in drama. The material was analyzed by using two of the CLASS observation tool's parts; one for observing positive climate and another for observing student-centered teaching. In addition to the CLASS tool, the research material was analyzed by measuring the time used for creative and student-centered action. Results and conclusions. The research shows that drama lessons support children's creative learning as pupils generated new ideas and solutions, on average, half of the time during the lessons. The drama lessons received high grades (5–7 on a scale of 1–7) with the CLASS tool, both in positive climate and in student-centeredness. This implies that the drama lessons' learning climate was positive and their teaching was student-centered. On average ⅔ (64%) of the time, the lessons were student-centered. The connection between student-centered teaching and creative action was clear as an average of 80 % of the student-centered action was also creative. The current understanding is that positive climate is one of the key components of creative learning environments. This is why it is justifiable to assume that the drama lessons' high levels of positive climate were one of the reasons why their learning environments supported children's creative learning. In conclusion, positive climate and student-centered teaching are key elements of the creative environment of drama lessons, and the CLASS tool offers one possible framework for developing a new instrument for analyzing the quality of teaching in drama lessons.
  • Anttila, Rosa (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Objectives. In this study, the aim is to examine pupils' behaviour and behaviour management in drama lessons. Drama education is based on student-centred teaching and experimental learning, which is seen as a challenge for behaviour management and a huge risk for misbehaviour. On the other hand, in drama education pupils learn through creating and producing different solutions in groups, which is not possible in a strictly controlled environment. The aim of the study is also to clarify whether the behaviour management prevents group creativity in drama. At the same time, in this study, the observation tool of The Class Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) and its suitability for analysing the behaviour management of drama will be evaluated. Methods. This study is defined as a qualitative case study. The subject of the study was eight drama lessons for pupils ranging from first to third graders. The research material consisted of secondary video data that had been shot in drama lessons of four class teachers all specialised in drama. The material was analysed by using the behaviour management section of the CLASS tool and by categorising the situations of misbehaviour and the means of behaviour management. The results were then compared to previous study results of creative action in the drama lessons. Results and conclusions. The research shows that the pupils behaved as per the expectations and there were only minor occasions of misbehaviour in the lessons. Pupil behaviour received mainly high grades (6–7 on a scale of 1–7) while the grades of behaviour management were constantly lower (3,5–6 on a scale of 1–7). Behaviour management was based on reactivity instead of proactivity. The results endorse previous information that pupil compliance is supported by persistent prevention including created and sustained drama contract as well as active working for good group relations and positive atmosphere. Pupil behaviour was at its best when the teachers did not constantly control the pupils. Previous research shows that high-quality behaviour management supports group creativity in drama. CLASS tool is seen suitable for analysing behaviour management in drama lessons especially when considering drama elements such as the drama contract and pupil devotion.
  • Tikkanen, Juhani (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objectives. The aim of this case study is to find out whether negative climate appears in primary school drama lessons. Previous research has shown that climate has a huge impact on schooling. A positive climate in school gives pupils a better opportunity to learn and provides pupils with more opportunities to be creative. Drama and creativity are strongly linked together because in drama, pupils work in creative way. A negative climate in turn reduces pupils' chances to learn and to be creative. Therefore, studying negative climate in drama lessons is of importance. In this study, I compared negative climate in drama lessons given by graduated classroom teachers' with those given by student teachers. I measured negative climate with The Classroom Assessment Scoring System™ (CLASS). During the study I also evaluated how the CLASS-scoring system worked in measuring the negative climate of the drama lessons. Methods. My study was a qualitative case study and the method was video analysis. I analyzed eight drama lessons with another student, Pauliina Kivi. The lessons were videotaped during the autumn of 2013 and the spring of 2014. Kivi used the same videotapes as material for her study. The level of the pupils in the videos varied from pre-school to third-grade. Four of the teachers in the videos were graduated classroom teachers who all had some kind of qualification for teaching drama. Other four were student teachers who had studied drama education as their minor subject. The videos were analyzed by using the CLASS-scoring system. A negative climate score was given to every exercise of every lesson. Results and conclusions. The results showed that negative climate took place in the observed lessons but the scores were low. One exception aside, the lessons of the teacher students received higher scores in negative climate than the lessons of the graduated teachers. However, none of the scores reached even the middle of the CLASS scale of negative climate. Therefore, according to this study, drama lessons do not have a negative climate in general. CLASS-scoring system turned out to be suitable for observing the negative climate in drama lessons. CLASS-scoring system can also be applied to evaluate how teacher or students create negative climate.
  • Gustafsson, Jasmine (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. Based on the theory behind drama education, the learning potential of drama resides in working in fictional environments. The natural tendency of children to play and imagine is at the center of drama education, so the defining of play and fiction in relation to working in fictional environments were crucial. The aim of the study is to develop and test the Fictional Work Meter, which can be used to examine the different aspects of working in fiction on drama lessons; fictitious realities and fictional roles, planning fiction, ways of creating fictional environments, the clarity between fiction and reality, and the pupils' commitment to working in fiction. The study also examines the level of fictional work on eight 1-3 grade drama lessons using the Fictional Work Meter. Methods. This study is a qualitative case study using the numerical analysis of the Fictional Work Meter that is based on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) classroom observation tool. The eight filmed drama lessons used in the research were analyzed both verbally and in numerical values in the different categories of fictional work. The reliability of the research results was enhanced by making the analysis in co-operation with another analysist. Results and conclusions. The Fictional Work Meter developed for this study was well suited for analyzing the various aspects of working in fiction on drama lessons in the research material. All the analyzed drama lessons contained either moderate (4-5) or high (6-7) levels of working in fiction. Based on the high values, it could be assumed that teachers specialized in drama teaching were able to use fictional work on their drama lessons. The positive attitude and high intensity of the students towards working in fictitious reality supported the assumption. A result of this study was also the creation of a design template to raise the level of working in fiction on drama lessons.
  • Louhivuori, Nelli (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objectives. The academic relevance of this study is to increase knowledge of the factors that improve the quality of drama education. The study uses Instructional Learning Formats (hereinafter referred to as ILF) as the starting point. The first research question examines what kinds of ILF's were employed in the analysed drama lessons. The Second research question aims to find out if those ILF's are linked to group creativity during drama. The third and final research question scrutinizes the suitability of The Classroom Assessment Scoring System™ (CLASS) observation instrument to analyse drama lessons. Methods. This study is a qualitative case study. The main focus of the research were the different ILF's employed in first to third grade drama lessons. The research material consisted of eight taped drama lessons held by specialized drama teachers. The material was analysed by using the CLASS observation instrument focusing on the use of ILF's during drama classes and does their use generate group creativity. The main factors that were examined were the influence of teacher's behaviour and the methods used by the teacher on student's staying interested and committed to teaching activities. Conclusions. The examined lessons received mid and high range scores (4-6, scale being 1-7). Central factors to engaging students and increasing group creativity were the teacher's personal involvement, presence, facilitating student's engagement, clarity of learning objectives and creating an understanding and open-minded atmosphere in class. The best drama methods to support group creativity are those that utilize work in small groups. Especially consensual planning in small groups improves the possibility for students to participate, present their own ideas and to strive to find creative solutions together to hypothetical problems presented during drama.
  • Kivi, Pauliina (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objectives. The purpose of this study is to investigate the quality of feedback in drama lessons. The aim in this study is to analyse and compare the quality of feedback of class teachers and teacher trainees. In addition, the aim is to test and develop The Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) observation tool in the context of drama lessons. Methods. The study is defined as a qualitative case study although some quantitative measures were also used. The research material consisted of secondary video data that had been filmed in drama lessons of four class teachers and four teacher trainees. The videos were analysed by using the quality of feedback section of the CLASS. Results and conclusions. The research shows that the quality of feedback on analysed lessons is perfunctory and the amount of feedback is low. On a scale of 1–7 none of the lessons got high grades 6–7. The quality of feedback was low or middle-range on every lesson. The qualified teachers got higher grades than teacher trainees on analysed lessons. CLASS tool is seen suitable for analysing the quality of feedback on drama lessons when also considering the non-verbal feedback. Non-verbal feedback includes teacher's actions, facial expressions and the use of space in the classroom.
  • Koivula, Sini (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Objectives. The aim of this study is to find out in which ways the examinee drama lessons enhance students' thinking skills and what is the quality of the examinee lessons from the aspect of concept development. Furthermore, the aim is to study how the CLASS-system applies as an analyzing tool in concept development (or enhancing thinking skills) during drama lessons. On the grounds of previous studies thinking skills are defined to contain both creative thinking skills and critical thinking skills. In addition, the unification of creative thinking and critical thinking and the thinking that is generated due to the unification are described in this study. Testing and developing of The Classroom Assessment Scoring System™ (CLASS) in context of drama education is an important part of this study. Methods. This study is a qualitative case study which also contains some features of quantitative study. The subject of the present study was eight drama lessons given to pupils ranging from first to third graders. The research material was collected by videotaping two lessons from four classroom teachers all specialized in drama. The material was analyzed by using the CLASS observation tool's part "concept development". The research material was analyzed by two examiners in the intention of improving the reliability of the study. Results and conclusions. The study shows that drama lessons support the development of pupils' thinking skills as pupils were able to participate to activities that enhance thinking skills during the examinee lessons. Those activities were carried out in accordance of the CLASS observation tool's part concept development. The drama lessons received middle range grades (3–7 on a scale of 1–7) with the CLASS tool in concept development. When the lessons were evaluated with the observation tool that was modified specifically for evaluation of drama lessons, the lessons got even higher grades. These results show that it is possible to enhance pupils thinking skills and support the development of those skills during drama lessons. Some of the lessons got high grades from the dimension of analysis and reasoning and from the dimension of creating at the same time. This indicates that the usage of drama in teaching makes it possible to learn and enhance creative thinking and critical thinking simultaneously and that when using drama it is possible that creative thinking and critical thinking are joined together. In addition, the CLASS-tool turned out to be a convenient instrument for developing a suitable tool for analyzing the quality of drama education. As a result of the study a tool for analyzing the part of concept development during drama lessons was created.
  • Valla, Emmi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. In this study the aim is to examine teacher’s actions from selected perspective. The perspective for observation and examination is teacher as a creative role model –observational instrument. This instrument is created using previous research and studies and it is based on CLASS-observational instrument (Classroom Assessment Scoring System). The idea behind this study and teacher as a creative role model –observational instrument is that teacher’s actions have significant influence in student’s creativity and especially creative pedagogical environment. Teachers actions as a creative role model were divided into three different categories; 1. teacher’s presence and nonverbal communication, 2. teacher’s participation and demonstration during drama lessons and 3. teacher’s flexibility as in use of time and willingness to change the direction of the drama lesson due to student’s offers and ideas. Methods. The study is a qualitative case-study. The research material consists eight process-drama lessons. Lessons were filmed by Larissa Säntti and Riikka-Liisa Salomaa back in 2014. The material was observed and analyzed using teacher as a creative role model –observational instrument. The research material was analyzed together with my research partner Jere Ruohoranta to strengthen and support the validity of this research. Each phase of each lesson got a value for all three categories. These values were then added together and means for each lesson were calculated. Results and conclutions. All of the four teachers we observed got mediocre or high values from every lesson using this observational instrument. Although there were some variance between the values teachers got, the quality of the drama lessons and teacher’s actions were high. Especially teacher D’s actions and lesson structure included significant amount of students’ own perspective to be heard and also active presence and participation on the behalf of Teacher D. The overall quality of the drama lessons we observed is very high from the teacher as a creative role model -point of view. The Teacher as a creative role model –tool is fit for the purpose of observing and analyzing drama lessons.