Browsing by Subject "CLASSIFICATION"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 178
  • Peris Tamayo, Ana-Maria; Devineau, Olivier; Praebel, Kim; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; ostbye, Kjartan (2020)
    Adaptive radiation is the diversification of species to different ecological niches and has repeatedly occurred in different salmonid fish of postglacial lakes. In Lake Tinnsjoen, one of the largest and deepest lakes in Norway, the salmonid fish, Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus(L.)), has likely radiated within 9,700 years after deglaciation into ecologically and genetically segregated Piscivore, Planktivore, Dwarf, and Abyssal morphs in the pelagial, littoral, shallow-moderate profundal, and deep-profundal habitats. We compared trait variation in the size of the head, the eye and olfactory organs, as well as the volumes of five brain regions of these four Arctic charr morphs. We hypothesised that specific habitat characteristics have promoted divergent body, head, and brain sizes related to utilized depth differing in environmental constraints (e.g., light, oxygen, pressure, temperature, and food quality). The most important ecomorphological variables differentiating morphs were eye area, habitat, and number of lamellae. The Abyssal morph living in the deepest areas of the lake had the smallest brain region volumes, head, and eye size. Comparing the olfactory bulb with the optic tectum in size, it was larger in the Abyssal morph than in the Piscivore morph. The Piscivore and Planktivore morphs that use more illuminated habitats have the largest optic tectum volume, followed by the Dwarf. The observed differences in body size and sensory capacities in terms of vision and olfaction in shallow and deepwater morphs likely relates to foraging and mating habitats in Lake Tinnsjoen. Further seasonal and experimental studies of brain volume in polymorphic species are needed to test the role of plasticity and adaptive evolution behind the observed differences.
  • Kaasalainen, Ulla Susanna; Heinrichs, Jochen; Renner, Matthew; Hedenäs, Lars; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Lee, Gaik; Ignatov, Michael; Rikkinen, Jouko; Schmidt, Alexander (2018)
    Fossil tree resins preserve a wide range of animals, plants, fungi and microorganisms in microscopic fidelity. Fossil organisms preserved in an individual piece of amber lived at the same time in Earth history and mostly even in the same habitat, but they were not necessarily parts of the same interacting community. Here, we report on an in situ preserved corticolous community from a piece of Miocene Dominican amber which is composed of a lichen, a moss and three species of leafy liverworts. The lichen is assigned to the extant genus Phyllopsora (Ramalinaceae, Lecanoromycetes) and is described as P. magna Kaasalainen, Rikkinen & A. R. Schmidt sp. nov. The moss, Aptychellites fossilis Schaf.-Verw., Hedenas, Ignatov & Heinrichs gen. & sp. nov., closely resembles the extant genus Aptychella of the family Pylaisiadelphaceae. The three leafy liverworts comprise the extinct Lejeuneaceae species Cheilolejeunea antiqua (Grolle) Ye & Zhu, 2010 and Lejeunea miocenica Heinrichs, Schaf.-Verw., M. A. M. Renner & G. E. Lee sp. nov. and the extinct Radulaceae species Radula intecta M. A. M. Renner, Schaf.-Verw. & Heinrichs sp. nov. The presence of five associated extinct cryptogam species, four of which belong to extant genera, further substantiates the notion of a stasis in morphotype diversity, but a certain turnover of species, in the Caribbean since the early Miocene.
  • Sadeniemi, Minna; Almeda, Nerea; Salinas-Perez, Jose A.; Gutierrez-Colosia, Mencia R.; Garcia-Alonso, Carlos; Ala-Nikkola, Taina; Joffe, Grigori; Pirkola, Sami; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Cid, Jordi; Salvador-Carulla, Luis (2018)
    Mental health services (MHS) have gone through vast changes during the last decades, shifting from hospital to community-based care. Developing the optimal balance and use of resources requires standard comparisons of mental health care systems across countries. This study aimed to compare the structure, personnel resource allocation, and the productivity of the MHS in two benchmark health districts in a Nordic welfare state and a southern European, family-centered country. The study is part of the REFINEMENT (Research on Financing Systems' Effect on the Quality of Mental Health Care) project. The study areas were the Helsinki and Uusimaa region in Finland and the Girona region in Spain. The MHS were mapped by using the DESDE-LTC (Description and Evaluation of Services and Directories for Long Term Care) tool. There were 6.7 times more personnel resources in the MHS in Helsinki and Uusimaa than in Girona. The resource allocation was more residential-service-oriented in Helsinki and Uusimaa. The difference in mental health personnel resources is not explained by the respective differences in the need for MHS among the population. It is important to make a standard comparison of the MHS for supporting policymaking and to ensure equal access to care across European countries.
  • Novakovic, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios; Granvik, Mikael; Todovic, Ana (2017)
    We report the discovery of a new asteroid family among the dark asteroids residing in the Phocaea region the Tamara family. We make use of available physical data to separate asteroids in the region according to their surface reflectance properties, and establish the membership of the family. We determine the slope of the cumulative magnitude distribution of the family, and find it to be significantly steeper than the corresponding slope of all the asteroids in the Phocaea region. This implies that subkilometer dark Phocaeas are comparable in number to bright S-type objects, shedding light on an entirely new aspect of the composition of small Phocaea asteroids. We then use the Yarkovsky V-shape based method and estimate the age of the family to be 264 +/- 43Myr. Finally, we carry out numerical simulations of the dynamical evolution of the Tamara family. The results suggest that up to 50 Tamara members with absolute magnitude H <19.4 may currently be found in the near-Earth region. Despite their relatively small number in the near-Earth space, the rate of Earth impacts by small, dark Phocaeas is non-negligible.
  • Linder, Nina; Turkki, Riku; Walliander, Margarita; Martensson, Andreas; Diwan, Vinod; Rahtu, Esa; Pietikainen, Matti; Lundin, Mikael; Lundin, Johan (2014)
  • Tang, Zhipeng; Adhikari, Hari; Pellikka, Petri; Heiskanen, Janne (2021)
    Combined with increasing computing ability, the free and open access to Landsat archive has enabled the changes on the Earth’s surface to be monitored for almost 50 years. However, due to missing observations that result from clouds, cloud shadows, and scan line corrector failure, the Landsat data record is neither a continuous nor consistent time series. We present a new gap-filling method, Missing Observation Prediction based on Spectral-Temporal Metrics (MOPSTM), which uses spectral-temporal metrics computed from Landsat one-year time series and the k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) regression. Herein, we demonstrate the performance of MOPSTM by using five, nearly cloud-free, full scene Landsat images from Kenya, Finland, Germany, the USA, and China. Cloud masks from the images with extensive cloud cover were used to simulate large-area gaps, with the highest value we tested being 92% of missing data. The gap-filling accuracy was assessed quantitatively considering all five sites and different land use/land cover types, and the MOPSTM algorithm performed better than the spectral angle-mapper based spatiotemporal similarity (SAMSTS) gap-filling algorithm. The mean RMSE values of MOPSTM were 0.010, 0.012, 0.025, 0.012, and 0.018 for the five sites, while those of SAMSTS were 0.011, 0.017, 0.038, 0.014, and 0.023, respectively. Furthermore, MOPSTM had mean coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.90, 0.86, 0.78, 0.92, and 0.89, which were higher than those for SAMSTS (0.84, 0.75, 0.55, 0.89, and 0.83). The performance of MOPSTM was not considerably affected by image gap sizes as images ranging from gap sizes of 51% of the image all the way to 92% of the image yielded similar gap-filling accuracy. Also, MOPSTM does not require local parametertuning except for the k values in the k-NN regression, and it can make a gap-free image from any acquisition date. MOPSTM provides a new spectral-temporal approach to generate the gap-free imagery for typical Landsat applications, such as land use, land cover, and forest monitoring.
  • Leeb, Tosso; Leuthard, Fabienne; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Kiener, Sarah; Letko, Anna; Roosje, Petra; Welle, Monika M.; Gailbreath, Katherine L.; Cannon, Andrea; Linek, Monika; Banovic, Frane; Olivry, Thierry; White, Stephen D.; Batcher, Kevin; Bannasch, Danika; Minor, Katie M.; Mickelson, James R.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Mauldin, Elizabeth A.; Casal, Margret L. (2020)
    Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) in humans encompasses multiple subtypes that exhibit a wide array of skin lesions and, in some cases, are associated with the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We investigated dogs with exfoliative cutaneous lupus erythematosus (ECLE), a dog-specific form of chronic CLE that is inherited as a monogenic autosomal recessive trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 14 cases and 29 controls confirmed a previously published result that the causative variant maps to chromosome 18. Autozygosity mapping refined the ECLE locus to a 493 kb critical interval. Filtering of whole genome sequence data from two cases against 654 controls revealed a single private protein-changing variant in this critical interval, UNC93B1:c.1438C>A or p.Pro480Thr. The homozygous mutant genotype was exclusively observed in 23 ECLE affected German Shorthaired Pointers and an ECLE affected Vizsla, but absent from 845 controls. UNC93B1 is a transmembrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum and endolysosomes, which is required for correct trafficking of several Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The p.Pro480Thr variant is predicted to affect the C-terminal tail of the UNC93B1 that has recently been shown to restrict TLR7 mediated autoimmunity via an interaction with syndecan binding protein (SDCBP). The functional knowledge on UNC93B1 strongly suggests that p.Pro480Thr is causing ECLE in dogs. These dogs therefore represent an interesting spontaneous model for human lupus erythematosus. Our results warrant further investigations of whether genetic variants affecting the C-terminus of UNC93B1 might be involved in specific subsets of CLE or SLE cases in humans and other species.
  • Maestu, Fernando; Pena, Jose-Maria; Garces, Pilar; Gonzalez, Santiago; Bajo, Ricardo; Bagic, Anto; Cuesta, Pablo; Funke, Michael; Makela, Jyrki P.; Menasalvas, Ernestina; Nakamura, Akinori; Parkkonen, Lauri; Lopez, Maria E.; del Pozo, Francisco; Sudre, Gustavo; Zamrini, Edward; Pekkonen, Eero; Henson, Richard N.; Becker, James T.; Magnetoencephalography Int (2015)
    Synaptic disruption is an early pathological sign of the neurodegeneration of Dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). The changes in network synchronization are evident in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) at the group level, but there are very few Magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies regarding discrimination at the individual level. In an international multicenter study, we used MEG and functional connectivity metrics to discriminate MCI from normal aging at the individual person level. A labeled sample of features (links) that distinguished MCI patients from controls in a training dataset was used to classify MCI subjects in two testing datasets from four other MEG centers. We identified a pattern of neuronal hypersynchronization in MCI, in which the features that best discriminated MCI were fronto-parietal and interhemispheric links. The hypersynchronization pattern found in the MCI patients was stable across the five different centers, and may be considered an early sign of synaptic disruption and a possible preclinical biomarker for MCI/DAT. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Amer Joint Comm Canc Ophthalmic On; Tomar, Ankit Singh; Finger, Paul T.; Gallie, Brenda; Kivela, Tero T.; Correa-Llano, Genoveva (2020)
    Purpose: To evaluate the ability of the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging Manual to estimate metastatic and mortality rates for children with retinoblastoma (RB). Design: International, multicenter, registry-based retrospective case series. Participants: A total of 2190 patients from 18 ophthalmic oncology centers from 13 countries over 6 continents. Methods: Patient-specific data fields for RB were designed and selected by subcommittee. All patients with RB with adequate records to allow tumor staging by the AJCC criteria and follow-up for metastatic disease were studied. Main Outcome Measures: Metastasis-related 5- and 10-year survival data after initial tumor staging were estimated with the KaplaneMeier method depending on AJCC clinical (cTNM) and pathological (pTNM) tumor, node, metastasis category and age, tumor laterality, and presence of heritable trait. Results: Of 2190 patients, the records of 2085 patients (95.2%) with 2905 eyes were complete. The median age at diagnosis was 17.0 months. A total of 1260 patients (65.4%) had unilateral RB. Among the 2085 patients, tumor categories were cT1a in 55 (2.6%), cT1b in 168 (8.1%), cT2a in 197 (9.4%), cT2b in 812 (38.9%), cT3 in 835 (40.0%), and cT4 in 18 (0.9%). Of these, 1397 eyes in 1353 patients (48.1%) were treated with enucleation. A total of 109 patients (5.2%) developed metastases and died. The median time (n = 92) from diagnosis to metastasis was 9.50 months. The 5-year KaplaneMeier cumulative survival estimates by clinical tumor categories were 100% for category cT1a, 98% (95% confidence interval [CI], 97-99) for cT1b and cT2a, 96% (95% CI, 95-97) for cT2b, 89% (95% CI, 88-90) for cT3 tumors, and 45% (95% CI, 31-59) for cT4 tumors. Risk of metastasis increased with increasing cT (and pT) category (P <0.001). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis confirmed a higher risk of metastasis in category cT3 (hazard rate [HR], 8.09; 95% CI, 2.55-25.70; P <0.001) and cT4 (HR, 48.55; 95% CI, 12.86-183.27; P <0.001) compared with category cT1. Age, tumor laterality, and presence of heritable traits did not influence the incidence of metastatic disease. Conclusions: Multicenter, international, internet-based data sharing facilitated analysis of the 8th edition AJCC RB Staging System for metastasis-related mortality and offered a proof of concept yielding quantitative, predictive estimates per category in a large, real-life, heterogeneous patient population with RB. (C) 2020 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
  • Amer Joint Comm Canc Ophthalmic On; Tomar, Ankit Singh; Finger, Paul T.; Gallie, Brenda; Kivelä, Tero T.; Carreras, Elisa (2020)
    Purpose: To evaluate the ability of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th edition to predict local tumor control and globe salvage for children with retinoblastoma (RB). Design: International, multicenter, registry-based retrospective case series. Participants: A total of 2854 eyes of 2097 patients from 18 ophthalmic oncology centers from 13 countries over 6 continents. Methods: International, multicenter, registry-based data were pooled from patients enrolled between January 2001 and December 2013. All RB eyes with adequate records to allow tumor staging by the AJCC 8th edition criteria and follow-up to ascertain treatment outcomes were included. Main Outcome Measures: Globe-salvage rates were estimated by AJCC clinical (cTNMH) categories and tumor laterality. Local treatment failure was defined as use of enucleation or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), with or without plaque brachytherapy or intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC). Results: Unilateral RB occurred in 1340 eyes (47%). Among the 2854 eyes, tumor categories were cT1 to cT4 in 696 eyes (24%), 1334 eyes (47%), 802 eyes (28%), and 22 eyes (1%), respectively. Of these, 1275 eyes (45%) were salvaged, and 1179 eyes (41%) and 400 eyes (14%) underwent primary and secondary enucleation, respectively. The 2- and 5-year KaplaneMeier cumulative globe-salvage rates without the use of EBRT by cTNMH categories were 97% and 96% for category cT1a tumors, 94% and 88% for cT1b tumors, 68% and 60% for cT2a tumors, 66% and 57% for cT2b tumors, and 32% and 25% for cT3 tumors, respectively. Risk of local treatment failure increased with increasing cT category (P <0.001). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis confirmed a higher risk of local treatment failure in categories cT1b (hazard ratio [HR], 3.5; P = 0.004), cT2a (HR, 15.1; P <0.001), cT2b (HR, 16.4; P <0.001), and cT3 (HR, 45.0; P <0.001) compared with category cT1a. Use of plaque brachytherapy and IAC improved local tumor control in categories cT1a (P = 0.031) and cT1b (P <0.001). Conclusions: Multicenter, international, internet-based data sharing validated the 8th edition AJCC RB staging to predict globe-salvage in a large, heterogeneous, real-world patient population with RB. (C) 2020 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
  • Jousi, Mikko O.; Erkkilä, Jukka; Varjonen, Mari; Soiva, Martti; Hukkinen, Katja; Sequeiros, Roberto Blanco (2019)
    Background Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is gaining popularity in breast imaging. There are several different technical approaches for conducting DBT imaging. Purpose To determine optimal imaging parameters, test patient friendliness, evaluate the initial diagnostic performance, and describe diagnostic advances possible with the new Continuous Sync-and-Shoot method. Material and Methods Thirty-six surgical breast specimens were imaged with digital mammography (DM) and a prototype of a DBT system (Planmed Oy, Helsinki, Finland). We tested the patient friendliness of the sync-and-shoot movement without radiation exposure in eight volunteers. Different imaging parameters were tested with 20 specimens to identify the optimal combination: angular range 30 degrees, 40 degrees, and 60 degrees; pixel binning; Rhodium (Rh) and Silver (Ag) filtrations; and different kV and mAs values. Two breast radiologists evaluated 16 DM and DBT image pairs and rated six different image properties. Imaging modalities were compared with paired t-test. Results The Continuous Sync-and-Shoot method produced diagnostically valid images. Five out of eight volunteers felt no/minimal discomfort, three experienced mild discomfort from the tilting movement of the detector, with the motion being barely recognized. The combination of 30 degrees, Ag filtering, and 2 x 2 pixel binning produced the best image quality at an acceptable dose level. DBT was significantly better in all six evaluated properties (P <0.05). Mean Dose(DBT)/Dose(DM) ratio was 1.22 (SD = 0.42). Conclusion The evaluated imaging method is feasible for imaging and analysing surgical breast specimens and DBT is significantly better than DM in image evaluation.
  • Gyllenberg, Mats; Jiang, Jifa; Niu, Lei (2019)
    In the recent paper [E. C. Balreira, S. Elaydi, and R. Luis, J. Differ. Equ. Appl. 23 (2017), pp. 2037-2071], Balreira, Elaydi and Luis established a good criterion for competitive mappings to have a globally asymptotically stable interior fixed point by a geometric approach. This criterion can be applied to three dimensional Kolmogorov competitive mappings on a monotone region with a carrying simplex whose planar fixed points are saddles but globally asymptotically stable on their positive coordinate planes. For three dimensional Ricker models, they found mild conditions on parameters such that the criterion can be applied to. Observing that Balreira, Elaydi and Luis' discussion is still valid for the monotone region with piecewise smooth boundary, we prove in this note that the interior fixed point of three dimensional Kolmogorov competitive mappings is globally asymptotically stable if they admit a carrying simplex and three planar fixed points which are saddles but globally asymptotically stable on their positive coordinate planes. This result is much easier to apply in the application.
  • D'amato, Dalia; Gaio, Marco; Semenzin, Elena (2020)
    The emergence of politically driven bioeconomy strategies worldwide calls for considering the ecological issues associated with bio-based products. Traditionally, life cycle analysis (LCA) approaches are key tools used to assess impacts through product life cycles, but they present limitations regarding the accounting of multiple ecosystem service-related issues, at both the land-use and supply chain levels. Based on a systematic review of empirical articles, this study provides insights on using LCA assessments to account for ecosystem service-related impacts in the context of bioeconomy activities. We address the following research questions: what is the state of the art of the literature performing LCA assessments of forest-based bioeconomy activities, including the temporal distribution, the geographic areas and products/processes at study, and the approaches and methods used? 2. Which impacts and related midpoints are considered by the reviewed studies and what types of ecosystem service- related information do they bear? Out of over 600 articles found through the Scopus search, 155 were deemed relevant for the review. The literature focuses on North-America and Europe. Most of the articles assessed the environmental impact of lower-value biomass uses. Climate change was assessed in over 90% of the studies, while issues related to ozone, eutrophication, human toxicity, resource depletion, acidification, and environmental toxicity were assessed in 40% to 60% of the studies. While the impact categories accounted for in the reviewed LCA studies bear information relevant to certain provisioning and regulating services, several ecosystem services (especially cultural ones) remain unaccounted for. The implications of our study are relevant for professionals working in the ecosystem services, circular bioeconomy, and/or LCA communities. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Hotta, Jaakko; Saari, Jukka; Koskinen, Miika; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Forss, Nina; Hari, Riitta (2017)
    Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) display various abnormalities in central motor function, and their pain is intensified when they perform or just observe motor actions. In this study, we examined the abnormalities of brain responses to action observation in CRPS. We analyzed 3-T functional magnetic resonance images from 13 upper limb CRPS patients (all female, ages 31-58 years) and 13 healthy, age- and sex-matched control subjects. The functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while the subjects viewed brief videos of hand actions shown in the first-person perspective. A pattern-classification analysis was applied to characterize brain areas where the activation pattern differed between CRPS patients and healthy subjects. Brain areas with statistically significant group differences (q <.05, false discovery rate-corrected) included the hand representation area in the sensorimotor cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, secondary somatosensory cortex, inferior parietal lobule, orbitofrontal cortex, and thalamus. Our findings indicate that CRPS impairs action observation by affecting brain areas related to pain processing and motor control. Perspective: This article shows that in CRPS, the observation of others' motor actions induces abnormal neural activity in brain areas essential for sensorimotor functions and pain. These results build the cerebral basis for action-observation impairments in CRPS. (C) 2016 by the American Pain Society
  • Carlsson, Annelie; Shepherd, Maggie; Ellard, Sian; Weedon, Michael; Lernmark, Ake; Forsander, Gun; Colclough, Kevin; Brahimi, Qefsere; Valtonen-Andre, Camilla; Ivarsson, Sten A.; Elding Larsson, Helena; Samuelsson, Ulf; Ortqvist, Eva; Groop, Leif; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Marcus, Claude; Hattersley, Andrew T. (2020)
    OBJECTIVE Identifying maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) in pediatric populations close to diabetes diagnosis is difficult. Misdiagnosis and unnecessary insulin treatment are common. We aimed to identify the discriminatory clinical features at diabetes diagnosis of patients with glucokinase (GCK), hepatocyte nuclear factor-1A (HNF1A), and HNF4A MODY in the pediatric population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Swedish patients (n = 3,933) aged 1-18 years, diagnosed with diabetes May 2005 to December 2010, were recruited from the national consecutive prospective cohort Better Diabetes Diagnosis. Clinical data, islet autoantibodies (GAD insulinoma antigen-2, zinc transporter 8, and insulin autoantibodies), HLA type, and C-peptide were collected at diagnosis. MODY was identified by sequencing GCK, HNF1A, and HNF4A, through either routine clinical or research testing. RESULTS The minimal prevalence of MODY was 1.2%. Discriminatory factors for MODY at diagnosis included four islet autoantibody negativity (100% vs. 11% not-known MODY; P = 2 x 10(-44)), HbA(1c) (7.0% vs. 10.7% [53 vs. 93 mmol/mol]; P = 1 x 10(-20)), plasma glucose (11.7 vs. 26.7 mmol/L; P = 3 x 10(-19)), parental diabetes (63% vs. 12%; P = 1 x 10(-15)), and diabetic ketoacidosis (0% vs. 15%; P = 0.001). Testing 303 autoantibody-negative patients identified 46 patients with MODY (detection rate 15%). Limiting testing to the 73 islet autoantibody-negative patients with HbA(1c)
  • Posti, Jussi P.; Takala, Riikka S. K.; Raj, Rahul; Luoto, Teemu M.; Azurmendi, Leire; Lagerstedt, Linnea; Mohammadian, Mehrbod; Hossain, Iftakher; Gill, Jessica; Frantzen, Janek; van Gils, Mark; Hutchinson, Peter J.; Katila, Ari J.; Koivikko, Pia; Maanpää, Henna-Riikka; Menon, David K.; Newcombe, Virginia F.; Tallus, Jussi; Blennow, Kaj; Tenovuo, Olli; Zetterberg, Henrik; Sanchez, Jean-Charles (2020)
    Background: Blood biomarkers may enhance outcome prediction performance of head computed tomography scores in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Objective: To investigate whether admission levels of eight different protein biomarkers can improve the outcome prediction performance of the Helsinki computed tomography score (HCTS) without clinical covariates in TBI. Materials and methods: Eighty-two patients with computed tomography positive TBIs were included in this study. Plasma levels of beta-amyloid isoforms 1-40 (A beta 40) and 1-42 (A beta 42), glial fibrillary acidic protein, heart fatty acid-binding protein, interleukin 10 (IL-10), neurofilament light, S100 calcium-binding protein B, and total tau were measured within 24 h from admission. The patients were divided into favorable (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended 5-8, n = 49) and unfavorable (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended 1-4, n = 33) groups. The outcome was assessed 6-12 months after injury. An optimal predictive panel was investigated with the sensitivity set at 90-100%. Results: The HCTS alone yielded a sensitivity of 97.0% (95% CI: 90.9-100) and specificity of 22.4% (95% CI: 10.2-32.7) and partial area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic of 2.5% (95% CI: 1.1-4.7), in discriminating patients with favorable and unfavorable outcomes. The threshold to detect a patient with unfavorable outcome was an HCTS > 1. The three best individually performing biomarkers in outcome prediction were A beta 40, A beta 42, and neurofilament light. The optimal panel included IL-10, A beta 40, and the HCTS reaching a partial area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic of 3.4% (95% CI: 1.7-6.2) with a sensitivity of 90.9% (95% CI: 81.8-100) and specificity of 59.2% (95% CI: 40.8-69.4). Conclusion: Admission plasma levels of IL-10 and A beta 40 significantly improve the prognostication ability of the HCTS after TBI.
  • Kostiainen, Iiro; Hakaste, Liisa; Kejo, Pekka; Parviainen, Helka; Laine, Tiina; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Pennanen, Mirkka; Arola, Johanna; Haglund, Caj; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla (2019)
    BackgroundAdrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine carcinoma with poor 5-year survival rates of20 Hounsfield Units (HU) for all tumours (median 34 (21-45)), median size 92mm (20-196), Ki67 17% (1-40%), Weiss score 7 (4-9) and Helsinki score 24 (4-48). ACC was more often found in the left than the right adrenal (p5 to>10 years was achieved after repeated surgery of metastases. Overall 5-year survival was 67%, and 96% vs. 26% for ENSAT stage I-II vs. III-IV (p20 on nonenhanced CT but variable tumour size (20-196mm). Malignancy cannot be ruled out by small tumour size only. The 5-year survival of 96% in ENSAT stage I-III compares favourably to previous studies.
  • Pereira, Renata C.; Valta, Helena; Tumber, Navdeep; Salusky, Isidro B.; Jalanko, Hannu; Makitie, Outi; Perry, Katherine Wesseling (2015)
    Background Bone fragility is common post solid organ transplantation but little is known about bone pathology on a tissue level. Abnormal osteocytic protein expression has been linked to compromised bone health in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and immunosuppressant medications may impact osteocyte function. Methods Transiliac bone biopsies were obtained from 22 pediatric solid organ allograft recipients (average age 15.6 years) an average of 6.3 +/- 1.2 years after transplantation and from 12 pediatric pre-dialysis CKD patients (average age 13.2 years). Histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry for FGF23, DMP1, sclerostin, and osteopontin were performed on all biopsies. Results FGF23 and sclerostin were increased in transplant recipients relative to non-transplant CKD, regardless of the type of allograft received and despite, in the case of liver and heart recipients, a higher GFR. Bone DMP1 expression was higher in liver or heart than in kidney recipients, concomitant with higher serum phosphate values. Osteopontin expression was higher in CKD than in transplant recipients (p Conclusions Solid-organ transplantation is associated with increased FGF23 and sclerostin expression. The contribution of these findings to compromised bone health post transplantation warrants further evaluation.
  • Lähteenmäki, Hanna; Umeizudike, Kehinde A.; Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Räisänen, Ismo T.; Rathnayake, Nilminie; Johannsen, Gunnar; Tervahartiala, Taina; Nwhator, Solomon O.; Sorsa, Timo (2020)
    This communication article addresses currently available rapid non-invasive methods to screen and detect periodontitis and dental peri-implantitis. In this regard, oral fluid biomarkers have been researched extensively but self-reported oral health (SROH)-questionnaires have also been developed. Both alternatives may offer a quick and easy way to screen and detect diseased patients. Active matrix metalloproteinase (aMMP-8) is one of the most validated biomarkers for screening and detecting periodontal breakdown related to periodontitis and peri-implantitis and monitoring their treatment effects revealing successful, less- and non-successful treatment results. Currently available aMMP-8 lateral-flow technologies allow this kind of analysis, as demonstrated here, to be conducted quantitatively online and real-time as point-of-care/chairside testing in dental and even medical care settings. In this study, an aMMP-8 peri-implant sulcular fluid point-of-care-test diagnosed peri-implantitis and healthy implants far more accurately than bleeding-on-probing or the other biomarkers, such as polymorphonuclear (PMN)/neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase and MMP-9. Although, SROH-questionnaires allow screening in similar settings but they lack the information about the current disease activity of periodontitis and peri-implantitis, which is of essential value in periodontal diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Thus, both methods can be considered as adjunct methods for periodontitis and peri-implant diagnostics, but the value of oral fluid biomarkers analysis does not seem to be substitutable.
  • Palojoki, Sari; Makela, Matti; Lehtonen, Lasse; Saranto, Kaija (2017)
    The aim of this study was to analyse electronic health record-related patient safety incidents in the patient safety incident reporting database in fully digital hospitals in Finland. We compare Finnish data to similar international data and discuss their content with regard to the literature. We analysed the types of electronic health record-related patient safety incidents that occurred at 23 hospitals during a 2-year period. A procedure of taxonomy mapping served to allow comparisons. This study represents a rare examination of patient safety risks in a fully digital environment. The proportion of electronic health record-related incidents was markedly higher in our study than in previous studies with similar data. Human-computer interaction problems were the most frequently reported. The results show the possibility of error arising from the complex interaction between clinicians and computers.