Browsing by Subject "CLASSROOM"

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  • Holm, Marja; Björn, Piia Maria; Laine, Anu; Korhonen, Johan; Hannula, Markku S. (2020)
    This study investigated mathematics-related achievement emotions among Finnish adolescents (N = 1379) receiving special education support (SEdS) in self-contained and general mathematics classrooms and receiving no mathematics SEdS through multilevel modeling. Mathematics performance, gender, and classroom size were controlled for. Adolescents receiving SEdS in general classrooms reported less enjoyment and pride and more anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom than those receiving SEdS in self-contained classrooms and those receiving no SEdS. In contrast, adolescents receiving SEdS in self-contained classrooms reported more enjoyment and pride and less anger, anxiety, and hopelessness than those receiving no SEdS. Furthermore, adolescents receiving no SEdS reported more anxiety, hopelessness, and boredom in general classrooms when the proportion of classmates receiving SEdS was higher. We discuss the practical implications for developing SEdS in relation to achievement emotions.
  • Harju, Vilhelmiina; Koskinen, Antti; Pehkonen, Leila (2019)
    Background: The importance of digital technologies for enhancing learning in formal education settings has been widely acknowledged. In the light of this expectation, it is important to investigate the effects of these technologies on students' learning and development. Purpose: This study explores longitudinal empirical research on digital learning in the context of primary and secondary education. By focusing on a small selection of the peer-reviewed literature, the aim is to examine the kinds of longitudinal study published on this topic during the period 2012-2017 and, thorough categorisation, to bring together insights about the reported influences of digital technology use on students' learning. Design and methods: The databases searched for the purposes of this review were Scopus and Web of Science. Of 1,989 articles, 13 were finally included in the review. Using qualitative content analysis, these were analysed, coded and categorised. Results: The reviewed studies were found to have approached digital learning in different ways: they varied, for example, in terms of research methods and design and the digital technologies used. The studies addressed different aspects of learning, which we assigned to six categories: affection, attitude, and motivation; subject-specific knowledge and skills; transversal skills; learning experience; elements of the learning environment; and identity. We identified both positive and negative influences of technology on learning. Conclusions: This review offers a snapshot of the variety of research in this fast-moving area. The studies we explored were found to approach digital learning from several different perspectives, and no straightforward conclusions can be drawn about the influences of digital technology use on students' learning. We conclude that further longitudinal studies of digital learning are needed, and this study assists by highlighting gaps in the existing literature.
  • Holm, Marja Eliisa; Korhonen, Johan; Laine, Anu; Björn, Piia Maria; Hannula, Markku Sakari (2020)
    This study investigated the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) on mathematics-related achievement emotions (enjoyment, pride, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom) among adolescents (N = 1322) using multilevel modeling, controlling for the effects of gender and classroom size. The results indicated that only pride was influenced by the BFLPE. Hence, adolescents reported less pride in mathematically higher-performing classrooms (higher class average). The cross-level interaction effects indicated that the BFLPE varies across mathematics performance levels and gender. In mathematically higher-performing classrooms, adolescents with lower mathematics performance reported less pride and more shame, whereas adolescents with higher mathematics performance reported less enjoyment and more boredom. Additionally, males reported more shame in higher-performing classrooms. We discuss the practical implications of supporting achievement emotions in higher-performing classrooms.
  • Kikas, Eve; Tang, Xin (2019)
    This study examined relations between child-reported teacher emotional support, teaching practices, and children's task-persistent learning behaviour. The study was carried out in Estonia, where a students' first teacher advances with his/her students and teaches all primary subjects in the first 3years of schooling. In total, 660 sixth-grade children reported about their first teacher's emotional support. Teachers' child-centred and teacher-directed practices were observed with the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure (ECCOM); results included 38 teachers in Grade 1, and 37 in Grade 3. Within the same grades, teachers reported on their affection for students, as well as their behavioural and psychological control over students. Teachers also evaluated each of their student's task persistence. As shown by ECCOM results, retrospective student-reported teacher emotional support tended to be positively related to child-centred practises, and negatively related to teacher-directed practises in Grade 3, while also negatively related to teacher-reported psychological control in Grade 1. Although higher perceived emotional support was related with more persistent learning behaviour on an individual level, general task persistence was predicted primarily by teacher-reported practices at the classroom level.
  • Weckström, Elina; Karlsson, Liisa; Pöllänen, Sinikka; Lastikka, Anna-Leena (2021)
    This study reports on critical participatory research in an early childhood education and care centre in Finland. The objective was to study which elements are critical in the development and construction of a culture of participation. The data comprise conversations, team meetings and educators' diaries. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. The results indicated that a culture of participation requires four elements: (a) a shared understanding of the image of the child, (b) a shared understanding of professional development, (c) leadership and (d) a shared we-narrative that enables the comprehensive understanding, promotion and maintenance of a culture of participation.
  • Laakso, Noora L.; Korhonen, Tiina S.; Hakkarainen, Kai P. J. (2021)
    Background: This exploratory study engaged teams of elementary and middle school students in the collaborative design of digital games. Game design is theoretically examined in this study as a form of knowledge-creating learning that is characterized by collaborative efforts to advance a shared object of activity, i.e., the game being designed. Using mixed methods, we examined how students experienced the game design project and how the project fostered connected learning, that is, integration of students' personal interests and supportive peer relations with their schoolwork, and how their self-assessed digital competences developed. Methods: The digital competences of 98 comprehensive school students across Finland were traced using pre-and post-questionnaires. The post-questionnaire also included validated measures on connected learning. Quantitative methods were used to analyze structured measures, and qualitative methods were used to analyze open-ended measures. Findings: Students experienced game design as an inspiring, challenging activity. Game design engaged student teams in sustained, collaborative efforts to create shared digital artifacts. Their efforts involved a great deal of mutual support and knowledge sharing. Participation also improved students' self-reported technical and artistic digital competences. The game design project fostered informal, interest-driven, sociodigital participation; inspired learning engagement; and improved schoolwork practices. Contribution: The game design project appeared to be a pedagogically meaningful way of engaging students in knowledge-creating learning and of connecting students' formal and informal learning. The project sparked students' motivation to learn, fostered digital competences, and enriched the learning environment.
  • Syrjämäki, Marja; Pihlaja, Päivi; Sajaniemi, Nina (2019)
    This article focuses on the initiatives taken by children and the responses given by professional adults with regard to the pedagogy of enhancing peer interaction among diverse learners. The study took place in four integrated special groups of public early childhood education. In groups of this kind, typically developing children and those with special educational needs (SEN) spent time together on a daily basis. We analysed 12 videotaped play sessions with 33 (3- to 6-year-old) children and 10 adults to examine the children's initiatives, the adults' responses, and the consequences that ensued. The study revealed verbal and nonverbal initiatives followed by a variety of responses scaffolding the children's interaction and participation. However, the nonverbal or faint initiatives, especially those taken by the children with SEN, were at risk of being unnoticed or ignored. These findings call for professional reflection on pedagogical sensitivity in recognizing and responding to the initiatives of children.
  • Tuovinen, Sanna; Tang, Xin; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2020)
    Learning through social interaction has been documented widely, however, how introverted people are socially engaged in learning is largely unknown. The aim of this study was, first, to examine the reliability and validity of the social engagement scale among students at Finnish comprehensive schools. Then we aimed to examine the interaction effect of introversion and social engagement on self-esteem, schoolwork engagement and school burnout. Based on a sample of 862 ninth grade students in Finland, we found that two-factor model best fitted the social engagement scale (i.e., social engagement and social disengagement). Further, we found that introverts with high social engagement have higher self-esteem than introverts with low social engagement. Our results implied that introverts should be given extra support when they encounter group work in school.
  • Cáceres-Jensen, Lizethly; Rodríguez-Becerra, Jorge; Jorquera-Moreno, Bárbara; Escudey, Mauricio; Druker-Ibañez, Sofía; Hernández-Ramos, José; Díaz-Arce, Tatiana; Pernaa, Johannes; Aksela, Maija (2021)
    Teaching the fundamentals of chemical kinetics on the college level is challenging to teachers and students alike due to its abstract nature of concepts and limited connection with real context applications. This study consisted of two phases starting with designing a chemistry education for the sustainable development-based learning environment of reaction kinetics, followed by a case study in which students' perceptions toward learning chemistry by solving a real environmental problem using digital resources, spreadsheets, and an active learning environment, were explored. First, we designed a Socio-Scientific Environmental Chemistry module centered on the sorption kinetic processes of herbicides in volcanic ash derived soils (VADS) and their potential to pollute groundwater. The objective of the learning module was to contribute to the development of sustainability skills, to promote learning of contextualized chemistry knowledge, and to develop scientific skills. This module employs spreadsheets as computational tools in chemistry to model real sorption kinetic data of herbicides in VADS. The learning module was designed for one section of two Analytical Chemistry courses and one Physical Chemistry course of an undergraduate chemistry teacher-training program. After the design phase, the learning module was implemented in each course, and students' perceptions were gathered using the focus group technique. The sample was of 22 students distributed into three focus groups. The data collected were analyzed and categorized through qualitative content analysis using the Technological Pedagogical Science Knowledge (TPASK) framework. On the basis of our findings, the students acquired contextualized chemistry knowledge and develop skills and knowledge related to using digital resources and spreadsheets in a scientific context. Besides, the preservice chemistry teachers' knowledge of pedagogy allowed them to develop some elements of their pedagogical science knowledge and TPASK. This case study shows that the problem-based learning approach offers great potential in supporting a learning environment suitable to working with spreadsheets to solve real-environment problems in chemistry education.
  • Tang, Xin; Kikas, Eve; Pakarinen, Eija; Laursen, Brett; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina (2022)
    Background Most previous studies of teaching styles and reading skills have been cross-sectional. Longitudinal research is needed to clarify the direction of effects. The present longitudinal study examined the degree to which differences in teaching styles in the third grade predict the sixth-grade reading performance. The consistency of the findings was addressed by comparing results across students in two countries (Finland and Estonia). Methods A total of 1,057 students (50.9% boys) were followed from the third to sixth grade. Teaching styles of third-grade teachers (N = 70) were examined as predictors of the development of reading (i.e., third-grade to sixth-grade reading fluency and comprehension). Results Five patterns of third-grade teaching practices were found across two countries: child-centred style, teacher-directed style, child-dominated style, extreme child-centred style, and mixed child-centred and teacher-directed style (mixed teaching style). The mixed teaching style and the child-centred style in the third grade were related to the greatest increases in reading fluency from the third to sixth grade, over and above the contribution of age, gender and maternal education. Conclusions The findings underscore the importance of the flexible use of child-centred and teacher-directed practices, which are both linked to the development of reading fluency during late primary school years.
  • Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Rajala, Antti (2017)
    In this article, we build on the notion of the chronotope to investigate how students create and manage time-space contexts in their technology-mediated interactions during a collaborative learning activity. Drawing on a dialogic approach, the study defines chronotopes as socially constructed time-space configurations with a specific narrative character that represent cultural practices and values, and that operationalize the framing of the interactional situation and its actors. The empirical data derive from a case study of students' technology-mediated interactions while collaborating in writing a school musical script. The findings show how chronotopes offer a useful conceptual heuristic for researching the creation and management of often contradictory time-space contexts in students' technology-mediated interactions intertwined with institutional, relational, and personal spheres of activity. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Rautanen, Pihla; Soini, Tiina; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi (2021)
    The aim of this research was to study the dynamics of fourth graders' perceived social support for schoolwork and to examine how this support contributes to their study engagement. Social support was hypothesised to be positively associated with higher levels of study engagement. Moreover, social support from teachers and guardians was hypothesised to be associated with social support for schoolwork among peers. Differences between genders were studied in relation to perceived social support and study engagement. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypotheses with cross-sectional survey data from 2400 fourth grade students from Finland. They were 10 years of age on average. The results indicate that social support from teachers and among peers has stronger effects on study engagement compared to support from guardians. Moreover, it was found that social support from teachers and guardians is associated with the social support that students share among their peers. Girls were found to be more engaged in studying and to experience more social support from teachers and among peers compared to boys. The perceived social support from teachers was found to be partly determined by the class group to which the student belongs. These results suggest that by providing emotional and informational support for their students, teachers might be able to promote students' study engagement, as well as such peer interaction that further enhances the students' study engagement.
  • Rajala, Antti; Akkerman, Sanne (2019)
    In this paper, we have conducted a detailed analysis of video-records of a class fieldtrip to an outdoor environmental education center to examine how the activity and its material context were interpreted, negotiated and sometimes contested in dialogic interactions between the students, teacher and two environmental educators. The findings shed light into the varied ways in which the different interpretations during the fieldtrip produced the forest and its surroundings as the material context of the activity. The findings also show how hybrid forms of activity were produced when the different interpretations collided and merged in the dialogic interactions among the actors. The study challenges existing ways of conceptualizing and researching school fieldtrips which to date have often disregarded the negotiation of diverse interpretations that participants make of the ongoing activity and its contexts. More generally, the study opens new ground for dialogical research approaches on learning and education by showing how an explicit focus on disjunctures between different interpretations of activity can shed light into the dynamics of the moment-to-moment production of emergent material contexts of activity.
  • Tainio, Liisa; Heinonen, Pilvi (2021)
    This article explores embodied responses to teacher reproaches during classroom interaction. Drawing on multimodal conversation analysis as a method, the analysis focuses on teacher-initiated reproach-sequences and particularly on the specific touch type that is produced within the sequence: student-to-student hand-on-shoulder touch. In the analyzed sequences, the teacher reproach or critical evaluation is addressed to an individual student who responds to it verbally and through embodied orientation followed by an embodied response, a hand-on-shoulder touch by a student located close to the addressed student. By constructing an embodied response with recycled touch type that is frequently used by teachers for pedagogical purposes, the student that uses the hand-on-shoulder touch orients to a dual role in classroom interaction: first to the academic aspect of the student role by following the teacher agenda, and second to the aspect of peer relations and social bonding by teasing and displaying compassion towards the reproached student.
  • Haataja, Eeva; Salonen, Visajaani; Laine, Anu; Toivanen, Miika; Hannula, Markku S. (2021)
    Reciprocal eye contact is a significant part of human interaction, but its role in classroom interaction has remained unexplored, mostly due to methodological issues. A novel approach in educational science, multiple-person mobile gaze-tracking, allows us to gather data on these momentary processes of nonverbal interaction. The current mixed-method case study investigates the role of teacher-student eye contact in interpersonal classroom interaction using this methodological approach from three mathematics lessons. We combined gaze-tracking data with classroom videos, which we analyzed with continuous coding of teachers’ interpersonal behavior. Our results show that teacher communion and agency affect the frequency and durations of teachers and students’ gazes at each other. Students tend to gaze their teachers more during high teacher communion and low agency, but qualitative and quantitative differences between the teachers and their classes emerged as well. To conclude, the formation of eye contacts is situational and affected by momentary interpersonal changes as well as the qualities of teacher-student interactions.
  • Lavonen, Jari; Ávalos, Beatrice; Upadyaya, Katja; Araneda, Sebastian; Juuti, Kalle; Cumsille, Patricio; Inkinen, Janna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2021)
    This study examines how classroom activities, student gender and student personal interest in science studies and careers predict situational interest in physics learning. Teaching modules were designed based on the secondary physics curricula in Finland (Helsinki) and Chile (Santiago and Vina del Mar) emphasising students engagement in scientific practices. The study was implemented in four classrooms in both countries. Data on situational interest and ongoing classroom activities were obtained using the experience sampling method, with measurements taken three times during a lesson. The process yielded a total of 1717 measurements in the Finnish schools and 1767 in the Chilean schools. Multilevel regression analyses with mixed effects and random intercept were conducted. Results showed a positive effect of scientific practices that required asking questions, designing scientific inquiry and interpreting data on situational interest. Student collaborative situations were more interesting for Chilean students than for Finnish ones. In terms of gender differences, on average, Finnish male and female students experienced the same level of situational interest, while the situational interest of Chilean female students was higher than the average of male students. Personal interest in science studies and careers was the best predictor of situational interest in both countries.
  • Ritella, Giuseppe; Rajala, Antti; Renshaw, Peter (2021)
    In this paper, we examine the emergent concept of chronotope and its deployment for the examination of space-time relations in research on learning and education. Chronotopes have been defined in terms of socially emergent configurations of space-time, where space and time are considered as interdependent social constructions. Chronotope is seen as a conceptual and analytical tool that allows reaching a sociocultural and dialogical understanding of human action and interaction in space-time. We argue that the existing chronotopic research has not been sufficiently explicit concerning how units of analysis are selected and conceptualized. To facilitate a wider adoption of this concept, we introduce and discuss four dimensions of chronotopic units of analysis (foregrounding processes, dialogicality, material-discursive features of space-time, and interdependency of space-time). We illustrate these dimensions by discussing how they were implicitly or explicitly included in the conceptualization of the unit of analysis in exemplary studies. In particular, we show how including one or more of these dimensions enabled to make “visible” educationally relevant phenomena and to discuss significant aspects of pedagogical practice. In all, our article contributes to make explicit and discuss the methodological foundations for using chronotope to research the space-time relations of learning.
  • Hailikari, Telle; Sund, Reijo; Haarala-Muhonen, Anne; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari (2020)
    Despite vast research on transitioning to higher education and student diversity, little longitudinal evidence exists of how individual differences of first-year students predict their graduation times. The present study explored the relation between first-year students' study profiles and graduation times in two different disciplines, by following the same students' (N = 65) study progress for six years using student records data. Profiling students was based on student interviews. Statistical analysis of time to degree completion was conducted using event history analysis. The results revealed that first-study-year study profiles clearly predict graduation times and degree completion. Disciplinary differences existed between graduation times, which may be explained by the different structures of the disciplines. The results imply that individual students need tailored support at different phases of their studies.