Browsing by Subject "CLASSROOMS"

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  • Maragkidou, Androniki; Jaghbeir, Omar; Hämeri, Kaarle; Hussein, Tareq (2018)
    In this study, we measured the concentrations of accumulation and coarse particles inside an educational workshop (March 31–April 6, 2015), calculated particle emission and losses rates, and estimated inhaled deposited dose. We used an Optical Particle Sizer (TSI OPS 3330) that measures the particle number size distribution (diameter 0.3–10 μm) and we converted that into particle mass size distribution (assuming spherical particles and unit density). We focused on two particle size fractions: 0.3–1 μm (referred as PN0.3−1 and PM0.3−1) and 1–10 μm (referred as PN1−10 and PM1−10). The occupants' activities included coffee brewing, lecturing, tobacco smoking, welding, scrubbing, and sorting/drilling iron. The highest concentrations were observed during welding with PN0.3−1 (PM0.3−1) was ∼1866 cm−3 (55 μg/m3) and PN1−10 (PM1−10) was ∼7 cm−3 (103 μg/m3). The lowest concentrations were observed during coffee brewing and metal turning with PN0.3−1 (PM0.3−1) was ∼22 cm−3 (0.7 μg/m3) and PN1−10 (PM1−10) was ∼0.5 cm−3 (4 μg/m3). The emissions rate of coarse particles was 85–1010 particles/hour × cm3 whereas that for submicron particle in the diameter range 0.3–1 μm was 5.7 × 104–9.3 × 104 particles/hour × cm3 depending on the activity and the ventilation rate. The coarse particles losses rate was 0.35–2.1 h−1 and the ventilation rate was 0.24–2.1 h−1. The alveolar received the majority and particles below 1 μm with a fraction of about 53% of the total inhaled deposited dose whereas the head/throat region received about 18%. This study is important for better understanding the health effects at educational workshops.
  • Pihlainen, Kaisa; Reunamo, Jyrki; Sajaniemi, Nina; Kärnä, Eija (2022)
    Quality factors are the subject of increasing interest in the research and practice of early childhood education and care (ECEC). The purpose of the article is to emphasize the importance of the children's voice in relation to the quality of ECEC. This article focuses on children's negative experiences of ECEC as they can be used to improve services and increase children's wellbeing. The data was collected by means of a questionnaire from 2500 children aged 2-6 years (girls 50.4%) in Finland. The data was analysed using qualitative and quantitative content analysis. According to the results, children mentioned both structural and process factors. Peer interaction among children was mentioned the most when referring to negative experiences in ECEC. We conclude that children's negative experiences provide an opportunity for ECEC professionals to support children's resilience and a sense of belonging, which are important elements in the process quality of ECEC.
  • Inkinen, Janna; Klager, Christopher; Juuti, Kalle; Schneider, Barbara; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Krajcik, Joseph; Lavonen, Jari (2020)
    This study seeks to understand how different scientific practices in high school science classrooms are associated with student situational engagement. In this study, situational engagement is conceptualized as the balance between skills, interest, and challenge when the reported experiences are all high. In this study, data on situational engagement were collected using the experience sampling method (ESM) from 142 students in southern Michigan (the United States), resulting 993 ESM responses, and 133 students in southern Finland, resulting 1,351 responses. In both countries, scientific practices related to developing models and constructing explanations were associated with higher student situational engagement than other practices. In southern Finland, using a model was also associated with a high level of student situational engagement. The results indicate that students may experience situational engagement more often in science classrooms that use models than those that do not employ such practices. Thus, scientific practices related to models should be used frequently in science classrooms to situationally engage students while learning science.
  • Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Kajamaa, Anu; Rajala, Antti (2018)
    This study investigates agency-structure dynamics in students and teachers' social activity in a novel design and making environment in the context of the Finnish school system, which has recently undergone major curricular reform. Understanding that agency is an important mediator of educational change, we ask the following questions: How are agency-structure dynamics manifested in the social activity of students and their teachers in a novel design and making environment? How do agency-structure dynamics create possibilities and obstacles for educational change? The data comprise 65 hours of video recordings and field notes of the social activity of students aged 9-12 years old (N = 94) and their teachers collected over a period of one semester. Our study shows how the introduction of the novel learning environment created a boundary space in which traditional teacher-centered activity patterns interacted and came into tension with student-centered modes of teaching and learning. Our study reveals three distinctive agency-structure dynamics that illuminate how the agentive actions of both teachers and students stabilized existing teacher-centered practices and, at other, times ruptured and broke away from existing patterns, thus giving rise to possibilities for educational change.