Browsing by Subject "CLIMATE CHANGE"

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  • Lehtonen, Anna; Salonen, Arto; Cantell, Hannele; Riuttanen, Laura (2018)
    Climate change is a wicked problem of our time. It is a phenomenon that is difficult to combat with prevailing ways of thinking and behaving related to a modern understanding of humanity and education. In this article, the challenges of sustainability education are explored from the theoretical perspective of modern dichotomies. The article argues that to combat wicked problems of sustainability, awareness of interconnectedness is vital. In order to increase the understanding of what kind of dismantling of thinking in dichotomies and why the awareness of interconnectedness and pedagogical approaches are crucial in promoting sustainability, the literature of environmental philosophy, sociology and education are brought together with the literature of sustainability sciences and sustainability education. The principles of pedagogy of interconnectedness define the critical awareness of interconnectedness vital for sustainability education dealing with the wicked sustainability issues such as climate change. The pedagogy of interconnectedness underlines the essentiality of understanding of the world and humans as relational: recognizing the interdependence of society and nature, the local and global, and seeing the common reality as socially constructed and humanness and learning in a holistic way. A case of university pedagogy, the online course material is presented and analysed as an example of interconnecting climate change education, how to implement the principle of pedagogy of interconnectedness in practice.
  • Denton, Fatima; Nkem, Johnson; Okereke, Chukwumerije; Kalame, Fobissie Blese; Roger, Charles; Somorin, Olufunso; Nuesiri, Emmanuel (Africa Climate Policy center - UNECA, 2015)
  • Carodenuto, Sophia; Fobissie, Kalame (UNITAR and Yale University, 2014)
    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) has received significant attention under the UNFCCC and many tropical forest countries are preparing national REDD+ strategies in the hope that REDD+ will form part of the future post-2015 climate regime. In the interim, bilateral and multilateral REDD+ finance has proliferated, with donor countries supporting the preparatory and investment phases of REDD+. At the same time, criticism of REDD+ is building as many caution that the lack of clearly defined benefit sharing mechanisms, carbon, land and forest tenure rights risks harming and marginalising forest communities. In this context, ensuring compliance with strict social safeguards and getting the consent of communities has become central to the development and implementation of REDD+ projects, programs and policy processes. This case study paper draws from Cameroon - a forest country where human rights and environmental justice on the effective participation of local communities in national policy-making remains challenging. The authors share insights from the one year multi-stakeholder process of developing national guidelines for Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) for REDD+ with the goal of informing the future climate change regime under the UNFCCC. The paper provides a realistic picture of the challenges in institutionalizing FPIC as a rights-based approach to participatory natural resource management. Through this process however, REDD+ has acted as an impetus for developing national safeguard standards for decisions affecting land and natural resources and provides the opportunity for local communities to influence the design and implementation of national policy and sub-national initiatives on REDD+.
  • Wan, Minli; D'amato, Dalia; Toppinen, Anne Maarit Kristiina; Rekola, Mika Olavi (2017)
    Global awareness of sustainability issues is growing rapidly, and business organizations are called to address wider social and environmental concerns along with economic performance. However, limited systematic knowledge exists on the interactions between forest industries and natural ecosystems. We thus investigated the role of ecosystem services in the context of China's forest sector. A qualitative research approach was used to elicit company external expert viewpoints on the topic. Our analysis focused on three themes: (1) forest company dependencies and impacts on ecosystem services; (2) business risks arising from dependencies and impacts; and (3) risk response strategies. The interviewed 20 experts identified a series of forest company dependencies and impacts (including negative and positive impacts) on several ecosystem services. The extent of dependencies and impacts is largely influenced by the business portfolio of the company. The perceived business risks include intense competition and the consequently increasing price for natural resources, which would affect forest company business plans, costs and outputs. The suggested strategies for turning risks into opportunities include outsourcing wood, changing production focus, promoting industrial upgrading and implementing regular assessments of corporate dependencies and impacts on ecosystem services. The findings of our study can guide companies' decision-making in managing forest ecosystems sustainably.
  • Kim, Sol; Sinclair, Victoria A.; Räisänen, Jouni; Ruuhela, Reija (2018)
    The number and intensity of individual hot days affecting Finland in the current and future climate is investigated together with the circulation patterns associated with the hot days. In addition, the number, length and intensity of heat waves lasting at least 3 days is also considered. ERA-Interim reanalysis data and both direct model output and bias-corrected data for historical and future climate [representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) scenario] simulations from 17 global climate models are analysed. Three intensities of heat waves and hot days are defined based on daily mean temperature thresholds of 20, 24 and 28 °C. The percentage of summertime days which exceed these temperature thresholds is shown to increase in the future. In ERA-Interim, 24% of summertime days in southern Finland exceed the lowest temperature threshold while none exceed the highest temperature threshold. Under the RCP4.5 scenario these values increase to 47 and 1%, respectively. Larger relative changes occur in northern Finland. Heat waves are also longer in the RCP4.5 simulations than in the historical simulations. In southern Finland, the mean length of a heat wave where the 20 °C daily mean temperature is exceeded is 6.1 days in the historical simulations but increases to 9.4 days in the RCP4.5 simulations. The hot days in both northern and southern Finland are associated with a statistically significant positive pressure anomaly over Finland and to the east to Finland and a statistically significant negative pressure anomaly over Russia between 90 and 120°E. These pressure anomalies were evident for all intensities of hot days in the current climate and the future climate. The magnitude of the pressure anomalies increases as the daily mean temperature threshold increases. However, for hot days which exceed the same daily mean temperature threshold, the pressure anomalies are weaker in the RCP4.5 simulations than in the historical or ERA-Interim data.
  • Katerere, Yemi; Kalame, Fobissie Blese (United Nations, Economic Commission for Africa, 2015)
    Policy Brief / ClimDev-Africa
  • Aaltonen, Hermanni; Pumpanen, J.; Hakola, H.; Vesala, T.; Rasmus, S.; Back, J. (2012)
  • Ngowi, Benignus V.; Tonnang, Henri E. Z.; Mwangi, Evans M.; Johansson, Tino; Ambale, Janet; Ndegwa, Paul N.; Subramanian, Sevgan (2017)
    There is a scarcity of laboratory and field-based results showing the movement of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) across a spatial scale. We studied the population growth of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) under six constant temperatures, to understand and predict population changes along altitudinal gradients and under climate change scenarios. Non-linear functions were fitted to continuously model DBM development, mortality, longevity and oviposition. We compiled the best-fitted functions for each life stage to yield a phenology model, which we stochastically simulated to estimate the life table parameters. Three temperature-dependent indices (establishment, generation and activity) were derived from a logistic population growth model and then coupled to collected current (2013) and downscaled temperature data from AFRICLIM (2055) for geospatial mapping. To measure and predict the impacts of temperature change on the pest's biology, we mapped the indices along the altitudinal gradients of Mt. Kilimanjaro (Tanzania) and Taita Hills (Kenya) and assessed the differences between 2013 and 2055 climate scenarios. The optimal temperatures for development of DBM were 32.5, 33.5 and 33ÊC for eggs, larvae and pupae, respectively. Mortality rates increased due to extreme temperatures to 53.3, 70.0 and 52.4% for egg, larvae and pupae, respectively. The net reproduction rate reached a peak of 87.4 female offspring/female/generation at 20ÊC. Spatial simulations indicated that survival and establishment of DBM increased with a decrease in temperature, from low to high altitude. However, we observed a higher number of DBM generations at low altitude. The model predicted DBM population growth reduction in the low and medium altitudes by 2055. At higher altitude, it predicted an increase in the level of suitability for establishment with a decrease in the number of generations per year. If climate change occurs as per the selected scenario, DBM infestation may reduce in the selected region. The study highlights the need to validate these predictions with other interacting factors such as cropping practices, host plants and natural enemies.
  • Kalame, Fobissie Blese; Nkem, Johnson (United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, African Development Bank and African Union Commission, 2015)