Browsing by Subject "CLIMATE VARIABILITY"

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  • Garcia-Alix, Antonio; Toney, Jaime L.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Pérez-Martinez, Carmen; Jiménez, Laura; Rodrigo-Gámiz, Marta; Anderson, R. Scott; Camuera, Jon; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Peña-Angulo, Dhais; Ramos-Roman, Maria J. (2020)
    Alpine ecosystems of the southern Iberian Peninsula are among the most vulnerable and the first to respond to modern climate change in southwestern Europe. While major environmental shifts have occurred over the last similar to 1500 years in these alpine ecosystems, only changes in the recent centuries have led to abrupt environmental responses, but factors imposing the strongest stress have been unclear until now. To understand these environmental responses, this study, for the first time, has calibrated an algal lipid-derived temperature proxy (based on long-chain alkyl diols) to instrumental historical data extending alpine temperature reconstructions to 1500 years before present. These novel results highlight the enhanced effect of greenhouse gases on alpine temperatures during the last similar to 200 years and the long-term modulating role of solar forcing. This study also shows that the warming rate during the 20th century (similar to 0.18 degrees C per decade) was double that of the last stages of the Little Ice Age (similar to 0.09 degrees C per decade), even exceeding temperature trends of the high-altitude Alps during the 20th century. As a consequence, temperature exceeded the preindustrial record in the 1950s, and it has been one of the major forcing processes of the recent enhanced change in these alpine ecosystems from southern Iberia since then. Nevertheless, other factors reducing the snow and ice albedo (e.g., atmospheric deposition) may have influenced local glacier loss, since almost steady climate conditions predominated from the middle 19th century to the first decades of the 20th century.
  • Fang, Keyan; Chen, Fahu; Sen, Asok K.; Davi, Nicole; Huang, Wei; Li, Jinbao; Seppä, Heikki (2014)
  • Naafs, B. D. A.; Inglis, G. N.; Zheng, Y.; Amesbury, M. J.; Biester, H.; Bindler, R.; Blewett, J.; Burrows, M. A.; del Castillo Torres, D.; Chambers, F. M.; Cohen, A. D.; Evershed, R. P.; Feakins, S. J.; Galka, M.; Gallego-Sala, A.; Gandois, L.; Gray, D. M.; Hatcher, P. G.; Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Hughes, P. D. M.; Huguet, A.; Kononen, M.; Laggoun-Defarge, F.; Lahteenoja, O.; Lamentowicz, M.; Marchant, R.; McClymont, E.; Pontevedra-Pombal, X.; Ponton, C.; Pourmand, A.; Rizzuti, A. M.; Rochefort, L.; Schellekens, J.; De Vleeschouwer, F.; Pancost, R. D. (2017)
    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are membrane-spanning lipids from Bacteria and Archaea that are ubiquitous in a range of natural archives and especially abundant in peat. Previous work demonstrated that the distribution of bacterial branched GDGTs (brGDGTs) in mineral soils is correlated to environmental factors such as mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH. However, the influence of these parameters on brGDGT distributions in peat is largely unknown. Here we investigate the distribution of brGDGTs in 470 samples from 96 peatlands around the world with a broad mean annual air temperature (-8 to 27 degrees C) and pH (3-8) range and present the first peat-specific brGDGT-based temperature and pH calibrations. Our results demonstrate that the degree of cyclisation of brGDGTs in peat is positively correlated with pH, pH = 2.49 x CBTpeat + 8.07 (n = 51, R-2 = 0.58, RMSE = 0.8) and the degree of methylation of brGDGTs is positively correlated with MAAT, MAAT(peat) (degrees C) = 52.18 x MBT'(5me) - 23.05 (n = 96, R-2 = 0.76, RMSE = 4.7 degrees C). These peat-specific calibrations are distinct from the available mineral soil calibrations. In light of the error in the temperature calibration (similar to 4.7 degrees C), we urge caution in any application to reconstruct late Holocene climate variability, where the climatic signals are relatively small, and the duration of excursions could be brief. Instead, these proxies are well-suited to reconstruct large amplitude, longer-term shifts in climate such as deglacial transitions. Indeed, when applied to a peat deposit spanning the late glacial period (similar to 15.2 kyr), we demonstrate that MAAT(peat) yields absolute temperatures and relative temperature changes that are consistent with those from other proxies. In addition, the application of MAAT(peat) to fossil peat (i.e. lignites) has the potential to reconstruct terrestrial climate during the Cenozoic. We conclude that there is clear potential to use brGDGTs in peats and lignites to reconstruct past terrestrial climate. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Jilbert, Tom; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Veldhuijzen, Simon; Reed, Daniel C.; Helmond, Niels A. G. M.; Hermans, Martijn; Slomp, Caroline P. (2021)
    Hypoxia has occurred intermittently in the Baltic Sea since the establishment of brackish-water conditions at similar to 8,000 years B.P., principally as recurrent hypoxic events during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA). Sedimentary phosphorus release has been implicated as a key driver of these events, but previous paleoenvironmental reconstructions have lacked the sampling resolution to investigate feedbacks in past iron-phosphorus cycling on short timescales. Here we employ Laser Ablation (LA)-ICP-MS scanning of sediment cores to generate ultra-high resolution geochemical records of past hypoxic events. We show that in-phase multidecadal oscillations in hypoxia intensity and iron-phosphorus cycling occurred throughout these events. Using a box model, we demonstrate that such oscillations were likely driven by instabilities in the dynamics of iron-phosphorus cycling under preindustrial phosphorus loads, and modulated by external climate forcing. Oscillatory behavior could complicate the recovery from hypoxia during future trajectories of external loading reductions.
  • Etu-Sihvola, H.; Salo, K.; Naito, Y. I.; Kytokari, M.; Ohkouchi, N.; Oinonen, M.; Heyd, V.; Arppe, L. (2022)
    In this article, we present the results of an isotopic study of diet for the early medieval (Merovingian, Viking, Early Christian) humans buried in the unique Luistari cemetery at Eura (ca. 600-1400 CE), southwestern Finland, the largest cemetery of the region. Isotope analysis was conducted on 37 humans for dentine and bone collagen (delta C-13, delta N-15, and delta S-34), and five of them were also studied using compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis. Dental enamel and/or bone carbonate delta C-13 values were studied from altogether 65 humans, five cattle, and five sheep/goats. The bone and dentine collagen and carbonate data show that throughout the centuries, freshwater fish was a stable part of the diet for the population. Our results do not show systematic dietary differences between estimated males and females, but differences can be large on the individual level. We also discovered a possible temporal change in the enamel carbonate delta C-13 values that could be related to the increasing role of carbohydrates (e.g., crops) in the diet. Luistari burials are well comparable to contemporary Swedish Viking trading communities like Birka in their higher protein intake. But contrary to the wider Viking network, they do not show the same marine signal.
  • Obrochta, S. P.; Andren, T.; Fazekas, S. Z.; Lougheed, B. C.; Snowball, I.; Yokoyama, Y.; Miyairi, Y.; Kondo, R.; Kotilainen, A. T.; Hyttinen, O.; Fehr, A. (2017)
    Laminated, organic-rich silts and clays with high dissolved gas content characterize sediments at IODP Site M0063 in the Landsort Deep, which at 459 m is the deepest basin in the Baltic Sea. Cores recovered from Hole M0063A experienced significant expansion as gas was released during the recovery process, resulting in high sediment loss. Therefore, during operations at subsequent holes, penetration was reduced to 2 m per 3.3 m core, permitting expansion into 1.3 m of initially empty liner. Fully filled liners were recovered from Holes B through E, indicating that the length of recovered intervals exceeded the penetrated distance by a factor of > 1.5. A typical down-core logarithmic trend in gamma density profiles, with anomalously low-density values within the upper similar to 1 m of each core, suggests that expansion primarily occurred in this upper interval. Thus, we suggest that a simple linear correction is inappropriate. This interpretation is supported by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data that indicate vertical stretching in the upper similar to 1.5 m of expanded cores. Based on the mean gamma density profiles of cores from Holes M0063C and D, we obtain an expansion function that is used to adjust the depth of each core to conform to its known penetration. The variance in these profiles allows for quantification of uncertainty in the adjusted depth scale. Using a number of bulk C-14 dates, we explore how the presence of multiple carbon source pathways leads to poorly constrained radiocarbon reservoir age variability that significantly affects age and sedimentation rate calculations.
  • Helama, Samuli; Arppe, Laura; Uusitalo, Joonas; Holopainen, Jari; Mäkelä, Hanna; Mäkinen, Harri; Mielikäinen, Kari; Nöjd, Pekka; Sutinen, Raimo; Taavitsainen, Jussi-Pekka; Timonen, Mauri; Oinonen, Markku (2018)